 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 1052
 Authors : K. Ramakrishnan, T. Ravi, V. Kannan
 Paper ID : IJERTV2IS2550
 Volume & Issue : Volume 02, Issue 02 (February 2013)
 Published (First Online): 28022013
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Transistor Level Design And Analysis Of Vedic Algorithm Based Low Power MAC
1K.Ramakrishnan, 2T.Ravi, 3V.Kannan
1 M.TechVLSI design, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Chennai 119
2 Assistant Professor, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Chennai 119.
3 Principal, Jeppiaar Institute of Technology, Kunnam, Tamilnadu, India.
Abstract Multiplier and accumulator find extensive application in digital signal processing and advanced processor. As the speed of the processor increases, the speed of the data path elements (multipliers, Adder, subtractor) has to be increased to perform a high speed operation. This requirement leads the development of high speed and low power MAC unit. In this paper we have analyzed a Multiplier and accumulator unit based on "Urdhva tiryagbhyam sutra". The analysis has been carried out in transistor level with comparison of power levels. HSPICE software has been used to analyze the MAC unit. The transistor level analysis has been performed to evaluate the reduction of transistor and power level. A 130nm mosfet model has been used to simulate the power level analysis.
Key Words Multipliers, Vedic multipliers, Multipliers and accumulators, Transistor analysis.

INTRODUCTION
Multiplication is one of the important arithmetic instructions of a processor. Multiplication instruction requires two sets of numbers. The two sets of numbers are called multiplicand and multiplier. The output of the multiplier is called product of the two numbers. The general method of multiplication involves multiplication of each number and generating partial products with the adding of partial products results in the product (result). The binary multiplication always has a product and a carry. Processor performs multiplication in binary levels which will be little complicated when compared to decimal multiplication. The previous generation processor has an arithmetic instruction called MUL to multiply two different numbers. The speed and the bit level handling of the processor increases with the increase in the transistor in a die. The increase in the speed and the bit level capability of the processor requires a high speed and low power multiplication algorithm. Ancient Vedic sutras are best known for easier multiplication and using such techniques we can improve the speed and efficiency of the multiplier and thereby we can have an efficient MAC unit for future generation processor.
In this paper, we have performed a detailed transistor level analysis on MAC unit. Section II describes about the analysis
of XOR gate .Section III describes about the analysis of Vedic Multiplier. Section IV describes about the analysis of 8 bit MAC. Section V concludes our analysis work. Section VI provides the reference list which has been used as reference for our analysis work.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF XOR GATE
The multiplication algorithm requires frequent addition of two or more binary numbers. The Addition of binary numbers can be performed using XOR gate. The basic adder of an electronic circuit consists of a XOR gate and AND gate to perform sum and carry operation. Our first analysis is to reduce the number of gates required to perform SUM operation in an ADDER circuit. A typical XOR gate requires 22 transistors to perform XOR operation. In our analysis we have used 12T XOR gate and 6T XOR gate to perform SUM operation.
A
B
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
A
B
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
The basic difference between these 22T, 12T and 6T XOR gate are difference in number of transistors used in the design and the power level consumed by each design to perform a single XOR operation. The basic truth table of XOR gate I shown in the table. [12]
Table 1 XOR gate Truth table
22T CONVENTIONAL XOR GATE
The conventional XOR gate requires two AND gates, two inverters and one OR gate. Total Number of gates for A XOR B operation requires 22 transistors. The number of transistor required for each gate operation is given below.

AND Gate – 6 T (3 NTransistor & 3 PTransistor)

OR Gate – 6 T (3 NTransistor & 3 PTransistor)

Inverter – 2 T (2 NTransistor & 2 PTransistor)
The below figure depicts the transistor level schematic diagram of 22T XOR gate.
Figure 1 22T XOR gate
12 TRANSISTOR XOR GATE
The below figure depicts the transistor level schematic diagram of 12T XOR gate.
Figure 2 12T XOR gate
6 TRANSISTOR XOR GATE
The below figure depicts the transistor level circuit diagram of 6T XOR gate. This circuit is based on transmission gate architecture. The transistor M5 and M6 forms a transmission gate which provides valid threshold levels for the output (Y).
Figure 3 6T XOR gate
We have analyzed 3 types of XOR design to construct a multiplier unit. An efficient Multiplier has been designed based on the low average power consumption and reduced number of transistor.


VEDIC MULTIPLIER USING URDHVA TIRYABHYAM SUTRA
In this paper we have proposed a transistor level analysis of Urdhva Tiryagbhyam sutra based vedic multiplier. The operation of the Urdhva Tiryagbhyam can be applied to binary multiplication. It is also called as Vertical and Crosswise multiplication method. The below figure depicts the line diagram of Urdhva Tiryagbhyam multiplication method.
Figure 4 LINE diagram of Urdhva Tiryagbhyam Sutra Multiplication [16]
In the above figure 0 represents a binary number. It can be of either logic1 or logic 0. The above algorithm has been used to design a 4bit Urdhva Tiryagbhyam multiplier. The following diagram shows the circuit diagram of 4bit vedic multiplier.
DESIGN OF 4BIT VEDIC MULTIPLIER
In the below diagram the 4 bit adder has been designed using Kmap Logic Minimizer software. The software has been used to optimize our 4 bit adder design using XOR gate. The goal is to use optimized XOR gate so that we can reduce the transistor and power consumption. The four bit adder consists of 4 binary inputs of 1bit. The outputs of the 4 bit binary adder consist of sum, carry0 and carry1.
The XOR optimized version of 4 bit adder expression is as follows. [5]

Sum = A xor B xor C xor D

C0 = B(A xor C) + D (A xor B) + C (A xor D)

C1 = ABCD
Figure 5 Block diagram of 4 bit Urdhva Tiryagbhyam Multiplier [16]
The final result will be R7,R6,R5,R4,R3,R2,R1,R0 for two 4 bit binary numbers. The conventional half adder and full adder were used but with the optimized XOR gate. In the above diagram R0 will be the LSB and R7 will be the MSB of the multiplier output.
DESIGN OF 8BIT VEDIC MULTIPLIER
An 8bit multiplier has been designed using four 4bit multiplier. The architecture of 8 bit multiplier consists of 4 bit multiplier and a ripple carry adder. The ripple carry adder has been used to add the partial outputs of 4 bit multiplier. The multiplican is of 8bit and the result is of 16bit binary numbers. The 4 bit multiplier used in our design is based on Urdhva Tiryagbhyam sutra. The below figure depicts the architecture of 8 bit Vedic multiplier.
Figure 6 Block Diagram of 8 Bit Urdhva Tiryagbhyam Multiplier


8 BIT MAC USING URDHVA TIRYABHYAM SUTRA VEDIC MULTIPLIER
MAC is a datapath element which is used to multiply and accumulate the binary number. MAC units are widely used in DSP processor as signal processing element. In our design an 8bit MAC unit has been designed using Vedic multiplier with different XOR gate design. MAC unit consist of an 8 bit multiplier, ripple carry adder and PIPO shift register. The ripple carry adder has been used to add the present output and the previously generated MAC output. The PIPO register is used to shift the output of MAC unit as second operand for the adder for the next cycle of operation. Initially the PIPO register output has been designed to produce logic 0. This is accomplished by enabling the CLR line of the D flip flop. The maximum time required to hold the CLR signal depends on the speed of the operation of the multiplier. The time delay of the multiplier and the PIPO delay are calculated to perform correct operation of the multiplier and accumulator unit. The clock signal for the PIPO register has to be in sync with the multiplier output. The PIPO output and multiplier output should arrive at the same time in order to add without any error. The below figure shows the architecture of a 8BIT VEDIC MAC unit
Figure 7 Block Diagram of MAC

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A detailed analysis was carried out in HSPICE to determine the power consumption of the three different XOR gate design. A 130nm CMOS technology was used to simulate the analysis. The rationale for selecting 12T and 6T XOR design is to reduce the area by one half so that overall area will be reduced by considerable level.
S#
No of Transistor used in XOR Gate
Power consumption in watts
1
22T
6.538e09
2
12T
8.319e10
3
6T
7.222e08
Table 2XOR gate power comparison
It has been observed from the above table that there is a significant power reduction in 12T transistor design. The average power of 6T design was increased when compared to 12T and 22T transistor. Hence a designer should consider a tradeoff between the number of transistor and the power consumption.
The below table depicts the power consumption of 4 bit vedic multiplier based on Urdhava Tiryagbhyam sutra
Function
12T XOR gate 4bit vedic multiplier
6T XOR gate 4bit vedic multiplier
Power consumption in watts
5.225e08
3.561e06
No of Transistor
744
546
Table 3 4Bit Vedic Multiplier power comparison chart
The below table depicts the power consumption of 8 bit vedic multiplier based on Urdhava Tiryagbhyam sutra. It has been observed that 12T transistor shows considerable reduction in power when compared with 6T XOR design.
Function
22T XOR
gate 8bit vedic multiplier
12T XOR
gate 8bit vedic multiplier
6T XOR
gate 8bit vedic multiplier
Power consumption in watts
6.369e07
2.983e07
2.012e05
No of Transistor
6280
4320
3144
Table 4 8Bit Vedic Multiplier power comparison chart
The below table shows the power comparison and the transistor used to design each MAC unit. It has been observed that we have reduced significant power consumption and the area of the MAC unit.
Function
22T XOR
gate 8bit MAC
12T XOR gate 8bit MAC
6T XOR
gate 8bit MAC
Power consumption in watts
6.584e06
5.882e06
7.600e05
No of Transistor
9220
6660
5124
Table 5 8 Bit MAC power comparison chart
TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
22T XOR GATE SIMULATION WAVEFORM
Figure 8 – 22T XOR gate simulation result
12T XOR GATE SIMULATION WAVEFORM
Figure 9 – 12T XOR gate simulation result
6T XOR GATE SIMULATION WAVEFORM
Figure 10 – 6T XOR gate simulation result
6T XOR GATE 4 – BIT VEDIC MULTIPLIER WAVEFORM
Figure 11 – 6T XOR gate 4BIT Vedic Multiplier simulation result
In the above figure the terminal 23,22,21,20 and 33,32,31,30 are the input binary numbers for the 4 bit multipliers and 41, 61, 63, 65, 67, 69, 71, 72 corresponds to R0, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, and R7. The same is applicable for the 12T 4 BIT vedic multiplier. (Refer Fig: 5 )
12T XOR GATE 4 – BIT VEDIC MULTIPLIER WAVEFORM
Figure 12 12T XOR gate 4BIT Vedic Multiplier simulation result
6T XOR GATE 8 – BIT MAC WAVEFORM
Figure 13 6T XOR gate 8Bit MAC Simulation Result
12T XOR GATE 8 BIT MAC WAVEFORM
Figure 14 12T XOR gate 8Bit MAC Simulation Result
(Partial output shown for higher clarity)
CONCLUSION
As per our extensive analysis, it has been observed that there is always a tradeoff between power and area. The smaller area will have higher power dissipation. In our analysis it has been observed that, there is a significant reduction in number of transistors compared to the conventional design. The power consumption of low transistor design has been decreased significantly when compared to the conventional design. The 12 transistor XOR gate design proves to be higher efficient design and consumes lower power and smaller area. The future scope of implementation includes efficient optimization to achieve higher speed and lesser delay and area. By significant improvements in semiconductor technology, we can achieve lesser area and higher speed for the optimized architecture. All our analysis is carried out in HSPICE 130nm technology.
Further it has been observed that all the analysis which has been carried out earlier in any of the references mentioned below are based on VHDL /Verilog based simulation and we have done a transistor level HSPICE simulation to find out the exact number of transistor required and the power consumption of the MAC unit.

REFERENCES

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Manoranjan Pradhan, Rutuparna Panda, Sushanta Kumar Sahu, MAC Implementation using Vedic Multiplication Algorithm, International Journal of Computer Applications Volume 21 No.7, May 2011.

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR
K.Ramakrishnan is a research and development engineer working for a R&D Center for the past 8 years. His research interest is in the field of VLSI and alternate renewable energy. The author may be reached at kramakrishnan83@gmail.com.
T.Ravi received his Master Degree in Applied Electronics from Sathyabama Deemed University in the year 2004. Currently he is pursuing his Ph.D in Sathyabama University. He is working as Assistant Professor in Department of ECE in Sathyabama University. His interested
areas of research are Nano Electronics, VLSI Design, Low Power VLSI Design and Mixed Signal circuits.
Dr.V.Kannan received his Master Degree in Electronics and control from BITS, Pilani in the year 1996 and Ph.D., from Sathyabama University, Chennai, in the year 2006. His interested areas of research are Optoelectronic Devices ,VLSI Design,
Nano Electronics, Digital Signal Processing and Image Processing. Currently he is working as Principal, Jeppiaar Institute of Technology, Kunnam, Tamilnadu, India.