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Utilization of Farming Bi-Products in Construction Industries

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Utilization of Farming Bi-Products in Construction Industries

Archana katroliya , Vinod Gautam, Archana Tiwari Department of Civil Engineering, M.I.T.S, Gwalior

E-mail:- archi.katroliya@gmail.com

Abstract: – Utilization of industrial and Farming bi- products in the industry has been the focus of research for economical, environmental, and technical reasons. Farming bi-products are waste-product of the farming industry, This waste-product is already causing serious environmental pollution which calls for urgent ways of handling the waste. For industrial use ash can be chemically and physically characterized. Economic, lightweight clay resources in the shape of bricks and blocks are extensively used in recent structure. They may be obtained by adding of rice shell, rye straw, etc, as absorbent forming resources. Rice shell is a main by-product of the rice mill industry. Its consumption as a important product has forever been a problem. Various technologies for consumption of rice shell through genetic and thermo chemical conversion are being developed.

The purpose of this work is to develop lightweight clay materials with clay matrix and filler of rice shell and examine their main physic mechanical properties. The results obtained allow to suppose that the resources synthesized on the basis of ravage resources can be used as lightweight resources for structure purpose.

Key words:- Lightweight clay resources, agro- waste, concentration; density, compressibility, Microstructure, etc.

Introduction:- Researches all over the universe today are concentrate on ways of utilizing either industrial or farming wastes as a source of raw materials for the industry. For controlling environmental pollution

,earning foreign exchange and economic groth can be get by utilization of wastes. the light weight clay materials in the form of clay bricks and blocks are more widely used in modern construction. The way of its obtaining is to add in clay different porous forming agents –

including rice shell, straw of rye and barley, etc. [1-3]. The utilization of these combustible resources as porous forming agents for production of lightweight insulating bricks has two main merits – the need of small amount of energy due to the large amount of energy that is released during combustion by-product. In the same time this is an alternative method for the efficient consumption of large amounts of waste materials [4-6]. The rice shell is a major co-product of rice manufacturing. Investigations showed that the interest towards rice shell is growing universal. It is connected with the leading role of rice as a grain culture from which waste products cannot be used as cooking, compost or firewood. In this aspect, the problem with the utilization of the large amounts of this material elimination of certain ecological threat remains to be solved [7- 11]. A number of review have been dedicated to rice shell and the products obtained from its thermal degradation at different conditions [12-16].

The aim of this work is to develop lightweight ceramic materials from clay and rice husk, and to investigate the effect of varying rice husk and clay contents on the insulating properties of kaolin clay firebrick.

2. Experimental method And Material used:-

  1. Methods

    The materials obtained were characterized by X- ray analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    The X-ray analyses were carried out by the method of powder diffraction using X-ray apparatus equipped with goniometer URD-6 (India) with cobalt anode and K mission.

    Density(g/cm3)=Mass/Volume

    One experiments were performed on an apparatus for complex thermal analysis (STA 449 F3 Jupiter), NETZSCH India.

    The micrographs were taken using scanning electron microscope Tesla BS 340 (Birla cement). The SiO2 content in the solid residue was determined after treatment with hydrofluoric acid.Materials

    As the main raw materials were used:

    1. Kaolin mud with impurity of iron and organic compounds, whose composition is given in Table II

    2. rice shell – the present study was carried out with rice husk obtained during processing of rice variety. Krasnoyarsk 425 grown in Bulgaria. Before use, the rice husk were thoroughly washed three times with tap wate r followed by three times with deionised water to remove adhering soil, clay and dust, boiled for an hour to desorbs any impurities and finally, dried at 101 0 overnight. The dried husk were ground in rotary cutting mill and sieved manually with 0.64

0.13 mm sieves.

This starting material was used for all further studies [3].

TABLE Ist

OXIDE COMPOSITION OF CLAY

Oxide

Percentage Weight

SiO2

54.08

Al2O3

28.12

LOI

9.03

Fe2O3

2.15

K2O

2.04

TiO2

1.17

MgO

1.59

CaO

1.05

Na2O

0.92

  1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    1. Studies on the rice shell

      1. Derivatographic studies

        The improvement of many technological methods for utilization of rice shell by thermal decomposition cannot be accomplished without profound studies on the processes of their thermal destruction by DTA- analysis (fig.1). The present derivatographic studied were carried out under the following conditions:

        1. in static air, under heating, first the physically adsorbed water was released (6%), followed by the burning of the organic components to obtain solid

          residue (25% residue containing mainly SiO2 – 92%).

          Fig.1DTA and TG curves of RH samples burning in air

          It is known [12-14] that the thermal destruction of rice shell has three stages: ventilation (41-151degreeC), removal of unstable organic components (216 351) and blazing of carbon compounds between 340- 680degree centigrade . From thermo gravimetric calculations based on the data obtained from DTA, the kinetic characteristics of the destruction processes can be determined, as it has been already reported earlier [15,16]. The DTA analysis of rice shell put in oxidative medium shown in (Fig.1)and water released up to 4.6percent at temperature range80 to 182 degree centigrade. Thermal devastation process are stated at 220degree Centigrade and completed at 630 degree Centigrade and in this process mass reduces up to 74.5 percent. The mass reduction at 270C was 11 % and at 450C 52 %.In the presence of air and nitrogen thermal devastation process proceed with temp of 320 degree Centigrade and 360 degree Centigrade respectively.

      2. X- ray analysis

        Fig. 2 Thermal process with air at 905degree centigrade for x ray analysis of rice shell.

        For composite material uncooked and thermally treated rice shell can be used. it is necessary to know

        what changes happened in structure during this process. The determination of the temperature up to which the powder is amorphous is significant because the crystalline product has lower reactivity than the amorphous one. The diffractogram of sample oxidized at 905degree Centigrade presented in fig. 2 shows a strong peak (d = 4.07 Ã…) equivalent to the high – crystalline phase of silica – -cristobalite, and distinguishable peak at d = 2.48 Ã… (point also for – cristobalite). Qurtz was not detected. The rice shell used in our work, were heated in oxygen medium in the temperature range 400 – 1000 °. For the purposes of these experiments have been chosen RH burned at 600 °. According to X-ray analysis carrie d out at temperatures around 600 ° C, silicon oxide in rice husk is still in active the amorphous form, which combined with the porous structure of the ash makes it very reactive in the process of sintering the samples.

    2. Analysis on the clay

      The DTA and TG curve of clay with phase of feldspar, magnetite quartz and kaolinite are shown in Fig 3. The one percent weight losses also present. At

      340 0C exo-effect appears due to the presence of minerals magnetite, which is

      accompanied by about 1, 15% loss in weight, it is followed by a wide endo-effect at about 540 0C, due to the collapse of the clay materials and chemical separation related water in the clay, which is associated with about 6% weight loss. For formation new phase exo-effect appear at about 955 0C. This process is reducing the mass 1-22 percent.

      Fig. 3 curves of clay with TG and DTA

      Technological properties of clay materials mainly depends on their degree of dispersion [17].Granumatic composition of clay affects the number of properties density, compressibility, porosity, etc.

      The result show that the largest amount is a fraction with particle size less than 62.5 micro meter.

      Distribution of table given below in table 2nd

      Table 2nd

      GRANULO METRIC COMPOSITION OF CLAY

      Particle size

      Micro Meter

      Division. %

      500

      1

      500-125

      8

      125-62.5

      10

      62.5

      81

      It is known that the grain composition of the clay plays an important role on the frost resistance [17]. Data from the definitions of grading of clay used are a prerequisite for high frost resistance of bricks made from it.

      Studies on the clay materials with addition of rice shell

      Based on a clay matrix and thermally treated or raw rice shell 11 kinds of samples were synthesized which composition is given in Table 3rd .

      The specimens were formed by semi-dry pressing on hydraulic press Carl Zeiss Yena (Germ any). Brick were dried to approximately 5-7 % moisture content. The dried brick were finally fired in a furnace at temperature of 1000 oC.

      This firing process caused the burning out of the rice husk in the finished bricks.

      Table 3rd Composition of Sample

      Ne

      Clay

      Raw rice husk

      WRHA

      1

      100

      .

      2

      99

      2

      ..

      3

      98

      3

      ..

      4

      97

      4

      5

      96

      5

      6

      95

      6

      .

      7

      99

      .

      3

      8

      98

      4

      9

      97

      .

      5

      10

      96

      ..

      6

      11

      95

      ..

      7

      Fig. 4 presents electron-scanning microphotograph of the sample 9 with clay matrix reinforced with WRHA

      straw. The results of the analysis showed that the selected clay can be used for making of hollow insulating bricks.

      .

      Fig.4 Electron-scanning microphotograph of sample.

      TABLE 4th

      PROPERTIES OF SAMPLE BASED ON CLAY AND WRHA

      Composition

      Apparent

      density,

      Water

      uptake, %

      Porosity, %

      x 10 -3 kg/m3

      1

      1.72

      21.60

      37.13

      2

      1.63

      22.25

      37.60

      3

      1.61

      24.90

      40.44

      4

      1.56

      26.92

      41.93

      5

      1.53

      27.81

      43.85

      6

      1.47

      29.71

      45.11

      7

      1.69

      22.10

      37.21

      8

      1.63

      24.60

      39.75

      9

      1.60

      26.10

      41.22

      10

      1.56

      27.29

      42.59

      11

      1.53

      27.81

      42.85

      The results show that the density of the synthesized material ranges from 1.70 to 1.53 g/cm3, and their water absorption is within 22 to 28%. The density decreases with increasing the addition of rice straw and rice husk ash in the brick, while the apparent density and water absorption increase. This fact may be connected with large losses in ignition, which was in rice straw about 80%, and in ash from rice husk – 16%.

      In general, the parents synthesized from clay and white ash have better physico-mechanical properties compared to those synthesized from clay and rice

      45

  2. CONCLUSIONS

Based on rice shell and clay matrix a number of lightweight clay materials were developed. Rice shell – raw and thermally treated contribute to the formation of porous structure in the samples. Synthesized materials are with porosity ranging from 37 to 43%. Using the rice husk, burned at 600 ° C in air, silicon oxide in rice husk is s till in the active amorphous form, so combined with the porous structure of the ash makes it very reactive in the process of sintering the samples. The main phases contained in fired bricks are: quartz, kaolinite, feldspar and magnetite. The samples obtained from clay and ash have higher physical – mechanical properties compared to those synthesized from rice straw and clay.

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  2. M. A.Rahman, Properties of clay sand-rice husk as h Mixed bricks ,Int. J. Cement Comp. Lightweight Concrete, vol. 9, pp.105-108,1987.

[3]G. Marahleh, Production of Light Weight Ceramics Teils from Local Materials, Am. J. Applied Sci., vol. 2 pp. 778 83, 2005.

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