 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 570
 Authors : Vivek M Sakode, Amol D Morankar
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS060252
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 06 (June 2014)
 Published (First Online): 09062014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
VHDL Implementation of Multiplier using Reversible Logic
Prof. A D Morankar
Visveraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur(INDIA)
V M Sakode
Waingang College of Engineering and Management, Nagpur(INDIA)
AbstractConventional Multiplier used in digital circuits dissipates significant amount of energy as bits are erased during logic operations. Multiplier using reversible gates can significantly reduce the power consumed. In this paper, a reversible multiplier (4bit, 8bit and 16bit) is implemented using reversible gates such as MHNG gate and Peres gate. The results shows that proposed reversible multiplier is optimized in terms of number of garbage outputs, number of constant inputs and also has lesser power and delay as compared to conventional multipliers. This paper provides the initial step in building of more complex systems which can execute more complex operations using reversible logic.
Keywords Constant inputs ,Garbage outputs, Peres gate, Power delay, Multiplier, Reversible Logic, MHNG gate.

INTRODUCTION
Multiplier is basic arithmetic cell in computer arithmetic units. It also plays a vital role in many DSP (Digital Signal Processing) and multimedia applications. However, power dissipation is one of the important parameters in the design of multiplier. Design of multiplier using reversible logic gates is one of the promising solutions to reduce power dissipation to a greater extent and to improve system performance.
According to R.Landauer in the early 1960,any computing system which is not reversible, always dissipate some amout of power because of information loss. [1].It is proved that the loss of one bit of information dissipates at least KTln2 joules of energy (heat), where K=Boltzmanns constant and T=absolute temperature at which operation is performed [1]. If we assume that every transistor out of the 60 million transistors in processor (e.g. Pentium ) dissipates energy at a rate equal to its processor frequency (e.g. 2GHz). Then its power consumption will be approximately 2x1016xKT ln2=0.06watts.(Assuming that the processor operates at 300K). This rate at which heat is generated is still small. However, according to Moores law, the speed, the complexity and hence, the heat dissipation due to the information loss will increase exponentially. If this current trend continues, there will be an intolerable amount of heat generated by computer systems. In 1973, Bennet proved that to avoid KTln2 joules of heat dissipation in a irreversible circuit, such circuit must be built using reversible logic gates [2].
Multiplication is extensively used algorithm in many computational units. It is necessary for any system to have low power multiplier units. This work illustrates the multiplier using reversible gates such as MHNG gate and Peres gate.

CONCEPT OF REVERSIBLE LOGIC
Theoretically, internal power dissipation of any reversible logic circuit is zero because information loss is zero. A circuit is called as reversible if it is possible to uniquely determine the input vectors from its output vectors and there is one to one relation between input and output vectors. i.e. not only the output vectors can be uniquely derived from its inputs but also the inputs can be uniquely obtained from the outputs [4 6].Thus, the number of inputs vectors and number of output vectors in reversible logic gates are equal[35]. Reversible circuits are also called loss less circuits, as there is neither energy loss nor information loss. These circuits are very attractive for applications where extremely low power consumption. or heat dissipation is desirable in areas ranging from communications , low power VLSI(Very Large Scale Integration) technology, optical computing to nano technology.
Any reversible logic circuit should have the following features [5]:

Minimum number of reversible gates

Minimum number of garbage outputs.

Minimum constant inputs.
Garbage Output: The output that is not used for further calculation is called as garbage output [6].
Constant Input: The input that is added to an n x k irreversible function to make it reversible (n x n function) is called as constant input [7].


PROPOSED REVERSIBLE MULTIPLIER General multiplier is basically based on two steps:

Generation of partial products

Addition of partial products.
Peres gate is a 3 inputs 3 outputs (3*3) reversible gate. It can be represented as:
Iv = (A, B, C)
Ov = (P = A, Q = A XOR B, R = AB XOR C)
Where Iv and Ov are input and output vectors respectively. The peres gate is shown in Fig1.Peres gate can be used as a conventional AND gate and reversible half adder (taking input C as 0) as shown in Fig1.
PG

P = A

Q = A XOR B
C=0 R = AB
Fig.3 Partial Products Generation (PPG) using Peres gate [9]
Addition of partial products requires 8 full adders and 4 half adders. Reversible MHNG gate and Peres gate can be used as a full adder and half adder respectively. As shown in Fig 4.
Fig. 1 Peres Gate as a AND gate and reversible half adder.
MHNG MHNG PG PG
MHNG MHNG PG
MHNG gate is 4*4 reversible logic gate. It can be represented as:
Iv = (A, B, C, D)
Ov = (P = A, Q = D, R = A XOR B XOR C, S = (A XOR B).C XOR AB XOR D)
Where Iv and Ov are input and output vectors respectively. One of the prominent functionalities of MHNG gate is that it can singly work as a full adder unit. Implementation of MHNG gate as a full adder is shown in Fig.2.It requires only one constant input and produces only two garbage outputs.
MHNG

P=A
MHNG MHNG MHNG MHNG PG

Q = 0

R = SUM


Fig.4 Reversible multiplier architecture (4bit) where outputs of PPG are input of MHNG (full adder) and Peres gate (half adder)
D=0
S = COUT
Fig. 2 MHNG Gate as a reversible full adder.
Proposed 4 bit reversible multiplier can be generalized for 8 bit and higher order multiplication using following algorithm.
The operation of partial product generation can be achieved using 16 Peres gate in parallel as shown in Fig 3.
Fig.5 8 bit multiplier using 4 bit multiplier


RESULTS.
Complete code of reversible multiplier (4bit, 8bit and 16bit) is written using VHDL, simulated using Xilinx ISE 13.1 simulator and synthesized using Xilinx synthesis tool (XST) 13.1.Power analysis performed using Xilinx X Power analyzer. Target FPGA used belongs to SPARTAN 3 families, XC3S50 device, VQ100 package, speed grade 5.
Fig. A, B, C shows the simulation results, device utilization summary and power analysis respectively.
Fig A) Simulation waveform.
Fig C) Power Analysis:
.
Table 1: Results of 4bit, 8bit and 16bit reversible
multipliers.
Parameter
Delay
Power
Slices Used
4 Input LUT
Bonded IOBs
4 Bit
15.95ns
18mw
18
29
16
8 Bit
34.53ns
27mw
95
165
32
16 Bit
47.25ns
35.20mw
127
254
46.25
Table 2: Comparison of eversible and Conventional
Multipliers.
Parameter
Delay
Power
Slices Used
4 Input LUT
Bonded IOBs
4 Bit Rev. Multiplier
15.95ns
18mw
18
29
16
4 Bit Conv. Multiplier
16.32ns
27mw
18
32
16
Fig. B) Device Utilization Summary:
Table 3: Comparison of different 4bit reversible multipliers
Paper No.
No. of Gates
Garbage Outputs
Constant Inputs
No. of Logical Calculations
Proposed Work
28
22
28
80a +36b
[15] 28
32
28
71a + 35b
[14] 28
28
28
71a + 36b
[13] 28
52
28
80a + 36b
[12] 28
56
32
92a + 52b + 36c
[11] 29
58
34
110a + 103b + 71c
[10] 40
56
31
80a + 100b + 68c
We define:
a=A two input XOR calculation. b=A two input AND gate calculation. c=A NOT gate calculation.
As shown in table3, our proposed design requires only 28 reversible gates and is also optimized in terms of number of garbage outputs, number of constant inputs and hardware complexity.

CONCLUSION.
Table 2 shows that proposed multiplier using reversible gates is better in terms of area power and delay as compared with conventional multiplier. Also it is efficient in terms of number of garbage outputs and constant inputs as compared with other reversible multipliers (Table 3).
However, we need synthesizing methods to minimize number of garbage outputs and constant inputs. We are short of simulation, synthesis, testing and verifying tools for designing reversible logic. But researchers around the world have been doing exciting research and making progress in this direction. Soon, reversible computing will become promising technology in near future.

REFERENCES

R. Landauer, Irreversibility and Heat Generation in the Computational Process, IBM Journal of Research and Development, 5, pp. 183191, 1961.

C.H. Bennett, Logical Reversibility of Computation, IBM J. Research and Development, pp.525532, November 1973.

Kerntopf, P., M.A. Perkowski and M.H.A. Khan, 2004. On universality of general reversible multiple valued logic gates, IEEE Proceeding of the 34th international symposium on multiple valued logic (ISMVL04), pp: 6873.

Perkowski, M., A. AlRabadi, P. Kerntopf, A.Buller, M. Chrzanowska Jeske, A. Mishchenko, M. Azad Khan, A. Coppola, S. Yanushkevich,
V. Shmerko and L. Jozwiak, 2001. A general decomposition for reversible logic, Proc. RM2001, Starkville, pp: 119138.

Perkowski, M. and P. Kerntopf, 2001. Reversible Logic. Invited tutorial, Proc. EUROMICRO, Sept 2001, Warsaw, Poland. G. Eason,
B. Noble, and I. N. Sneddon, On certain integrals of LipschitzHankel type involving products of Bessel functions, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. A247, pp. 529551, April 1955. (references)

Thapliyal Himanshu, and M.B. Srinivas, 2005.Novel reversible TSG gate and its application for designing reversible carry look ahead adder and other adder architectures, Proceedings of the 10th AsiaPacific Computer Systems Architecture Conference (ACSAC 05). Lecture Notes of Computer Science, SpringerVerlag, 3740: 775786.

Saiful Islam, M.D. and M.D. Rafiqul Islam, 2005.Minimization of reversible adder circuits. Asian J. Inform. Tech., 4 (12): 11461151.

Peres, A., 1985. Reversible logic and quantum computers, Physical Review: A, 32 (6): 32663276.

Md. Belayet Ali1 , Hosna Ara Rahman2 and Md. Mizanur Rahman3 Design of a High Performance Reversible Multiplier IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 8, Issue 6, No 1,
November 2011ISSN (Online): 16940814

Thaplyal, H., M.B. Srinivas and H.R. Arabnia,2005. A Reversible Version of 4×4 Bit Array Multiplier With Minimum Gates and Garbage Outputs, The 2005 International Conference on Embedded System and Applications (ESA'05), LasVegas, USA, pp: 106114.

Himanshu Thapliyal and M.B Srinivas Novel Reversible Multiplier Architecture Using Reversible TSG Gate, 2006 IEEE.

M. Shams, M. Haghparast and K. Navi, "Novel reversible multiplier circuit in nanotechnology", World App!. Sci. 1., 3 (2008) 806.

M. Haghparast, S. J. Jassbi, K. Navi and O. Hashemipour, "Design of a novel reversible multiplier circuit using HNG gate in nanotechnology", World Appl. Sci. 1., 3 (2008) 974.

M. Haghparast , M. Mohammadi, K.Navi, M.Eshghi, Optimized reversible multiplier circuit, Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers, World Scientific Publishing Company

Nidhi Syal, Dr. H.P. Sinha, High performance reversible parallel multiplier, International Journal of VLSI & Signal processing applications, Vol.1, Issue 3.