- Open Access
- Authors : Hemant Sharma , Imroz Khan , Anjali Kumari , Prem Prakash
- Paper ID : IJERTV10IS050407
- Volume & Issue : Volume 10, Issue 05 (May 2021)
- Published (First Online): 05-06-2021
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Super-Capacitor based Electric Vehicle Electric Vehicle Charging
Hemant Sharma Student of Electrical Engineering Delhi Technological University
Student of Electrical Engineering Delhi Technological University Delhi,India
Student of Electrical Engineering Delhi Technological university Delhi,India
Prof. Prem Prakash Faculty of Electrical Engineering Delhi Technological Engineering
Abstract It is essential to maintain a greener and safer environment by reducing carbon emissions from our earth progressively. Carbon emissions will generally be decreased by a substantial reduction in fossil fuel-powered vehicles and a transition to electric cars, which use produced electricity as fuel, emit fewer emissions than a traditional vehicle, and are zero- emission if the electricity used is renewable. Supercapacitors are widely used nowadays. These High-pressure, high-efficiency energy storage devices are also known as Ultracapacitors or electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLC). Their favorable properties make them ideal for use in energy storage systems, including the ability to be charged and discharged quickly without losing performance over a long period. A supercapacitor pack can be used in HESS (battery- supercapacitor system), which integrates various energy storage technologies with a specialized control strategy that maximizes the benefits of each energy source used to achieve overall performance. This research paper will describe a brief overview of the benefits, features, advantages, and disadvantages of hybrid energy systems based on batteries and supercapacitors.
KeywordsWireless charging system; Electric vehicle; Hess system; Supercapacitor; Hybrid vehicle.
INTRODUCTION OF WIRELESS CHARGING
In contemporary-day delivery, increasingly electric-powered vehicles (EV) of various kinds may be visible every day: electric-powered cars, electric-powered buses, electric- powered scooters, electric-powered motorcycles etc. The motives of growing the quantity of EV on the roads lie in each ecology and their performance. Thus, despite being more luxurious to buy, EVs devour much less power and are cheaper in exploitation. It is crucial to enforce excessive performing electric energy storage additives concerning their lifetime, power density, energy density, cycle performance, cost, length, and better garage overall performance. combining each component – battery and supercapacitor to shape a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) that could grow the general overall performance of the electric cars via means of storing the energy from acceleration competencies to the deceleration of the vehicle. It is known that in conventional HESSs, the battery is directly related to the DC hyperlink, whilst in a 1/2 of bridge DC/DC converter, the battery is positioned among the supercapacitor and the DC hyperlink. The essential benefit of the supercapacitors is the
potential to charge and discharge constantly without degrading and functionality for working excessive energy score in comparison to batteries. In this approach to be able to provide energy storage for electric cars, each charge sustaining and plug-in designs have to make use of supercapacitors in aggregate with batteries.
In a battery-capacitor energy system, the galvanic battery serves as an electricity supply for long-distance touring at the same time as the supercapacitor pack is used as a peak power supply providing battery lifetime improvements, power for acceleration and the opportunity for complete regeneration of energy for the duration of braking which improves energy performance and usage of electric energy. The standard overall performance of supercapacitors relies on the selected material for the electrode, electrolyte, separator and contemporary collector. Supercapacitors electrolytes need to be cautiously decided on to reduce their internal resistance.
The main components in the construction of supercapacitors are two charged electrodes, a current collector and a separator that allows for the transfer of ions and prevents direct
electrical contact. When an electric charge is collected among the primary electrode and electrolyte, the equal quantity of charges with contrary polarity might be precipitated on the second electrode forming charged layers with minimum separated distance.
Supercapacitors are the precise solution when a quick charge is needed to provide a short-term energy. At the same time, batteries are regularly selected to offer long-time period energy as they can be recharged very quickly. Also, they are appropriate and extra robust to bridge power gaps persevering with from some seconds to a few minutes.
To compensate for the challenge discovered in battery- powered EVs, SCs are used along with the battery, ensuing in a hybrid ESS(HESS). Their excessive power density and potential characterize the SCs to work on a vast variety of temperature and their potential to respond quickly. The typical characteristics of each battery and SCs are provided. Hence hybrid ESS (HESS) topologies were proposed together with both batteries and SCs.
TYPICAL CHARACTERSTICS OF BOTH BATTERIES AND SUPER CAPACITOR
Note. Reprinted from K. Jayasawal, A. K. Karna and K. B. Thapa, “Topologies for Interfacing Supercapacitor and Battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications: An Overview,” 2021 International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Future Electric Transportation (SEFET), 2021.
Supercapacitors can be classified and distinguished mainly in three types depending on the cell configuration or energy storage system, electric double layer capacitors, hybrid asymmetric capacitors and pseudo capacitors.
Fig. 1. CLASSIFICATION OF SUPERCAPACITOR
With relevance to EDLC capacitors, the storage of electrical energy is achieved by charge separation in Helmholtz double- layer acting as a boundary between the conductor and electrolyte. Pseudocapacitors have chemical compound conducting electrodes or metal chemical compound primarily based on electrodes combining the static and pseudo capacitance charge-storage process. Hybrid capacitors have uneven electrodes composed of a double layer capacitor electrode and a pseudocapacitive electrode, incorporating the most straightforward options of each technology. Li-ion capacitors use one electrostatic conductor and one chemistry electrode letting higher energy density and self-discharge characteristic than an EDLC capacitor, additional charge- discharge cycles than a Li-ion battery while not the potential for risky thermal runaway.
ADVANTAGE OF HAVING A HYBRID ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM
Many topologies of HESS are best-known, like supercapacitor/battery, battery/supercapacitors, half-bridge, full-bridge and multiple input converter topologies that are investigated, developed, designed and examined over the last twenty years. As mentioned above, the combination of a battery and a supercapacitor forms a HESS.
Advantages – 1) extension of battery cycle-life, 2) growth of the overall powertrain efficiency, 3) growth of the electricity capacity of the powertrain. Well-designed HESS and its overall performance rely upon the potential to satisfy the power requirement described with the aid of using the individual overall performance parameters of the battery and supercapacitor packs and extended operational flexibility.
Wireless charging has started an alternative method for charging electric gears. As charging of battery throw wireless technology for Electric Vehicles (EVs arise numerous issues just like the power pad, coil association plan’s and most sizeable is charging time for batteries of an electric-powered car, power converters for excessive recurrence strength change, and also electromagnetic field securities. The inductive coupling systems typically operate in khz band as a result of the state-of-artwork power electronic devices are to be had for every power generation and conditioning. On the opposite hand, this low frequency needs an enormous length coil and heavy ferrite materials, which could not be most well-liked with using vehicles in terms of payload efficiency. The resonance coupling systems work higher operating frequencies within the megahertz band. it’s taken into thought to be promising for the reason of the wireless car charging owing to the subsequent advantages:
- More efficiency at less distance
- High transmission distance with moderate efficiency
- solely act with the resonant body (lower magnetic attraction exposure to non-resonant body)
- very less weight (no iron and ferrite core required)
- compact size
Wireless energy transfer suggests the electrification of cars might extend on the far side, delivering electricity and changing it into energy through the onboard batteries of stationary vehicles. Especially, the wireless charging of moving vehicles on-demand and in the period of time (i.e., dynamic charging) would result in a paradigm shift of standard transit. The wireless charging of electric vehicles can considerably alleviate the demand for onboard batteries or perhaps modify battery-free vehicles. Considering the need for quick and frequent wireless charging, another variety of electricity storage device, supercapacitors, can be additional appropriate than batteries thanks to their glorious characteristics for vehicle onboard usage:
- Work electrostatically while not reversible chemical reactionsconcerned
- unlimited cycle life (use of cycle is unto million times)
- quick and high economical charge/discharge thanks to little internalresistance with about 97-98 % efficiency
- (charged voltage is proportional to the energy stored in a capacitor)
- An operation temperature vary from -40 to +70C and a little amount of leakage current.
- No need to use heavy material so environmentally friendly.DIFFERENT TOPOLOGIES FOR HESS
The first topology is a partiallydecoupled HESS. In this configuration, the supercapacitor is attached immediately to a bidirectional DC/DC converter. The battery is attached to the terminal of the inverter (DC/AC converter). The DC hyperlink voltage can have small voltage fluctuations because
the battery is connected to the DC hyperlink. But here, the electricity density of the supercapacitor may be fully applied as it may be discharged to zero volts. The dangers of this configuration are that the DC/DC converter has to modify the strength speedy, which increases the implementation complexity.
Another HESS topology is every other partially decoupled shape. The battery is attached to a bidirectional DC/DC converter. The supercapacitor is related to the terminals of the DC hyperlink running as a low pass filter. The power that goes with the drift may be efficiently controlled. The supercapacitor can work in a much wider variety, and the DC hyperlink voltage can reveal excessive fluctuations.
The SCs, in contrast to batteries, because of their traits, are capable of offering an immediate reaction for a changing demand application, at the same time as being capable of performing in harsh environmental conditions. It, in hybridization with battery, can increase the battery’s existence and extend battery substitute duration. The SCs can release and soak up excess energy and might offer the use of power electronic converter and switches, can offer bendy voltage operations at the same time as providing the most significant benefit of each ESS withinside the HESS.
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