The Effect of Perceived Self-Esteem and Mental Health of Nursing Students on Life Satisfaction

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The Effect of Perceived Self-Esteem and Mental Health of Nursing Students on Life Satisfaction

Geum Sook Op, Gwang Soo Op

1 Chungbuk Health Science University, Republic of Korea, 2 Chodang University, Republic of Korea,

Abstract:- This research studies correlation between perceived self-esteem, mental health, and life satisfaction of nursing students, and is conducted to examine how perceived self-esteem and mental health affect life satisfaction. Our subject was 195 students attending C college and C college in C area, and it was descriptive study. From May, 28tp018 to June,1st2018, survey was distributed to collect data. As a result of multiple regression analysis, influence factors of nursing students life satisfaction were motivation of admission(=.266, p=.000) and perceived self-esteem(=.320, p=.000) as in order, and this variables explained life satisfaction 11.9%. For nursing students to be capable of using positive coping strategy in further promoting life satisfaction, We should consider students motivation of admission and perceived self-esteem factors.

Keywords: Perceived Self-Esteem, Mental Health, Life Satisfaction, Nursing Students, Stepwise Multiple Regression.

  1. INTRODUCTION

      1. Needs of study

        Criteria to assess the level of life satisfaction is determined by how individual or group members subjectively perceive their objective conditions from their important elements of life.[1] Therefore its a process of individual assessing quality of life by comparing reality with their criteria, id est how each individuals positively assesses their life.[2] Self- esteem signifies the level of self-respect with positive, negative attitude toward ego I.e. as one and special object, and the level of reckoning self as a valuable person.[3] Recently, mental health is becoming a major issue in educational field. Especially college years as an adolescent stage when ego-identity forms, are within most sensitive period when values change. For this reason, this issue becomes critical, and is more serious for the nursing college students whom suffer from anxiety and severe stress related to clinical practice. [5] Self-esteem which is a personal resource affecting life satisfaction level, represents level of individuals ability to make oneself compatible and valuable. Thus higher self-esteem even enables one to consider hardship into opportunity [6]. Therefore perceived self- esteem and type of mental health affect life satisfaction of nursing college students. To this date, life satisfaction study conducted on college student showed that higher self-esteem is related to better adaptation to school life, and higher level of life satisfaction.[7-10] And also many domestic and international studies usually deal with stress, mental health, career, college service, or studies based on programs.

        Likewise, in previous studies, self-esteem, life satisfaction or mental health acted as an independent variable or parameter. This study has its significance because influencing factor studies setting life satisfaction level as a direct subordinate variable are scarce.

        Hence this study interprets effects of nursing students life satisfaction according to their perceived mental health type, thereby provide fundamental data to help school life guidance to promote not only the nursing students mental health and self-esteem but also their life satisfaction.

      2. Purpose of study

    Specific purpose of this studies are as followed;

    1. Understand general characteristics of Nursing Students.

    2. Understand mental health, self-esteem, and life satisfaction level of Nursing Students.

    3. Distinguish differences in related variables considering nursing students general characteristics.

    4. Understand correlations between nursing students life satisfaction related variables.

    5. Understand influencive factors affecting nursing students life satisfaction.

  2. MATERIAL AND METHODS

      1. Subjects of study and data collection method

        Subjects of this study are 195 nursing colleges student whom understand the purpose of this study and consented in written form, and are attending C University and C University located in C area, selected by random sampling method. Rather assessed using G*power program, for the regression analysis of effect size 0.15, significance level 0.05, experiment examination 0.85, 128 subjects were calculated to be requiring.

      2. Tools of study

        Perceived Self-esteem: The self-esteem scale developed by Rosenberg in 1965[3] and later translated by Jeon[11] was used as a tool. Jeon[11]s study calculated reliability coefficient be Cronbach's =.79, whereas this study showed Cronbach's =.84.

        Mental Health: A tool of Psychosocial Wellbeing Index-Short Form(PWI-SF) developed by Chang et al.[12] was used. The higher the score means the poorer psychosocial wellbeing. In Chang et al.[12]s study, credibility was Cronbach's =.90, This study showed Cronbach's =.84.

        Life Satisfaction: The life satisfaction scale developed by Diener Fmmons, Larsen & Griffin in 1985[13] and later used by Shim[14] was used as a tool. Shim[14]s study conducted on college students showed Cronbach's = .82. This study showed Cronbach's =.84.

      3. Data collection

        Analysis data was collected from May 28th to June 1st, 2018. Total 250 surveys were distributed and 232 returned. Within survey, 33 incomplete surveys were excluded and 195 copies were used for final data analysis.

      4. Data analysis

    Collected data was analyzed with SPSS Win 20.0. Average and standard deviation of mental health, self-esteem, and life satisfaction level was examined. Pearsons Correlation Coefficient was used to examine the relationship between

    Nursing students mental health, self-esteem, and life satisfaction level. Stepwise Multiple Regression were used to identify influence factor of nursing students life satisfaction.

  3. RESULTS

      1. The general characteristics of the subjects

        Subject of this study is 195 fresh year nursing student, which are 50 male students(25.6%), 145 female students(74.4%), female student outnumbered, major age group is 20s being 135(69.2%), admission motives to nursing college was mostly about employment being 105(53.8%) [Table1].

        [Table1] The General Characteristics (N=195)

        Classification

        Categories

        N

        %

        Sex

        Male

        50

        25.6

        Female

        145

        74.4

        Age

        under 20

        135

        69.2

        Over 20

        60

        30.8

        Religion

        Christianity

        127

        65.1

        Buddhism

        47

        24.1

        Catholic

        18

        9.2

        Others

        3

        1.5

        Admission motives

        Employment

        105

        53.8

        Recommendation

        18

        9.2

        Realize Humanity

        30

        15.4

        Others

        42

        21.5

        Mjor in other field more than 1year

        Yes

        40

        24.1

        No

        148

        75.9

        Regular exercise

        Yes

        52

        26.7

        No

        129

        66.2

        Sometimes

        14

        7.2

        Regular diet

        Yes

        41

        21.0

        No

        151

        77.4

        Sometimes

        3

        1.5

        Economic level

        High

        21

        10.8

        Medium

        156

        80.0

        Low

        18

        9.2

      2. Extents of perceived self-esteem, mental health, life satisfaction of nursing students

        Self-esteem scored average 33.20±4.89 out of score range 26 to 48. Mental health scored average 48.66±9.04 out of score range 47 to 65, Life satisfaction scored 23.18±5.53 out of score range 27 to 35 [Table2].

        [Table2] Subjects score of self-esteem, mental health and life satisfaction (N=195)

        Variables

        Range

        Mean±SD

        Min-Max

        Perceived Self-esteem

        26-48

        33.20±4.89

        22-48

        Mental Health

        47-65

        48.66±9.04

        18-65

        Life Satisfaction

        27-35

        23.18±5.53

        8-35

      3. Difference between perceived self-esteem, mental health, life satisfaction according to nursing students general characteristic:

        As a result of analyzing variable differences according to general characteristics, mental health shows significant difference in regular excercise(F=3.082, p=.05), self-esteem shows significant difference in religion(F=2.657, p<.05). Level of life satisfaction showed significant differences in admission motive(F=6.218, p=.001).

        [Table3] Difference of perceived self-esteem, mental health, life satisfaction of nursing students general characteristics(N=195)

        Characteristi

        cs Categories

        Mental Health Perceived Self-Esteem

        Life Satisfaction

        M±SD t or F(p) M±SD t or F(p) M±SD t or F(p)

        Sex Male 50.52±8.91 2.849

        (.093)

        33.64±5.18 .543

        (.462)

        24.36±5.781 3.034

        (.083)

        Female 48.02±9.03 33.04±4.79 22.78±5.41

        Age Under20 49.25±8.89 .717

        (.543)

        32.71±4.56 2.544

        (.057)

        23.35±5.10 2.424

        (.067)

        .654

        (.581)

        .654

        (.581)

        2.657

        (.050)

        2.657

        (.050)

        .389

        (.761)

        .389

        (.761)

        2.228

        (.086)

        2.228

        (.086)

        Over 20 47.10±8.45 33.81±5.30 21.52±7.16

        Christianity

        48.43±8.45

        Christianity

        48.43±8.45

        Religion

        Buddhism Catholic

        Others

        48.38±11.30

        49.76±9.39

        43.00±15.62

        Religion

        Buddhism Catholic

        Others

        48.38±11.30

        49.76±9.39

        43.00±15.62

        Employment

        48.37±8.66

        Employment

        48.37±8.66

        Major in other field more than

        1year

        Yes

        48.25±9.34

        Major in other field more than

        1year

        Yes

        48.25±9.34

        Admission motive

        Admission motive

        Recommendation

        Recommendation

        50.83±7.31

        50.83±7.31

        Realize Humanity

        Others

        Realize Humanity

        Others

        48.36±9.78

        48.36±9.78

        48.69±10.22

        48.69±10.22

        .127

        (.721)

        .127

        (.721)

        No

        No

        48.79±8.97

        48.79±8.97

        Yes 47.23±10.84 3.082

        (.048)

        32.66±4.72

        32.66±4.72

        34.05±5.06

        33.91±4.69

        39.33±9.60

        34.05±5.06

        33.91±4.69

        39.33±9.60

        33.07±4.79

        33.07±4.79

        30.83±3.82

        30.83±3.82

        33.50±4.42

        33.50±4.42

        34.30±5.58

        34.30±5.58

        34.25±4.70

        34.25±4.70

        32.86±4.91

        32.86±4.91

        2.912

        (.090)

        2.912

        (.090)

        34.25±5.33 2.439

        (.090)

        22.83±5.32 1.016

        (.387)

        22.83±5.32 1.016

        (.387)

        24.22±5.28

        23.95±6.18

        20.00±5.00

        24.22±5.28

        23.95±6.18

        20.00±5.00

        21.84±5.26 6.218

        (.000)

        21.84±5.26 6.218

        (.000)

        22.77±7.24

        22.77±7.24

        24.46±5.15

        24.46±5.15

        25.80±4.61

        25.80±4.61

        24.08±5.62 1.624

        (.204)

        24.08±5.62 1.624

        (.204)

        22.90±5.49

        22.90±5.49

        24.26±5.30 1.365

        (.258)

        Regular workout

        No 49.65±7.82 32.65±4.67 22.82±5.76

        Sometimes 44.14±11.20 34.35±4.61 22.57±3.63

        Yes

        47.60±9.54

        .458

        (.633)

        33.31±5.01

        .413

        (.662)

        24.80±6.05 2..298

        (.103)

        Yes

        47.60±9.54

        .458

        (.633)

        33.31±5.01

        .413

        (.662)

        24.80±6.05 2..298

        (.103)

        Regular diet No 48.90±8.99 33.21±4.90 22.78±5.37

        Regular diet No 48.90±8.99 33.21±4.90 22.78±5.37

        Sometimes

        51.33±4.16

        30.66±2.08

        21.66±3.05

        Sometimes

        51.33±4.16

        30.66±2.08

        21.66±3.05

        Economic

        High 52.19±11.18 2.159

        (.118)

        33.00±4.63 1.185

        (.308)

        22.95±7.56 .505

        (.604)

        level

        p<.01

        Medium 48.43±8.79 33.03±4.91 23.35±5.18

        Low 46.55±7.80 34.88±4.86 22.00±5.94

      4. Relationships between perceived self-esteem, mental health, life satisfaction of nursing students

        Result of correlation test to identify each variables independent influence over nursing students mental health, self-esteem, and life satisfaction is as [Table4]. Nursing students self-esteem had showed significant static correlation(r=.329, p<.01) with mental health.

        [Table 4] Correlation of nursing students perceived self-esteem, mental health, life satisfaction(N=195)

        Variables

        Perceived Self-Esteem

        Mental Health

        Life Satisfaction

        r(p)

        r(p)

        r(p)

        Perceived Self-Esteem

        1

        Mental Health

        -.610(<.01)

        1

        Life Satisfaction

        .329(<.01)

        -.165(<.05)

        1

      5. Factors affecting nursing students life satisfaction

        To identify influence factor of nursing students life satisfaction, general characteristics variables showing differences in life satisfaction and correlative variables from correlation test is set as predictor variables to run multiple regression analysis. Nominal scale is analyzed with variable number processing, after verifying multi-collinearity with VIF and Dubin-Watson value, and correlation between residuals, stepwise multiple regression analysis was processed. As a result, influence factor to life satisfaction was admission motive, self-esteem as in order, and it explained 11.9% of life satisfaction of nursing students.

        [Table 5-] Influential factors relevant to life satisfaction (N=195)

        Variables

        B

        SE

        t

        p

        Constant

        7.961

        5.022

        1.585

        <.115

        Mental Health

        .016

        .051

        .027

        .323

        <.747

        <>Perceived Self-Esteem

        .362

        .094

        .320

        3.830

        <.000

        Admission motive

        1.181

        .293

        .266

        4.028

        <.000

        R²=.136 Adjusted R²=.119 F=8.026 P=<.001 VIF=1.018-1.621 Dubin-Watson=1.858

        *Dummy variable; Reference group: Admission motive : employment

  4. DISCUSSION

    Nursing students have difficulties over career adaptation because of performing clinical practice while learning and relatively strict tradition and rules. According to Cater[15], female students majoring in nursing have more stress and adaptation problems over female students majoring in literature, and nursing students experience severe stress, anxiety, and dissatisfaction not only from nursing education course itself, but being near sick patients also be more stressful factor. Self-esteem and mental health could affect how to perceive, interpret, and deal with stress, It could act as a protective factor to evaluate self positively, altering life satisfaction which is an individuals physical, and mental adaptational result [16]. This study notable showed that the variables affecting nursing students life satisfaction was mental health, self-esteem, and admission motives showing significant influence, thus nursing students being under the condition of doing both overburdening theoretic and clinical practice, repeated studies to promote nursing students life satisfaction by identifying variables affecting their self- esteem and mental health, and developing education and program to promote their life satisfaction is necessary.

  5. CONCLUSION

Considering mental health, and self-esteem which are identified to affect nursing students life satisfaction, and developing life guidance program to actualize admission motive is necessary, and repeated study to promote life satisfaction of nursing student whose stress loads are more than other major is advised.

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