 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 1182
 Authors : Md. Riyaj, Anshul Gangwar, Gagan Goyal
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS20334
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 02 (February 2014)
 Published (First Online): 18022014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
VHDL Implementation of Reversible Full Adder using PERES Gate
Md. Riyaj1, Anshul Gangwar2, Gagan Goyal3
Mtech ScholarSuresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur,India1, Mtech ScholarSuresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur,India2, Mtech Scholar Jaipur National University, Jaipur,India3
Abstract In low power vlsi design and power optimization reversible logic method is being used more frequently. It is also the fundamental need for the emerging field of the quantum computing ,Digital signal processing and communications. The use of reversible logic in vlsi design has many advantages because it reduces number of gates and garbage outputs. When we use a logically irreversible gate we dissipate energy into the environment. The loss of energy equals to the information loss. One bit information lost dissipates KT ln2 of energy. By reversible logic we can reduce power dissipation. In reversible logic number of input equals to the number of outputs. i.e k*k. All the outputs are not used as input to other gate is called garbage output. This paper presents quantum implementation and combinational circuit of all basic reversible gates and its VHDL code. All reversible logic gates are verified andsimulatedbyXilinx8.2i.
Keywords Reversible logic,NOT gate,FEYNMAN gate, PERES gate ,VHDL CODE,TR gate

INTRODUCTION
To increase the speed the clock frequency must be increased. In VLSI systems increase in number of transistors makes the system complex which[1] further increase the power consumed by the system. Moreover any Boolean function can be implemented by using logic of reversible logic gates as it has already been proved.
When an input is applied to the reversible gate, a logical operation is performed and also there is los+s of some information which is dissipated as heat.So we can conclude that power dissipiation is the main concern for both producers and consumers. A reversible logic gate gives a unique output pattern for for each input pattern. It has kinputs and k outputs, hence denoted by k*k. In reversible logic gates we have one more aspect to focus on than that of number of gates
,is the number of garbage outputs. Garbage
outputs are those outputs from a reversible ciruit that are not used as an output.
In low power VLSI design another problem is the solution of Landavers principle. It states that logical [2]computation of
irreversible gates generate KT*log2 Joules of heat energy on loss of every bit of information. K is the Bpltzman constant
and T is the absolute temperature at which the operation is performed.
To reduce the power dissipation and to prevent the loss of information reversible logic is used it has application[3] in different field like as in field of low power computing quantum computing optical computing and other encoding computing technologies.
In a reversible circuit the input vector can be reconstructed from the output vector. Not only outputs can be calculated from the input but also the inputs can be reconstructed the number of input and output are equal. It finds application in low power CMOS design, optical computing , DNA computing quantum computing, nano technology, bioinformatics and thermodynamic technology . in quantum circuits reversible logic gates are used. Fanout and feedback is not permitted in reversible logic gates.
NOT gate is the simplest 1*1 reversible gate . An example of a 2*2 reversible gate is controlled gate(CNOT).Examples for 3*3 reversible gates are F,TG,PG and TR gate.
The performance of the reversible gate is calculated by calculating the quantum cost by counting the number of V, V+ and CNOT gates. Some properties of V and V+ quantum gates are given below:
V*V=NOT
V* V+ =V+ * V= 1 V+ * V = NOT

BASIC REVERSIBLE GATE

NOT Gate
The reversible 1*1 gate[4] is NOT gate with zero quantum cost is as shown below.
Fig 1 Quantum implementation of NOT gate
Fig 2 1*1 NOT GATE
Fig 3 Combinational circuit of NOT gate
VHDL CODE
library ieee;
use ieee std_logic.1164.all; entity not is
port(A : in std_logic;
m :out std_logic); end not;

FEYNMAN/CNOT GATE
The reversible 2*2 gate with quantum cost of one having mapping [5]input (P,Q) to output(X,Y) is as shown in figure.
Fig 4 Quantum implementation of FEYNMAN gate
Fig 5 2*2 FEYNMAN gate
Fig 6 Combinational circuit of FEYNMAN gate
VHDL CODE
library ieee;
use ieee std_logic.1164.all; entity feynman is
port(P,Q : in std_logic; X,Y :out std_logic);
end feynman;
architecture ckt of feynman is begin
X <= P;
Y <=P xor Q; end ckt;

PERES GATE
The reversible 3*3 gate with quantum cost of four having mapping input (P,Q,R) to output(X,Y,Z) is as shown in figure.
Fig 7 Quantum implementation of PERES gate
Fig 8 3*3 PERES gate
Fig 9 Combinational circuit of PERES GATE
VHDL CODE
library ieee;
use ieee std_logic.1164.all; entity peres is
port(P,Q,R : in std_logic; X,Y,Z :out std_logic);
end peres;
architecture prs of peres is signal S1: std_logic
begin
X <= P;
S1 <= P and Q; Y <= P xor Q; Z <= S1 xor R; end prs;
2.4 TR GATE


PURPOSED PERES FULL ADDER
Fig 13 PERES full adder
Fig 10 Quantum implementation of TR gate
Fig 11 3*3 TR gate
Fig 12 Combinational circuit of TR gate
VHDL CODE
library ieee;
use ieee std_logic.1164.all; entity trgate is
aport(P,Q,R : in std_logic; X,Y,Z :out std_logic);
end trgate;
architecture tr of trgate is signal Bbar,S1: std_logic; begin
X <= P;
S1 <= P and Qbar; Y <= P xor Q;
Z <= S1 xor R; end tr;
Fig 14 Combinational crcuit of PERES full adder .
VHDL CODE
Library ieee;
USE ieee std_logic_1164 all; USE ieee numeric_std. all; Entity FA is
Port (P: in std_logic;
Q: in std_logic; Cin: in std_logic; Zero: in std_logic;
X: out std_logic; Y: out std_logic; S: out std_logic;
Cout: out std_logic;
End FA ;
Architecture behavioral of FA is Signal T1 :std_logic;
Signal T2 :std_logic; Begin
T1 <= P xor Q
T2 <= (P xor Q) xor zero; X <= P;
Y <= T1;
S <= T1 xor Cin;
Cout <= (T1 and Cin) xor T2; End FA

RESULT
The purposed PERES full adder as shown in figre 13&14 are implemented and resulted by using VHDL and simulated in Xilinx 8.2 i. The RTL schematic diagram and simulated results shown in figre 15 and figure 16 respectively.
Fig 15(A) RTL schematic diagram for PERES full adder
Fig 15(B) RTL schematic diagram for PERES full adder
Fig 16(A) Test Bench Waveform & simulation with results
Fig 16(B) Test Bench Waveform & simulation with results

CONCLUSION
Reversible gate are used to implement arithmatic circuit using full adder. The main focus of this paper is the proposal of new reversible 4*4 PERES gate. The purposed PERES gate is used to design full adder. It is proved that the purposed PERES full adder is better than the existing counterparts in literature in terms of garbage outputs. By using purposed PERES full adder we can design large reversible systems. Here we can
calculate the power consumption and compare it with the irreversible full adder.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my thanks to Mr. Rashid Hussain H.O.D electronics and communication Suresh Gyan Vihar university jaipur and my olleague.
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