The Inner-City Kampung Development Concept as Sustainable Tourism Area in Surabaya, Indonesia

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV6IS010052

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The Inner-City Kampung Development Concept as Sustainable Tourism Area in Surabaya, Indonesia

Desy Rahmadaniyati, ST Arlita Widyasari, ST Department of Architecture

Laboratory of Housing and Human Settlements

Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya, Indonesia

Dr. Ir. Rika Kisnarini, MSc

Prof. Ir. Happy Ratna Sumartinah, MSc, PhD

Department of Architecture Laboratory of Housing and Human Settlements

Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya, Indonesia

Abstract Tourism is a major sector for economic growth of a country and need to be directed at sustainable tourism concept. Inner-city kampungs in Indonesia (informal settlements located in city center) are potential to be developed into tourism region because of the site ambiences and culture attractions, particularly the unique local wisdoms. In order to face existing phenomena of irregularly-grown informal settlements, improvement of a kampung in tourism context can reduce the number of slums, as well as improving local citizens prosperity in a sustainable way. This study aims to formulate development concepts for inner-city kampung as a tourism area using Kampung Candirejo in Surabaya as case study, in which the data are collected through observation, interview, and documentation. The results of several qualitatively descriptive analyses show that efforts to upgrade Kampung Candirejo as a tourism destination can be realized through quality enhancements of basic infrastructures and tourism facilities, formation of local tourist organization, and empowerment of local residents in order to support the actualization of kampungs tourism.

Keywords: Sustainable Tourism; Tourism Area; Informal Settlement; Inner-City Kampung


    Tourism is a primary sector that potential for economic growth of a country, and needs to be managed and maintained between generations. Tourism development should be directed in line with the principles of sustainable development, highlighting ecology (environment), human (social and cultural), and prosperity (economic) aspects (UN-HABITAT, 2012). Sustainable tourism considers various dimensions of life impartially, and is able to meet the needs of tourists, tourism industry, environment, and local communities simultaneously (WTO, 2004). The presence of sustainable tourism can also stimulate quality enhancement of local citizens economy (Ministry of Tourism, 2012). Nowadays, evolution of tourists interest should be controlled to a responsible tourism, prioritizing natural conservation as well as improving local communities well-being as attentionof the journey. Moreover, attention to environment and local culture in tourism activities can indirectly promote economic growth, especially for underdeveloped countries. (UNEP, 2002)

    Traditional settlements in Indonesia, including those located in the middle of city (inner-city kampung), are potential to be developed into one of many tourism

    destinations. It can be said that Kampung is a cultural root of typical informal settlements, in which the residents have various backgrounds and socio-economic status, yet able to survive along with the progress of a city. Even in critical or unfavorable situations, societies living in kampung got their own process to resolve the problem with all their limitedness (Kusyala, 2008). People's culture in kampung presents different story about urban activities in Indonesia, because of their traditional ways of life in the middle of modern urban living. (Dyah A, et al, 2010). Unfortunately in reality, there are many other informal settlements in Indonesia that grow irregularly and become indecent place to live in.

    Therefore, inner-city kampungs in Indonesia need to be developed in the context of tourism by promoting respective environment and local wisdom. Informal settlements improvement as tourism destination can also decrease the number of slums and improve the social welfare. In addition, the form of sustainable tourism can support the success of sustainable settlements as one of determining factors of a sustainable city. In this regard, further study is needed on kampung tourism improvement, including the development of Kampung Candirejo as a sustainable tourism area in Surabaya.


    1. Inner-City Kampung

      The term 'kampung' / informal settlement refers to a group of houses in a city which is not good in conditions, has limited public facilities, and is mostly inhabited by low-income communities (Turner, 1972; Budiharjo, 1992; Silas, 1998). However, kampung in Indonesia can not always be equated with 'slum' and 'squatter' in general, since it has specific characteristics such as the close kinship one to another (Herbasuki, et al, 1984; Sucahyo, 2010).

      Inner-city kampungs (and other informal settlements) are generally organic, grown by independent community initiative, and developed both at the center and outskirt of city following the road network or potential area. (Prabowo, 2002 in Hastari, 2014). General characteristics of inner-city kampung in Indonesia are mentioned as follows: (1)The residents have rural life style with strong family ties; (2) The physical condition of the building and environment is irregular/ poor; (3) The density of buildings or population is high to moderate, impacting on the lack of basic services such

      as clean water, drainage, sanitation, waste, etc; (4) generally grow irregularly around industrial estates. (Alexander, et al, 1977 at the Hastari, 2014).

    2. Tourism Area

      Tourism areas are commonly visited by many tourists because it has some objects and attractions, both natural and man-made (Adisasmita, 2010). Tourism region is a region with certain area that is specially built and provided for meeting the needs of tourism. It should have tourist attractions, public facilities, tourism facilities, accessibility, and the communities that support the realization of tourism. (Law of Tourism in Indonesia 10/2009). Tourism area needs to be well planned in order to avoid bad impacts of tourism activities (Hadinoto (1996) in Kurniawati (2013).

      Some experts have classified the core components making up the tourist area. (General Director of Tourism; Cooper et al, 1995 and Yoeti,1997 in Antara,2011; Inskeep,1991 and Mc.Intosh,1995 in Rahman,2011). The expert opinions is comparable and complementary, so it can be concluded that the components of a tourism area are consisted of:

      1. Attractions, consist of site attractions (either nature or man-made) and event attractions. (such as culture, sports, or any activitie involving the tourists)

      2. Amenities, includes many accomodation facilities, such as service and reception (restaurants, shops, crafts and souvenirs, information office), finance (banks, money changers), personal (salon), health, public security (police station, firefighters), travel (immigration, customs), or transportation. This part also includes basic infrastructure.

      3. Accessibilities, in the form of access to tourism destination that is affordable, practical, and easy.

      4. Tourist organization, formation of organization which composes and manages all about tourism activities, including advertises tourism attractions.

    3. Sustainable Tourism

    Sustainable tourism is tourism activity that takes into account the economic, socio-cultural, and environmental in a balanced way (WTO, 2004). Sustainable tourism activities are made without reducing the value of existing resources, and periodically monitored and maintained for future gnerations. (Kurniawati, 2013). Sustainable tourism is comprehensive, distributing its profits broadly to meet the needs of various parties, consisting of tourists (related to interest and demand), tourism industries (in both urban and rural, large and small, public and private), environment (protecting nature, built environment, and culture) and local communities (considering the needs and desires of local communities to improve the


    This research uses a case study on one of the informal settlements located on the inner-city of Surabaya, specifically a kampung named Kampung Candirejo Genteng. The data collection techniques is field observation, interviews with local stakeholders, gather supporting data from articles, and also documentation. The scheme of method used in this study is presented in Figure. 1

    quality of life, including employment, business opportunities, and social services). (Ministry of Tourism and ILO, 2012; McCool and Moisey 2001).

    In addition, Subhadra in Kurniawati (2013) suggests that basic principles to be considered in sustainable tourism are mentioned as follows.

    1. Community Participation, in controlling tourism development.

    2. Stakeholder Involvement, which includes institutions NGO (Non Governmental Organization), volunteers, local governments, tourist associations, etc.

    3. Local ownership, through local community direct role in managing the supporting tourism facilities

    4. The use of sustainable resources, with environmentally friendly activities, and effort to avoid the use of non- renewable resources (irreversible).

    5. Accommodate community goals, in order to realize harmonious conditions between tourists, the place and the local community in the planning, management, and marketing of tourism

    6. Carrying Capacity, which includes physical, natural, social and cultural adapting the boundaries of the local environment, as well as limiting the use by the scale and type of tourism (limits of acceptable use).

    7. Monitoring and Evaluation, which includes the preparation of guidelines, evaluation, and indicators development of tourism activities impacts.

    8. Accountability, through development policies ensuring the local communities welfare and life quality improvement

    9. Training, to provide knowledges, as well as business, vocational, and professional skills improvements for local communities

    10. Promotion, to strengthen the landscape characteristics, sense of place, and local identity

    Fig. 1. Research Methods Scheme

    The data are analysed qualitatively descriptive with reference to the results of literature review. This study also involves comparison analysis in case of validation. All the findings are assesed based on following types of analysis:

    1. Analysis of the study objects potential and problems, based on environmental, social, cultural, and economic aspects (UN-Habitat, 2011)

    2. Comparative Analysis of the study object, compared with other tourism area that have been developed, based on the components of the tourist area consisting of Attractions, Amenities, Accessibilities, Tourist Organization (General Director of Tourism; Cooper et al, 1995 and Yoeti,1997 in Antara,2011; Inskeep,1991 and Mc.Intosh,1995 in Rahman,2011).

    3. Analysis of study object based on sustainable tourism principles, consisted of participation, stakeholder involvement, local ownership, use of sustainable resources, community goals, carrying capacity, monitoring and evaluation, accountability, training, and promotion (Subhadra in Kurniawati,2013 )

    All the results of the analyses are used as main criteria in formulating the concepts of tourism development in study object

  4. GENERAL DESCRIPTIONS OF CASE STUDY The case study of this research is Kampung Candirejo

    Genteng, located on Jl. Genteng Candirejo RT (Neighborhood Board) 02, RW (Community Board) 08, Genteng District, Surabaya. The kampung consists of 65 families (162 people), and has a strategic location, that is near traditional market (Pasar Genteng) and near the souvenirs centers of typical foods in Surabaya. The first impression of this kampung is green and lush ambiences, shaded by starfruit trees, airy open spaces, and unique with some colonial traditional houses.

    This kampung is also known as "Kampung Herbal / Herbal Village" because of its locally processed herbal products and crafts. Most of the people in Kampung Candirejo work as self- employed since it is close to the city center and trade center. The residents of Kampung Candirejo are very friendly with their hospitality, and also participate actively on some occasions held in Kampung. The existing conditions of the Kampung be seen in Figure 2-5.

    On the other hand, Kampung Candirejo have some achievements in the kampung cleanliness competition in the city of Surabaya (Surabaya Green & Clean 2016), pronounced as the Best of the Best with Champion Category (Jawara) .


    Fig. 2 The Entrance Gate Kampung Candirejo

    Fig. 3 Environmental Ambiences in Kampung Candirejo

    Fig. 4 Area for Motorcycle Parking in Kampung Candirejo

    Fig. 5 Local Products in Kampung Candirejo


    Based on the three analyses that have been done before, it is obtained some results in the form of the potentials and problems of Kampung Candirejo Surabaya. Detailed explanations are presented as follows.

    1. The Potentials of Kampung Candirejo as Tourism Area :

      1. The people have good characters and active to participate in any activities in kampung

      2. There are various stakeholders involved, namely: volunteers, women group, local government, and PT Telkom (state-owned telecommunications enterprise).

      3. Has strategic location that provides jobs for local citizens, including renting the parking lot to the sellers in the market (Figure 4)

      4. In the context of heritage, there are graves of Mbah Buyut and and colonial houses (Figure 6)

        Fig. 6. Colonial Houses and The Grave of Mbah Buyut

      5. Has herbal products and handicrafts that tourists can buy (Figure 5)

      6. Utilization of organic waste for composting and recycle of waste plastic for crafts

      7. Utilization Water Treatment Plant for hand washing and watering plants, and biopori to prevent floods

      8. Utilization of surrounding starfruits for herbal products

      9. Has programmes accommodating all citizens need 10)Has clean and green environment, airy atmosphere,

        beautiful gardens, fountains, painted street and plants pots, also attractive seating for tourists

        1. There is a training programme about herbal product held by local government

        2. Has advertisements of kampung using banners, blogs on internet, and also promotion by following Kampung competition in Surabaya

    2. Kampung Candirejo Disadvantages and Problems

      1. People do not have own initiatives, and tend to only accept the idea of the head of neighbourhood board

      2. The groups of women producers still work individually in promoting their products

      3. The marketing of herbal products is still not integrated with surrounding hotels, shops and markets

      4. Programmes in kampung are still not accommodating tourism (not have specific organization for its management, resulting in the absence of local policies for tourism development).

      5. Kampung Candirejo shortage of land, parking space is still using side road

      6. The road circulation is the only linear and dead-end.

      7. There is no specific training or education to local residents about tourism

      8. There is no public toilet in the kampung.

      9. Promotion efforts are still not much, including the lack of a specific place for selling local products

    3. Development Concept of Kampung Candirejo

    The results of previous discussions about existing conditions, potentials, problems lead to the formation of development criteria. There are 7 (seven) criteria used for creating the tourism development concpets in this study. Each of which is described more detail along with the ideas. Followings are the proposed development concept of Kampung Candirejo Surabaya as Tourism area :

    1. Planning of Open Space Area (Green Area, Pavement and Parking) in Kampung Candirejo

      1. Adding green space alongside the kampung road by reducing the width of the initial road from 3.5 to 2.5 meters. The additional space created will be used for adding new plants for herbal products.

      2. Setting a parking area for car outside of the kampung, and integrated it to the existing public facilities around. The specific location of car parking is alongside the street around Kampung Candirejo, in front of the market and shops.

      3. Optimizing the circulation road in Kampung Candirejo since it is a dead end. The street around the mosque that has not much exposed can be used as the secondary path for the tour. Figure 7 shows the in-path (red line) and out-path (yellow line).

        Fig. 7 Proposed Circulation for Tourist Paths in Kampung Candirejo

    2. Environmental Quality Improvement in Kampung Candirejo

      1. The improvement of existing poor drainage and cleaning branches of trees which block street lightings

      2. The application of underground electrical systems

      3. Developing buildings into multi-storeys, namely:

        • Community Hall can be built into 2 storeys, the second floor is proposed to be used for community activities such

        as its regular function, while the first floor is used for the center of herbs product, culinary stalls, and for adding open space for parking.

      4. Provision of education place / center to learn about local products Kampung Candirejo located on the proposed second floor if community hall. It is consisted of:

        • Programs for processing herbal products located on the proposed first floor of community hall.

        • Exposing Kampung activities that can be a model for another kampung, such as: public library, demonstration for making composter fertilizer, learning about Water Treatment Plant with available miniature, or experiencing making handicrafts from recycled materials

          Communal Area





          Communal Area


          PARKING AREA

          PARKING AREA

      5. Provision of the culinary area. Make a Kafe House selling herbal products at the terrace or yard of the colonial house (Figure 10).

        Fig. 8.The concept of Space Utilization Community Hall Vertically before (top) and after the development (bottom)

        Daily Activity

        • Creating into multi-storey building for houses that produce herbal product in order to have a room for producing herbal product and to display the products (being home-based enterprise area).

        OM ER AL

        C M CI

        Daily Activity

        Fig. 9.Design Concept of House Manufacturer Herbal Products before (left) and after (right) Improvement

    3. Provision of Supporting Facilities for Tourism in Kampung Candirejo

      1. Provision of decent public toilets that proposed to be located in several spots, such as in community hall and next to security post (shown at Figure 8 with yellow mark).

      2. The use of circulation road in Kampung Candirejo for traditional games area (being painted with certain pattern)

      3. Provision of attractive photobooth area in Kampung Candirejo, to capture the travel moment. It is proposed to be located near the entrance gate.

        Fig. 10. Colonial Houses Can Be Used as Kafe House

        1. Reopening the Grave of Mbah Buyut fence and also the colonial houses. Giving brief history information so it can be used as a religious tourism and historical tourism object.

        2. The renovation of existing green house (place for nursery garden). The seeds from the place can be sold to tourists.

    4. Provision of Signages Kampung Candirejo

      1. Signage outside kampung to inform the existence of Kampung Candirejo, placed in the main street around the kampung. (Figure 11)

        Fig. 11 Proposed Signage Location to Kampung Candirejo.

      2. Signage in kampung area to show the attraction objects in Kampung Candirejo

    5. Improvement of Local Product in Kampung Candirejo (Herbal Products and Crafts / Souvenirs)

      1. The establishment of cooperative in Kampung Candirejo to manage Local Products Centre communally (herbal products and crafts).

    6. Integrating all local products (herbal and handicraft) became a typical product with the label of Kampung Candirejo (managed communally)

    7. Tourism Management of Kampung Candirejo

    8. The establishment of formal institution of toursm management in Kampung Candirejo incorporated with local government.

    9. Formation of special program for tourism, such as weekly culinary festival.

    10. Establishment of tour packages include sightseeing trips and also the price

    11. The establishment link between Kampung Candirejo with surrounding public facilities

    12. Tourism Promotion of Kampung Candirejo through brochures and internet

    13. Local Community Empowerment

    1. Socialization for community participation about tourism

    2. Giving information to local community about sustainable tourism

    3. Training for women local product producers in Kampung Candirejo to improve local products quality (herbal products and handicrafts) as well as how to market it.


    Kampung Candirejo as one of inner-city kampung has the potential to be developed as a tourist attraction in the city of Surabaya, with its many attractions, such as beautiful environment, grave and colonial houses, as well as local products. The most dominant potential in Kampung Candirejo is its local herbal products and handicrafts, and also the green ambience. The potentials have some economic values, so it can be directed as a sustainable tourism area. Tourism activities that can be proposed in Kampung Candirejo is ecotourism (to enjoy the atmosphere and learn about the processing of herbal products), also culinary and shopping (to enjoy and buy local products, both food and drinks, as well as the handicrafts). However, the existing tourism facilities are currently not sufficient and require further development. The tourism activities also need to be optimized through cooperation and integration with surrounding business owner as well as local government.


    We would like to express our great appreciation to our lecturers, Mrs. Rika, Mrs. Happy, and Mrs. Dewi for the valuable suggestions during the planning and development of this research. Also, we would like to thank Kampung Candirejo residents for the memorable hospitality and informations for our study.


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