Time-Series analysis: Maharashtra Near Future Forecasting of Corona Virus (COVID-19)

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Time-Series analysis: Maharashtra Near Future Forecasting of Corona Virus (COVID-19)

Megha Pardeshi1

Department of Computer Science Engineering, Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India

Dr. Vivek Kshirsagar2

Department of Computer Science Engineering, Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India

Abstract:- The 2019-20 Corona-virus pandemic is presently spread around the world. The IFR (Infected Fatality Ratio) of covid-19 in India reported to be 1.7 comparatively lower in the affected nations. These vault conditions, to help counteraction of the sickness and help in the medical care administration readiness it is essential to anticipate the future tainted cases. Maharashtras momentum study to portray shows a rising pattern within instances of such illness and evaluate quantity of cases expected to ascend back. It is assumed that the current expectation models will help the administration and clinical faculty to be ready for the up and coming conditions and have more status in medical care frameworks.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, ARIMA.


    The 2019-20 Coronavirus pandemic started in Wuhan (China). Then this started to spread all over the world slowly [1][2]. Coronaviruses, regularly also known as "Covid-19" or "2019-nCoV". Several scientists came with several different theories some explained that this infection is being caused by creatures, some of the group have said it has been created in the lab. This infection makes gentle serious respiratory sickness and demise [3]. This pandemic has inundated 185 nations in simply four months contaminating 1,949,210 individuals and incurring significant damage to 123,348[4][5]. Nonetheless, the untimely cases show the contamination is less serious when contrasted with different Covids, for example, SARS-CoV (Extreme Intense Respiratory Condition Covid) and MERS-CoV (Centre East Respiratory Disorder Covid), instances from man-to-man transmission mean that 2019 novel Corona-Virus profoundly irresistible than rest [6]. Albeit neighbourhood of Wuhans Fish Market is expected to be origin of proliferation [7], extent of an event of ailment is vague and it is powerful [3]. Perceptible variety that are available in hygienic assessment discovery capacities reformed by various nations to distinguish tainted cases [8]. "Directly, many noteworthy instances of 2019 novel Corona-Virus contaminations are accounted for the U.S., be that as it may, the cases are suddenly ascending to France, Germany, Italy, and Spain, everyday"[4]. China is main spot of inception of infirmity is presently not getting many cases[4]. The first instance of Covid disease in quite a while was accounted for January, 30 of 2020 at Kerala, which was carried from Chinas Wuhan city [9]. For underlying stage, the moderate infection rate where 3 people were found positive. The primary affirmed instance of Covid in Maharashtra was accounted for March, 9 of 2020 in Pune, where a couple getting back from Dubai tried positive. March, 30 the Legislature of Maharashtra pronounced the flare-up a scourge in the urban communities of Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Pune (PMC and PCMC cutoff points) and Nagpur, and summoned arrangements of Pestilence Ailments Act, 1897 which empowered it to coercively hospitalize anybody with suspected indications. Business foundations, for example, film lobbies, shopping centres, pools and rec centres were closed over the state as a safeguard. Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Uddhav Thackeray, given a prohibition on every single open assembling and capacities. On April, 7 Maharashtra turned into the main state in the nation to record more than 1,000 cases. The episode has been pronounced a pandemic in excess of twelve states and association domains, where arrangements of the Pestilence Infections Act, 1897 have been summoned, and instructive organizations and numerous business foundations have been closed down. India has suspended all vacationer visas, as a dominant part of the affirmed cases were connected to different nations [11]. "March, 22 of 2020, India watched a 24-hour intentional open time limitation of the case of the PM Narendra Modi"[11]. The legislature lined it up with lockdowns in 75 regions where Coronavirus cases had happened just as every significant city. Further, on 24 March, the PM requested a cross country lockdown for 21 days, influencing the whole 1.3 billion populaces of India [11]. Up to April, 21 the infected cases of Corona-virus in India have been reached up to 10,453, mortality count 358 and 1181 recuperations. At this present situation there is neither a treatment nor an immunization for the Coronavirus disease. The main choice is facilities the event of contamination, setup our medical care for this further situation.

    Develop amazingly critical models are computationally which able just as reasonable, which is helpful for strategy producers, medical asepsis overall population. Demonstrating the ailment and giving future figure of conceivable number of day by day cases can help the clinical framework of getting Laboratory record of the client. In determining and controlling the worldwide plague danger the factual expectation models is very helpful.

    In the current exertion, we have utilized Auto-Backward Incorporated Moving Normal (ARIMA) model for foreseeing the frequency of 2019-nCov ailments. When contrasted with other expectation models, for example support vector machine (SVM) and SEIR models, ARIMA model is suitable for forecasting of characteristic catastrophe [10]. We have observed that Auto-

    Backward Incorporated Moving Normal (ARIMA) model is the best model and we have also forecasted the number of cases in Maharashtra for next upcoming 20-30 days.


      1. Dataset

        The Johns Hopkins University Centre for Systems Science and Engineering (JHU CSSE), data repository collected for 2019- nCoV, supported by ESRI Living Atlas Team and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU APL).

        • Training Dataset – Training dataset from January, 22 to April, 21, 2020

        • Testing Dataset – the dates to predict; the training will update with in week on the based on last 30 days of predicted data.

      2. System Development

    The current exploration has been separated out different stages. Initially the influence examination cases has been surveyed, tainted cases, demise cases which have been carried into evaluation India nation. Secondary, the state shrewd exploration have been directed to India confirmed cases in. Indian states. Thirdly, the anticipated of Maharashtra utilising two determining strategies have been applied.

    A modelling technique called ARIMA is used for calculating time arrangements, of affirmed Corona-virus cases in Maharashtra. It is written as a function of parameters p, d and q which are order of regression, degree of trend differences, and the degree of moving average. Hence can be written as ARIMA (p,d,q). This ARIMA model is used on the confirmed/positive cases of covid- 19 in Maharashtra. The initial number of ARIMA models to be used can be found by using ACF (Autocorrelation function) & (graph and partial autocorrelation) PACF. The change in normality and stationary features are then checked in the obtained ARIMA model. Then the best model that could be forecasted is determined by checking the accuracy of the received models. For a model to be the finest the values of MAPE, MSD AND MAD should be the lowest among others. Now that the model is determined, it&39;s parameters are calculated and the entire model is verified and checked for errors. This final model predicts the number of positive corona virus cases in the next 20 days, where the dates 22/4/2020 to 11/5/2020 determining future affirmed Coronavirus cases is spoken to as,

    M (, ,) : x. = 1×1 + 2×2 + 1z1 + 2z2 + z (1)

    where z = x x1 (2)

    Here, xt – predicted number of confirmed COVID-19 cases at tth day, 1,2, 1 and 2 are parameters whereas zt – residual term for tth day. The trend of forthcoming incidences can be estimated from the previous cases and a time series analysis is performed for this purpose. Following forecasting refers to the time series of employment model to forecast future data based on past occurred data [12]. Number of cases in the following days can be found with the help of previous number of cases and a time series analysis. In the proposed system helps to calculate this trend from the months of January to April. It also predicts the trend from April to May. Statistical significance will reset to .05. The given plotted graphs are actual number of cases versus the predicted number of positive cases with respect to time to understand the models accuracy.


    1. Exploration of Indian Covid-19 cases

      1. Exploration of influence of Covid-19 cases for India

      2. Pattern of daily rise in cases. Figure 1 Exploration of influence of Covid-19 cases for India.

        Like various nations everywhere on the world. India is likewise at present seeing a stage ascend in the quantity of cases on everyday schedule as appeared in Figure 1. As we observed in the figure, designs depicted by the dataset for Coronavirus scene. On 14th April the count of infected cases was 1652 and there were 10 passings point by point of these polluted people making it a passing pace of for all intents and purposes 1.7%. The designs and examination of the amount of cases given subtle elements with respect to normal plan according to India. Passing by design, it exceptionally well may be seen that since selecting the vital occasion for Coronavirus. To rich 50 count of infected people it took period of 41 days in India. The typical cases every day is

        9.75 since the specifying of to begin with case. This can be an ordinary plan nevertheless that has taken a temperamental headway where India passes within 100 cases in 5 days and that will lead to 150 patients in further days. However, this conventional continued developing with each case.

    2. Indian state exploration of epidemic trend

      The epic trend reporting of covid-19 patient have been spectator by Indian states, as shown in Figure 2. Almost 70% regions is covered by infected cases is found over the country. Pretty much union territories and 25 state reported at in occasion at last one of infected case. Delhi, Maharashtra and Gujarat are having more than 2000 cases but Maharashtra is at the top with more than 5102 cases. Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Naidu, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh extend up to 1000-2000 cases. Telangana and Andra Pradesh extend up to 500-1000 cases, other all states and union territories are below 500 cases. In any case, the demise rates are reaching out from 1% to 3.7% exclusively. Above all the data is being inclined up to April, 21 2020.

      Figure 2. Cases spotted in India.

    3. Maharashtra forecasting by ARIMA model

    The development stage of Maharashtra needs a great deal of working towards keeping up sufficient assets, forcing limitations and get together to evade contact base. The tainted individual which are raising strongly in the recent weeks, The ARIMA model gives prescient scope to the conceivable irresistible client which are infected by Covid -19 in Maharashtra. Figure 3 shows the Daily new infected cases in Maharashtra.

    Figure 3. Daily new infected cases in Maharashtra

    The common log changes of crude information after performing , the upward drift was still obvious. Thus, it may obstruct stationary for arrangement which can posture challenges with the filing of ARIMA. To kill the slant and regularity from the information they are connected to weight moving midpoints. The Dickey- fuller test as shown in Figure 4 the rolling cruel and standard deviations which makes the arrangement stationary as affirmed.

    Figure 4. Plot of standard deviation and Rolling mean

    As appear in below Table no.1, Estimated parameters from ARIMA model (2,2,2) first auto-regressive compound and second moving average segment. The forecasting model which can be considered constantly.

    Table 1. ARIMA (2,2,2) model Summry



    Std err




























    The model of predictability which have been spread upon the original data which is being plotted in the graph of Figure 5. The log transformed data have removed the seasonality and trends, which have been followed by orange data line and as well as blue forecasted lines. The series of original log transformed data is being well forecasted

    1. Blue is stationary data line where as Red represent forecasted data

    2. Blue line represent forecasted data while Orange line For original data Figure 5. Forecast data.

    The 95% of confidence interval which have been forecasted the further pattern which is given in Figure 6 that seems to be quite alarming. To optimise the range of graph for next 20-30 days. The corona virus cases from 30/01/ 2020 till 11/05/2020 which has been presented in Figure 6. in which the time arrangement diagram of the dynamic tainted , which is obviously plotted in the graph in which time arrangement is not fix. An expanding pattern is shown when arrangement recommending a skyscraper in Coronavirus cases. Plainly quantifies like isolate and sterilization can diminish human presentation and control this pandemic. In this way, these measures ought to be severely over the Maharashtra exacting moves have been made to individuals. To whom they abuse the principal, and do not think about seriousness for their circumstance. A lot of information is being given by Albeit, This information is helping additionally for comprehensive forecast, clarification which is based on current situation. The significant model which is forcesing further instance in contamination, the example of this is infraction which spread but do not change strangers.

    Figure 6. Predictions for confidence interval for 95% for the next 20-30 days.

    Clearly this infection is new and has the capacity to be communicated strongly. Henceforth, it might have an impact on the forecasts, anyway according as far as anyone is concerned, in the current circumstance the ARIMA model is the best model for forecasting.


The corona-virus also known as Covid-19 has been declared a pandemic of epic proportions. This project helps to fight the pandemic in the way of preparedness of health administration and study the positive cases in the upcoming days utilising the best model obtained. According to this model, the number of positive corona virus cases will peak in the following months. By knowing this, timely health arrangements helps to largely contain the spread of the virus Factors such as a lockdown is expected to bring down the numbers of affected patients bringing down the positive cases n the next month possibly. The proposed system helps the health department and clinical administration get ready for the future cases using the best model.


  1. Heymann, D. L., & Shindo, N. (2020). COVID-19: what is next for public health?. The Lancet, 395(10224), 542-545.

  2. World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 ( COVID-19) : situation report, 51.

  3. Paules, C. I.; Marston, H. D.; Fauci, A. S. Coronavirus infectionsmore than just the common cold, JAMA 2020, 323, 707.

  4. Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering, Coronavirus (COVID-19) Cases. https://github.com/CSSEGISandData/COVIDQ3 (accessed on April 14, 2020).

  5. Wikipedia, 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019-20_coronavirus_outbreak (accessed on April 14, 2020).

  6. N. C. P. E. R. E. Team. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China, China CDC Weekly2020, 41, 145.

  7. Huang, C.; Wang, Y.; Li, X.; Ren, L.; Zhao, J.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Fan, G.; Xu, J.; Gu, X.; Cheng, Z.; Yu, T.; Xia, J.; Wei, Y.; Wu, W.; Xie, X.; Yin, W.; Li, H.; Liu, M.; Xiao, Y.; Gao, H.; Guo, L.; Xie, J.; Wang, G.; Jiang, R.; Gao, Z.; Jin, Q.; Wang, J.; Cao, B. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, The Lancet 2020, 395, 497

  8. Niehus, R.; De Salazar, P. M.; Taylor, A.; Lipsitch, M. Quantifying bias of COVID-19 prevalence and severity estimates in Wuhan, China that depend on reported cases in international travellers, medRxiv. 2020.

  9. Unnithan, P. S. G. Kerela confirmed first novel coronavirus case in India, India Today. https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/kerala-reports-first- confirmed-novel-coronavirus-case-in-india1641593-2020-01-30 (2020) (accessed on April 14, 2020).

  10. Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Cui, H.; Chen, Q. Comparison of the Ability of ARIMA, WNN and SVM Models for Drought Forecasting in the Sanjiang Plain, China. Nat. Resour. Res.2019, 29,1447.

  11. Wikipedia,COVID-19 pandemic in Maharashtra https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COVID-19_pandemic_in_Maharashtra

  12. Imdadullah, M. Time series analysis. Basic statistics and data analysis 2014.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *