Study on Low Cost Water Treatment for Rural Area

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Study on Low Cost Water Treatment for Rural Area

Subhash Chandra Nangli B A1, Udank J Jainar2, Rakesh A R3, Yashwanth K S4, Prof. Sanjeev T P5

1,2,3,4Students, Dept. of Civil Engineering, DSCE-Bengaluru

5Associate professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, DSCE-Bengaluru

Abstract: Over 3 million people, including 1.3 million childrens below six die every year from drinking infected water. According to UNICEF and the World Health Organization One in eight people worldwide lack access to safe, clean potable drinking water, and Many people has no choice but to drink water they know is contaminated with potentially life-threatening bacteria. In poor developing countries people, obtain up to 5 gallon (Appox.19-20 litter) of safe, clean water each day.

In ancient ages of human civilization boiling water over a wood fire is one of commonly cheaper clean method for water solution, but it is still hazards in poor ventilation kitchen and what's more it fuels deforestation.

INTRODUCTION:

Approximately 80% of all illnesses in developing countries are caused by poor water and sanitation condition. It is normal for women and young girls to need to walk a few kilometers consistently to bring water for their families. When filled, water containers can weigh as much as 20 kg (44 lbs). In the last century, water use has greatly outpaced the rate of population growth: people are using more water than ever before. By 2025, up to 1.8 billion individuals could face water scarcity. By 052- EVH-17 2025, up to 1.8 billion people could face water scarcity Water scarcity can take two forms: physical water scarcity, or low quantity of water, and economic water scarcity, or low quality of water. Physical water scarcity term typically applies to dry, arid regions where fresh water naturally occurs in low quantities. This is in effect incredibly exacerbated by anthropogenic exercises that take surface and ground water quicker than the earth can recharge it. Locales most influenced by this kind of water lack are Mexico, Northern and Southern Africa, the Middle East, India, and Northern China. Economic water scarcity applies to ranges or societies that fail to offer the monetary assets and/or human ability to put resources into water sources and take care of the local demand. Water is often only available to those who can pay for it or those in political power; leaving millions of the world's poorest without access. The regions most affected by this type of scarcity are portions of Central and South America, Central Africa, India, and South East Asia. India's water crisis is established in three reasons. The primary is insufficient water per person as a consequence of population growth. The second cause is poor water quality coming about because of inadequate and postponed investment in urban water-treatment offices. The third issue is waning groundwater supplies because of over-extraction by agriculturists. This is on account of groundwater is an open-access asset and anybody can pump water from under his or her own particular area. India has 16 per cent of the worlds population and four per cent of its fresh water resources. Around 37.7 million Indians are affected by waterborne diseases annually, 1.5 million children are estimated to die of diarrhea alone and 73 million working days are lost due to waterborne disease each year. The resulting economic burden is estimated at $600 million a year. Providing safe drinking water to all in rural India is a challenging task. The user should be made aware of the importance of preventing contamination of water and users accountability should also 052- EVH-17 realize their individual responsibility in maintaining the quality of water. Researcher point out the various low cost water treatment method suitable in rural area as Bamboo charcoal (Activated carbon) Solar sterilization, distillation, Chlorine filters, Bone ,Everything-but-the-sink portable filter ,Slow sand filtration ,and Emergency homemade filter.

LITERATURE REVIEW:

  1. A. D. Mande, B. R. Kavathekar, A. S. Langade, N. G. Lasankute, S. H. Patle(2018) performed a study on Low cost Household water treatment systems: A Review.

    This review paper did the detailed study on low cost household water treatment methods. In this review paper there are various low cost households water treatment methods are there like ceramic candle filter, silver impregnated pot filter and bio sand filter. In this there are various media used in this treatment methods like resin, activated carbon etc.

  2. Abhishek Kumar Singh , Lokesh Kumar Gupta , Vivek Kumar Singh (2015) performed a study on A review of low cost alternative of water treatment in rural area.

    This paper is an attempt to examine and review the published research that has been carried out so far with various low cost water treatment method suitable in rural area as Bamboo charcoal (Activated carbon) Solar sterilization, distillation, Chlorine filters, Bone ,Everything-but-the-sink portable filter , Slow sand filtration ,and Emergency homemade filter. These low cost water treatment sustainable tool options for rural infrastructures.

  3. Shams Ali Baig, Qaisar Mahmood, Bahadar Nawab, Mustafa Nawaz Shafqat, Arshid Pervez (2011) Performed a study on Improvement of drinking water quality by using plant biomass through household biosand filter A decentralized approach

    The removal of microbial and physico-chemical contaminants was investigated using an innovative biosand filter (BSF)

    containing three combinations of coniferous pinus bark biomass (CPBB), i.e. 1 cm (treatment 2), 2.5 cm (treatment 3) and 5 cm (treatment 4). The efficiency of BSF was assessed in batch mode experiments and the comparative reductions of contaminants were monitored over the control treatment (1) at temperature range of 115 C for 90 days. Standard methods were used to analyze 9 operating, physico-chemicals and biological water quality parameters of pre-and post- water filtration samples after 15 days interval. The results showed mean 93 ± 2% and 95 ± 3% reductions of Eischerichia coli and total coliforms, respectively

  4. Mr. Anil K. Rajvanshi and AmolDalvi performed a study on Low-cost solar water purifier for rural households

    ,Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute (NARI) Phaltan, Maharashtra, India.

    Author have discussed about technique of water purification with the help of solar energy. They used simple solar device to purify the water in their system. They started heating water using tubular solar collector. All the harmful deposits were eliminated by heating water using solar technique but they have to heat the water until the next morning to a desired temperature. Then they have to collect it next morning. As in this process the water purification method takes a lot of time. This method is also no useful for the rainy seasons or the season where there is low temperature. Therefore this time required is very much as if we want a purifier which has fast service. They also surveyed how many days there will be the temperature above 45 degree and analysis.

  5. Jason Corey(2008) Performed a study on performance evaluation of Bio Sand Filters, a method of Household Water Treatment.

    Field methods included microbial and turbidity water quality testing. The average filtration efficiency was found to be 98% for total coliforms, and 88% for turbidity. When water flows through the filter physical straining removes pathogens, iron, turbidity from drinking water. Biosand filter is proven technology which removes pathogens. And it is also somewhat effective for removal of E-coliBio sand filter are suitable for the treatment of water at householdschool or community level.

  6. Ratnoji and Singh(2014) performed a study on A study of coconut shell – activated carbon for filtration and its comparison with sand filtration

    This work examined reduction and removal of iron, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in river water by making different arrangements of CS-AC (Coconut Shell-Activated carbon) in the filtration unit. Also its comparison with sand filter, a conventional practice in water treatment plants in India was done to reduce these parameters. Finer grade activated carbon (AC-III) showed the maximum iron removal (95%). Turbidity was reduced to 1.7 NTU from 2.1 NTU.

  7. Ranjan Pandhare1, Dr. Isha Khedikar performed a study on Feasibility study of Domestic Water Purifier for Rural Areas The study focuses on feasibility of water purifiers for the rural areas which will protect children and other members of the family from water borne diseases. The water filter used in this study is designed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) along with the design inputs from IIT Bombay. The unique thing that makes this filter different from others is the use of Nano membrane technology in purification. This membrane filter makes it useful for long term use and economical. This study is done in four villages of remote and tribal areas of Gadchiroli where the problem of water borne diseases is in major amount.

  8. Pankaj J. Edla, Neha Sonkar, Dr. Bhupendra Gupta Performed a study on Solar Water Purifier For Indian Villages A Review

In this article a review has been done on different types of solar still. This article provides a detailed review of different studies on active solar distillation system over the years. This review would also throw light on the scope for further research and recommendations in active solar distillation system

CONCLUSION:

Mycelium based bio-composites, as studied in this paper, are potential substitutes for masonry material in architecture with some desirable features, such as their lightweight, bio-degradability and renewability. In this study the compressive strengths of mycelium based composites cultivated using different substrates (saw dust, straw, saw dust + straw) are compared. Pleurotus Ostreatus (Gray oyster mushroom) is used to inoculate the substrates. The effects of using supplements (wheat bran) on the growth of mycelium and consequently on the load bearing capacity of mycelium based composites are also presented. The results show that although the straw-based and mixed specimens show quite well elastic behavior, their compressive strength was very low to be used in masonry constructions. Moreover, while the saw dust based specimens yield higher compressive strength, they are also not strong enough to replace conventional masonry materials without introducing any reinforcement. Furthermore, the effects of having a variety of substrate sizes during cultivation can be studied. Environmental and process related parameters, such as relative humidity, temperature, and time of cultivation should also sought to be optimized. The process of drying/heating to stop the growth of mycelium and processing techniques can also be investigated.

RESEARCH NEEDS:

To study the various methods of low cost water treatment and propose the same to the society

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

The writer wishes to acknowledge the contribution of various authors of the papers referred to in this review and for their impact in the formers research.

REFERENCES:

  1. March 2012 "The Lack of clean water: Root cause of many problems http://thewaterproject.org/water_scarcity_2#phys=18

  2. Water Issues

  3. Indias Water Crisis: Causes and Cures http://www.nbr.org/research/activity.aspx?id=356

  4. Drinking water quality in rural India: Issues and approaches http://www.wateraid.org/~/media/Publications/drinking-water-quality-rural-india.pdf

  5. http://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publications/Water-Safety-Plans-rural-water-supplyIndia.pdf

  6. Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (1972). Wastewater Engineering. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 0-07-041675-3

  7. Primer for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems 2004 http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/primer.pdf

  8. https://www.engineeringforchange.org/static/content/Water/S00024/clay_water_filter_red_cr oss.pdf

  9. https://www.engineeringforchange.org/solution/library/view/detail/Water/S00024

  10. Low cost potable water filter https://www.engineeringforchange.org/solution/view/141

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