UV Assisted Fenton Oxidation of Organics Present in the Reverse Osmosis Concentrate of a Textile Waste Water Treatment Plant

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UV Assisted Fenton Oxidation of Organics Present in the Reverse Osmosis Concentrate of a Textile Waste Water Treatment Plant

UV Assisted Fenton Oxidation of Organics Present in the Reverse Osmosis Concentrate of a Textile Waste Water Treatment Plant

Amali Gitanjali R1

1Former Undergraduate, Department of Civil Engineering, Anna University Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli, TamilNadu, India.

SR Lavanya2 2Assistant Professor,

Department of Civil Engineering,

Karpaga Vinayaka College of Engineering and Technology, TamilNadu, India

Aditya Sharma3

3Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,

ITM University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

Abstract – The concept of zero discharge is accelerated in the mean time on the rising trend of discharging the waste water by the industries which have been identified under red category by the Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India. Textile dyeing is one such industry where the implementation of zero discharge from the textile water treatment plant. In practical cases there are plethoras of difficulties because the concentrate of reverse osmosis is coloured, highly alkaline and high COD content. This paper deals about the attempts of removal of color and COD from the reverse osmosis concentrate. In this paper the reverse osmosis concentrate is been subjected to UV radiations with homogenous catalyst like Ferrous, Copper ions and Manganese ions. The results of the concentrate in COD content varied in the duration of 2hours with the usage of catalyst. However, it is found that COD reduction is highest in the combined catalyst of ferrous and copper ions. Further color removal was also observed. This treated effluent is further treated with nano filtrations, reverse osmosis or evaporator to achieve zero discharge.

Keywords – Fenton Oxidation, Zero discharge, Reverse Osmosis Concentrate

  1. INTRODUCTIONs

    Textile is one of the oldest industries in the world with a major contribution to the economy of the nation. In India the contribution from the textile industries amounts to approximately 5% and 27% to the foreign exchange earnings. Specifically in TamilNadu the regions around Coimbatore, Tirupur, Karur, Erode is referred as Textile Valley of India. Tirupur generates an export around Rs 50,000 million per year and Karur Rs 35,000 million per year in foreign exchange from textile industries.

    Large amount of water is been consumed by the industries for the dyeing process and for the production of different types of fabrics. The water discharged from the industries has large amount of hazardous chemicals and

    dyes in it which affects the environment. The textile effluent is characterized by colour, pH, BOD/COD ratio, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Suspended solids. The textile reject treatment is a complicated problem due to the following reasons

    • High Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) content

    • Presence of Heavy chemical such as Cr, As, Cu, Zn

    • Non Biodegradable organic dye stuffs

    • Presence of free chlorine and dissolved silica

    In the textile reject there are large amounts of undigested organics. Inorder to oxidize the organic particles present in wastewater it is essential to use oxidation process. The organic particles present in the textile reject is digested in the presence of more heat energy so as to induce high amount of heat energy for the digestion of organic particles makes a necessity towards Advanced oxidation process(AOP) as the conventional treatment process was unable to degrade the coloured dyes and toxicity. There are four ways for Advanced Oxidation Process

    • Combination of Ozone (O3)/ Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    • Combination of Ozone (O3)/ Ultra Violet Radiations

    • Combination of Ultra Violet (UV) Radiation Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    • Combination of Ozone (O3)/Ultra Violet Radiation/ Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

      This paper deals with Advanced Oxidation Process by the combination of Ultraviolet radiations (UV) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the degradation of COD in the textile reject. On the exposure of Ultra violet radiations, hydrogen peroxide will be photolyzed to form hydroxyl radicals as the primary oxidant. This hydroxyl radical digests the organic molecules and thereby reducing the chemical contamination and toxicity in the textile reject.

      In order to make a complete ecofriendly atmosphere led to the concept of zero discharge. This is considered to be beneficial to the textile industries and to the environment. This is a most advanced waste water treatment plant which reuses the waste water in such a way that water is free from impurities and chemicals. The main aim of the zero discharge is to recover the usable materials like water, salt from the effluent and minimize the generation of waste so that it can be safely stored on site without the need for discharge into the environment.

  2. OBJECTIVES

    The main objective of the project is to reduce the COD content in the textile reject using Advanced Oxidation Process. The reduction of COD content in textile reject is being carried out by the exposure of Ultraviolet rays with different types of Catalyst like Ferrous (Fe2+), Copper ions (Cu2+) and Manganese ions (Mn2+).

  3. MATERIALS AND METHODS SAMPLE COLLECTION

    The textile reject is collected from the textile waste water treatment plant in SIPCOT, Perundhurai, TamilNadu, India. The collected textile reject consists of large amount of Suspended Solids, BOD and COD. The reject is the effluent collected after primary (aeration) and secondary (reverse osmosis) treatment. The textile effluent characteristics like pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), COD and Chloride were determined in the collected raw textile waste water given in the table 1

    Table 1: Characteristics of Textile Effluent collected from reverse osmosis concentrate stream

    pH

    7.75

    TDS (mg/l)

    23,000

    COD (mg/l)

    790

    Conductivity (µ Siemens)

    35,300

    Chloride (mg/l)

    78,500

    CATALYST USED

      • Ferrous ions (Fe2+)

      • Copper ions (Cu2+)

        • Manganese ions (Mn2+)

      • Combination of Ferrous ions (Fe2+) and Copper(Cu2+)

      • Combination of Ferrous ions (Fe2+) and Manganese ions (Mn2+)

    KINETICS UNDER UV LIGHT

    The setup of the sample is shown in figure 1 and it consists of beaker with a nozzle, Quartz Test Tube, UV light (primary radiation at 254nm)

    Figure 1: UV Photoreactor

    Before performing the kinetics in the apparatus, the procedure is followed initially the beaker is filled with 100ml of the collected sample and the catalyst with hydrogen peroxide (1:1 of 5ml) is added in the sample and stirred thoroughly without any air bubbles in the beaker. Before starting the process collect a 3ml sample by the use of syringe which is considered as a sample for zero minutes. After the start of the process for every 15minutes a sample of 3ml is taken continuously up to 2 hours. This procedure is repeated using different types of catalyst. The collected samples are placed in the COD photometer for the determination of COD content.

    COD PHOTOMETER

    2ml of the sample is taken in the COD vial with the reagent present in it. The vial is made to mix thoroughly with the reagent and paced in the digestor for a period of 2hours. After 2 hours the vial is allowed to cool and it is placed in the COD photometer for the determination of COD content.

  4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS REACTION KINETICS OF TEXTILE REJECT WITH FERROUS (Fe2+) AS CATALYST

    The readings shown below are obtained with Ferrous (Fe2+) as catalyst, hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The COD: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2): Catalyst mixed in the molar ratio of 1:1:1. This mixture is exposed to Ultra violet (UV) radiations for 2hours. Samples were taken out in the interval of 15minutes for 2 hours and COD is measured. The results are tabulated in the table 2. Inorder to find the rate constant, the ratio between initial concentration of COD (A0) and the

    Table 3: Kinetics of UV- Fenton Oxidation of Organics present in the textile effluent with Copper ions ( Cu2+ )as catalyst

    The COD: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2): Catalyst (Cu2+) mixed in the molar ratio of 1:1:1

    Time (min)

    COD (mg/l)

    A0 / A

    ln(A0 / A)

    0

    381

    0

    0

    15

    293

    0.769

    -0.283

    30

    284

    0.745

    -0.314

    45

    280

    0.734

    -0.328

    60

    271

    0.711

    -0.361

    75

    224

    0.589

    -0.551

    90

    244

    0.640

    -0.466

    105

    263

    0.690

    -0.391

    120

    222

    0.582

    -0.561

    concentration of 15mins interval (A) is plotted against time in the Graph 1. The COD reduction from the table 2 is 64% in 2hours. The calculated rate constant for this type of catalyst is -0.0092.

    Table 2: Kinetics of UV- Fenton Oxidation of Organics present in the textile effluent with Ferrous ( Fe2+ )as catalyst

    The COD: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2): Catalyst ( Fe2+)mixed in the molar ratio of 1:1:1

    Time (min)

    COD (mg/l)

    A0 / A

    ln(A0 / A)

    0

    389

    0

    0

    15

    341

    0.877

    -0.131

    30

    301

    0.774

    -0.256

    45

    273

    0.702

    -0.340

    60

    221

    0.568

    -0.556

    75

    192

    0.494

    -0.705

    90

    167

    0.429

    -0.846

    105

    142

    0.365

    -1.008

    120

    139

    0.357

    -1.030

    Graph 2: Kinetics of UV Fenton Oxidation of organics present in the textile effluent using Copper ions ( Cu2+ )as catalyst

    REACTION KINETICS OF TEXTILE REJECT WITH FERROUS (Fe2+) AND COPPER IONS (Cu2+) AS A CATALYST

    Graph 1: Kinetics of UV Fenton Oxidation of organics present in the textile effluent using Ferrous ( Fe2+ )as catalyst

    REACTION KINETICS OF TEXTILE REJECT WITH COPPER IONS (Cu2+) AS CATALYST

    The sample is mixed with Copper ions (Cu2+) as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxidant is subjected to Ultra violet radiations (UV). The readings are tabulated in Table 3 and the respective graph in Graph 2 is plotted for the determination of rate constant. The COD reduction using copper ions is calculated as 42% with rate constant of – 0.00344.

    Table 4: Kinetics of UV- Fenton Oxidation of Organics present in the textile effluent with Ferrous ( Fe2+) and Copper ions ( Cu2+

    )as catalyst

    The COD: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2):: Catalyst ( Fe2+) and ( Cu2+ ) mixed in the molar ratio of 1:1:1

    Time (min)

    COD (mg/l)

    A0 / A

    ln(A0 / A)

    0

    389

    0

    0

    15

    341

    0.876

    -0.132

    30

    304

    0.781

    -0.247

    45

    283

    0.727

    -0.318

    60

    222

    0.570

    -0.562

    75

    167

    0.429

    -0.846

    90

    124

    0.318

    -1.145

    105

    93

    0.239

    -1.431

    120

    72

    0.185

    -1.687

    The COD reduction is a combination of Ferrous (Fe2+) and Copper ions (Cu2+) as a catalyst with equimolar concentration with (1:1) ratio. The COD reduction is calculated from the table 4 as 81.15% and the corresponding rate constant is determined from the Graph 3 as -0.01441. This combination of catalyst shows the higher amount of COD reduction compared to other conditions that is organic particles in the reject is broken in higher rate.

    COMPARISON OF THE OBTAINED RESULTS

    Table 6: Summary of Experimental Results

    Experi ment No

    Catalyst

    Rate Consta nt

    R2

    COD

    Reductio n after 2hours (%)

    1

    Ferrous( Fe2+)

    0.009

    0.990

    64.10

    2

    Copper ions (

    Cu2+ )

    0.003

    0.702

    41.70

    3

    Combined Ferrous( Fe2+) and Copper ions ( Cu2+ )

    0.014

    0.963

    81.49

    4

    Combined Ferrous( Fe2+) and Manganese ions (Mn2+)

    0.011

    0.924

    71.15

    Graph 3: Kinetics of UV Fenton Oxidation of organics present in the textile effluent using Ferrous ( Fe2+) and Copper ions ( Cu2+ )as catalyst REACTION KINETICS OF TEXTILE REJECT WITH FERROUS (Fe2+) AND MANGANESE IONS (Mn2+) AS A CATALYST

  5. CONCLUSIONS

    The importance of the usage of advanced oxidation process for the treatment of textile waste water is emphasized because higher level of TDS content in the textile reject makes unsuitable for biological treatment process. This paper focus on the attempts to remove the color and COD in the textile reject using various homogenous catalyst like Ferrous (Fe2+), Copper ions (Cu2+ ), Combined Ferrous (Fe2+) and Copper ions (Cu2+ ) and Combined Ferrous(Fe2+) and Manganese ions (Mn2+) employed here. A maximum of COD reduction 81.49 % is achieved in Combined Ferrous (Fe2+) and Copper ions ( Cu2+ ) and the least amount of

    2+

    The results of COD are shown in table 5 and the rate

    COD reduction 41.70% in Copper ions ( Cu

    ) catalyst.

    constant is calculated from the Graph 4. Thus the COD reaction in method is found to be 71.15% and the rate constant is 0.01054

    Graph 4: Kinetics of UV Fenton Oxidation of organics present in the textile effluent using Ferrous ( Fe2+) and Manganese ions (Mn2+) as catalyst

    Further color removal was also observed. Hence this process

    can be adopted by the textile industries for achieving zero discharge.

    Table 5: Kinetics of UV- Fenton Oxidation of Organics present in the textile effluent with Ferrous ( Fe2+) and Manganese ions (Mn2+) as catalyst

    The COD: Hydrogen peroxide(H2O2):: Catalyst ( Fe2+) and (Mn2+) mixed in the molar ratio of 1:1:1

    Time (min)

    COD (mg/l)

    A0 / A

    ln(A0 / A)

    0

    371

    0

    0

    15

    351

    0.946

    -0.055

    30

    332

    0.894

    -0.112

    45

    305

    0.822

    -0.196

    60

    284

    0.765

    -0.267

    75

    221

    0.595

    -0.519

    90

    172

    0.463

    -0.770

    105

    135

    0.363

    -1.013

    120

    107

    0.288

    -1.244

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