Sustainable Development in Design and Construction of Building Services and Operations Case Study

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Sustainable Development in Design and Construction of Building Services and Operations Case Study

Sajith G Ramachandran

Senior Manager MEP Department ULCCS LTD

Anoop K T Assistant Manager, MEP Department ULCYBERPARK

Abstract This paper describes about the case study on the implementation of sustainable development in design and construction of building services and operations. The first such kind of project was construction of an IT park known as UL CyberPark, situated in Kozhikode district of Kerala. It is green project developed by ULCCS Ltd. This IT Park with different facilities like Commercial office spaces, Sports/rejuvenation spaces and residential spaces is developed as an IT/ITES special economic zone. The entire park has been followed green and sustainable development protocols. It is the first Green building has LEED gold standard certified, and its operations also explore lot of green initiatives across its life cycle.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    A green Building uses less energy, water and other natural resources, creates less waste and greenhouse gases and is healthy for people during living or working inside as compared to a standard Building. Buildings are a major energy consuming sector during the construction stage as well as during the useful life span. This consumption must be minimized and this paper describes how the implementation of green building concepts have done successfully in UL CyberPark, situated in Kozhikode district of Kerala. A few details of building is given below:

    SDB 1- Software Development Block-1

    Type of building:-IT / ITES Based Offices Spaces Electrical Tariff category :-HT(I)B Industrial Electrical Contract :- 750 kVA

    Average Recorded Demand 2019-20):- 486.86 KVA Green Building Certification category:- GOLD

  2. DESIGN CONCEPT Some of the design concepts adopted are:

    • Efficient Water Usage Reducing water consumption and protecting water quality are key objectives in sustainable building. The latest faucets and flush mechanisms use less water to do the same thing.

    • Efficient Energy Usage and Eco-Friendly Equipment Energy efficiency in operation is very critical for sustainable buildings. Considered this as a design policy while planning and executing the project of SDB1. Hence the design and planing equipped with eco-friendly and energy efficient equipment.

    • Use of Renewable Energy Renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power can reduce the environmental impact of a building. Here the usage of solar power is the one way to use renewable energy source.

    • Building Automation Integrated building automation offers benefits in many areas including limiting environmental impact, saving on energy costs and improving building security and safety which are also implemented in our project.

    • Use of Recycled/Recyclable Materials The most desirable materials are those that are recycled or renewable and those that require the least energy to manufacture. They ideally are locally sourced and free from harmful chemicals. They are made of nonpolluting raw ingredients and are durable and recyclable.

    • Maintaining Indoor Environment Quality-it was created to provide comfort, well-being and productivity of occupants which is unavoidable in this project.

  3. TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE BENEFITS

    1. Tangible Benefits:

      Green building yields a number of benefits both tangible and intangible. The tangible benefits may not be easily recognizable to tenants or visitors, but through sustainable design, construction and operations green buildings are reducing carbon emissions, energy and waste; conserving water; prioritizing safer materials; and lowering our exposure to toxins. Due to these Green design concept on electrical part of Energy savings up to 50% and water consumption Saving up to 35%.

    2. Intangible Benefits:

      For maintaining better indoor air quality as the occupant spend 90% of their time inside a building, Productivity improvements up to 10% is possible while giving better working environment, Day lighting, Air quality (CO2 monitoring) and Views of exterior environment.

  4. SITE SELECTION

    The site where the green building is indented to be constructed and the environment surround the location play an

    important role in the overall sustainability of the green building. The site which is selected for the construction must satisfy the building project which means that, a building in the site must be constructed such a way that the surrounding natural environment and the related ecosystem is not affected in any means.

      • Erosion and sedimentation control: – Protect 20cm top soil and use it back for landscaping. Watering soil during construction. Barricade around the site to protect neighbors from air pollution.

      • Transportation: – Easy access to bus stations which reduces traffic, carbon emissions and the negative impacts in the environment.

      • Development density and Community connectivity: – Provided underground parking facilities and also contributed some positive developments for the surrounding

      • Low emission and Alternative fuel station: – 3% of parking spaces have electrical charging points. Designated park pooling to encourage ride sharing to reduce pollution and also reduce the strain on the local infrastructure.

      • Alternative Transportation and Parking capacity: – The project shall encourage the use of alternative fuel vehicles like electric cars by provided designated and preferred parking locations along with charging facilities. Hence promoting less consumption of fossil fuels and reducing the pollution. Also provided 5% of spaces for pool cars.

      • Reduce site disturbances: – The provision of open space in an office environment help to preserve the natural environment and the improvement of overall working atmosphere. Here we exceed the local norms by utilizing open spaces for landscaping by 25%.

      • Storm water design:- Measures are adopted to minimize runoff storm water from site. The design of the rain water collection system is such that the post construction rain water runoff is lower than pre- construction runoff by incorporating rain water recharging or harvesting pits at strategic locations within the site.

      • Heat land reduction: – High reflectance roof materials namely glossy china mosaic has been provided along with landscape having more than 85% reflectivity thereby reducing overall thermal loads.

      • Landscape and Exterior Design: – Surface parking is minimal. The car parking is accommodated in covered areas with the minimum of 50% underground under the roof.

      • Light pollution reduction: – Fully cut off lamp for exterior lighting.

  5. WATER EFFICIENCY

    Conservation of water is the basic principles of green building. The efforts should be made to ensure that the material and system that are used in reduction of water consumption in buildings and landscaping. The water efficiency is the smart use of our water resources through water saving technologies. Using water efficiently will help ensure reliable water supplies today and for future generations.

      • Water efficient landscaping: – Use treated water for complete irrigation. Drip and Sprinkler irrigation. Native plants to minimize the water requirements.

      • Innovative waste water technologies: – On site STP for 100% recycling of sewage. Recycled water used for gardening.

      • Water usd reduction: – Usage of waste water for flushing purpose gives 20-30% reduction. High efficiency water fixtures, dual flush toilets, sensor based urinal; ultra-low flow taps reduce water usage (Table 1).

      • Recharge wells: – There are 3 numbers of recharge wells in the campus surroundings.

      • Rainwater harvesting: – A 6.5 lakh liters of rain water storage are available and used for the purpose of the building after treatment.

        TABLE 1. COMPARISON OF NORMAL AND GREEN DESIGN LPM

        Item/ Description

        Plumbing Fixture Flow Rate selection

        Normal LPM

        Green design LPM

        WASH BASIN SENSOR TAP

        4.0

        3.5

        URINAL with SENSOR

        6

        4

        DUAL FLUSH TANK

        4-8

        3-6

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATED WATER AFTER

    MBR TECHNOLOGY

    Sewage treatment plant (STP) is a process of removing the contaminant substances from the waste water. We use a MBR technology for treating 175 KLD in our park. The filtration process like MGF and ACF of STP will be done for better result. The quality characteristics of treated water are as given in Table 2.

    TABLE 2. QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATED WATER

    Sl. No.

    Parameters

    After ACF

    After UF Filtration

    1

    pH

    6.5-7.5

    6.5-8.0

    2

    B.O.D

    <10mg/l

    <3mg/l

    3

    C.O.D

    <50mg/l

    <16mg/l

    4

    Coliform

    <230MPN/100ml

    NIL

  7. ENERGY EFFICIENCY Energy and Atmosphere Efficiency:

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the easiest ways to save money and improve the sustainability of a building. Constructing an energy efficient building takes great effort, and it begins with aspects such as the way the building is positioned on the property, and the glazing that is used on mechanical structures used to heat and cool the building.

      • Extruded polystyrene insulation: – It is the best roof insulation. 75mm thick extruded polystyrene insulation is used for roof. Use of over deck roof insulation to reduce the extent of heat entering the building.

      • Centrifugal screw type chillers: – Energy efficiency water cooled chillers with COP>6.4(coefficient of performance)

      • VFD for fans and pumps: – Use of VFD in secondary pumps, CT pumps, CT fans and AHU fans controls the speed makes more efficient.

      • Lighting power density: – 0.7watts/Sq.Ft in the common area lighting provided and outside lighting with solar parking area LPD of 0.25watts/Sq.Ft. High efficient CFLs, LEDs and occupancy sensors in common areas for better result.

      • Energy Efficient glass: – Selection of High performance glass based on low shading co-efficient, low U value and high LT (Light Transmission) and SHGC of 0.22 or below.

      • Metering for all feeders: – Provided meters for all feeders to avoid losses and regular monitoring for better performance. Recorded readings of tenants through energy meters.

      • BMS automation: – It controls and monitors all the electrical and mechanical equipment in the building

      • Heat Recovery wheels: – HRW is a key component in reducing HVAC system energy consumption. It is an energy efficient way to control humidity.

  8. MATERIALS & RESOURCES

    The Materials and Resources category is about minimizing the energy and environmental impacts associated with the extraction, processing, transport, maintenance, and disposal of building materials. Using more green materials, including renewable materials, recycled materials, and natural materials, is good for the building occupants and the environment.

      • Storage and collection of recyclables: – The high recyclable content materials like PPC and fly ash based bricks.

      • Construction waste management: – Around 75% of construction waste is recycled. Space provided for segregation of waste during operation.

      • Local or regional materials: – Around 20% of the materials are extracted manually

      • FSC certified wood: – FSC Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified wood are used for the project.

  9. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT QUALITY

    One of the primary aims of green buildings is to minimize negative impacts on their occupants by creating a healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environment. The performance of indoor environment is described as indoor environmental quality.

      • Tobacco smoke control: – No smoking allowed inside the building which leads to healthier environment.

      • CO2 monitoring and demand control: – Demand control ventilation sensors with Co2 sensors which ensures fresh air quality. 30% more fresh air compared to ASHRAE 62.1 -2004

      • Low emitting materials: – Low Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) paints, adhesives, sealants and CRI certified carpets are used. Low emitting materials have fewer odors and are good for health.

      • Daylight views: – Harvest natural lighting 75% inside.

      • Temperature control: – VAV optimization with temperature for indoor spaces 23 ±1oC

  10. GREEN OPERATION OF SIX YEARS

    The UL CyberPark has started its operation in the year 2015. It has a total buildup area of 44381.4m2 with a total saleable area of 22278m2. In 2021 the 65% of our park is occupied with the occupancy rate 72.91%. There will be increase in the usage of electricity and water consumption.

    As per Fig 1 and Table 3, it is visible that even the increase in occupied area the value of specific energy consumption is almost stable.

    As per Fig 2 and Table 4, it is very evident that the Occupancy rate and the recorded maximum demands are parallel.

    TABLE 3. ENERGY CONSUMPTION VS RATE OF CHANGE OF AREA

    Year

    2015-16

    2016-17

    2017-18

    2018-19

    2019-20

    Occupancy rate (Unit in % or Numbers)

    16.97

    27.1

    37.92

    43.56

    72.91

    Recorded maximum demand (KVA)

    386.58

    421.5

    472.02

    515.17

    522.08

    700

    600

    500

    400

    300

    200

    100

    0

    2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20

    Recorded maximum demand (KVA)

    Occupancy rate (Unit in % or Numbers)

    700

    600

    500

    400

    300

    200

    100

    0

    2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20

    Recorded maximum demand (KVA)

    Occupancy rate (Unit in % or Numbers)

    100000

    80000

    60000

    40000

    20000

    0

    2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20

    Air-conditioned area (M2)

    Specific Energy Consumption w.r.t total built up area, Total Electricity consumption/ Total built-up area (MWH/M2) Total Electricity Consumption (a+b) (MWH)

    100000

    80000

    60000

    40000

    20000

    0

    2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20

    Air-conditioned area (M2)

    Specific Energy Consumption w.r.t total built up area, Total Electricity consumption/ Total built-up area (MWH/M2) Total Electricity Consumption (a+b) (MWH)

    Fig 1. Energy Consumption vs Rate of Change of Area

    TABLE 4. OCCUPANCY RATE VS MAXIMUM DEMAND

    YEAR

    2015-16

    2016-17

    2017-18

    2018-19

    2019-20

    Total Electricity Consumption (a+b) (MWH)

    155.341

    1125.965

    1519.489

    1798.918

    2097.561

    Specific Energy Consumption

    w.r.t total built- up area, Total Electricity consumption/ Total built-

    up area (MWH/M2)

    8030

    48550

    55490

    62820

    59630

    Air-conditioned area (M2)

    3779.6

    6037.8

    8448.7

    9703.4

    16242.8

    YEAR

    2015-16

    2016-17

    2017-18

    2018-19

    2019-20

    Total Electricity Consumption (a+b) (MWH)

    155.341

    1125.965

    1519.489

    1798.918

    2097.561

    Specific Energy Consumption

    w.r.t total built- up area, Total Electricity consumption/ Total built-

    up area (MWH/M2)

    8030

    48550

    55490

    62820

    59630

    Air-conditioned area (M2)

    3779.6

    6037.8

    8448.7

    9703.4

    16242.8

    Fig 2. Occupancy Rate vs Maximum Demand

  11. CONCLUSION

    It is very relevant that all the building design and master plan should be in consideration with Green Concept initiative and design. This will help to optimize the building consumption and sustainable operation.

    REFERENCES

    [1] ASHRAE 62.1- 2004

    1. Hand book of green building design and construction1st edition by Mr.Sam Kubba

    2. Operations Daily Registers at ULCP

    3. Automation systems in smart and green buildings (Modern building Technology) by Mr.V.K.Jain

    4. LEED India C & S by Mr. K.S Venkatagiri

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