Study on Flexural and Shear Behaviour of Ternary Blended Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams

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Study on Flexural and Shear Behaviour of Ternary Blended Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams

Ansa K

M.Tech Student Dept. of Civl Engineering

YCET, Kollam, India

Mr. Nimeesh Mohan M

Assistant Professor Dept. of Civl Engineering

YCET, Kollam, India

Abstract Cement which is one of the ingredients of concrete plays a great role, but it is most expensive. Therefore requirements for economical and more environmental- friendly cementing materials have extended interest in other cementing material that can be used as a partial replacement of the normal Portland cement. Considerable efforts are being taken worldwide to utilize natural waste and byproduct as supplementary cementing materials to improve the properties of cement concrete. Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SBA) are such materials. RHA is byproduct of paddy industry. RHA is a highly reactive pozzolanic material produced by controlled burning of rice husk. Sugarcane bagasse is a fibrous waste product of the sugar refining industry, along with ethanol vapour. SBA mainly contains aluminium ion and silica.

In the present study, a preliminary investigation was carried out to study the mechanical properties of Ternary Blended Cement (TBC) concrete of M30 grade obtained by partially replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) by SBA and RHA in varying proportion from which optimum percentage was obtained. Based on the result obtained from the preliminary study, investigations were carried out to find the mechanical properties of Ternary Blended Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (TbSFRC) adding steel fibre at various percentages as 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% by the volume fraction on M30 grade concrete. Also detailed investigation has been conducted to study the flexural and shear behavior of TbSFRC beams in terms of ultimate load, first crack load, energy absorption and ductility characteristics.

KeywordsTernary blended concrete, Bagasse ash, Rice husk ash, Steel fibre, Ternary blended steel fibre reinforced concrete

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Concrete is one of the most commonly used construction material in the world. Every year concrete consumes 12.6 billion tons of natural raw materials. This huge consumption rate of natural raw materials creates several ecological problems. More economical and environmental- friendly supplementary cementing materials have extended interest in partial cement replacement materials. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), pulverized fly ash, silica fume, metakaolin, etc have been successfully used for this purpose. Bagasse ash is a by-product from sugar industries, which is burnt to generate power required for different activities in the factory. The burning of bagasse leaves bagasse ash (BA) as a waste. Bagasse ash has

    pozzolanic property and it can be used as a cement replacement material. With the countrys plan to boost the sugar production to over 3 million tons by the end of 2015, the disposal of the bagasse ash will be of a serious concern.

    Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is an agricultural waste product, and how to dispose of it is a problem to waste mangers. While Concrete today has assumed the position of the most widely used building material globally. The most expensive concrete material is the binder (cement) and if such all important expensive material is partially replaced with more natural, local and affordable material like RHA will not only take care of waste management but will also reduce the problem of high cost of concrete and housing. There is an increasing importance to preserve the environment in the present day world. RHA from the parboiling plants is posing serious environmental threat and ways are being thought of to dispose them. This material is actually a super pozzolan since it is rich in Silica and has about 85% to 90% Silica content. When blended with Portland cement in appropriate amounts it will enhance the strength and durability of the concrete.

    Replacement of Portland cement by sugarcane bagsse ash and rice husk ash on weight basis seems to be very suitable for Indian construction industry due to abundant availability of bagasse ash and metakaolin at cheap cost.

    The main objectives of the study are:

    • To develop M30 grade concrete mix

    • To find the effect of bagsse ash and rice husk ash in concrete and to fix the optimum percentage in concrete replacing the cement.

    • To study the effect of steel fibre on the flexural and shear behavior of Ternary blended concrete

    • To compare the load deflection behaviour, first crack load, crack pattern and failure mode, ductility index, energy absorption, and ultimate load of TbSFRC beams with control beams.

  2. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

    The aim of preliminary investigation was to obtain the optimum percentage of bagasse ash and rice hisk ash. For the same purpose the material properties of the constituent materials were first determined. Then the fresh and

    hardened properties of Ternary Blended concrete were determined and optimum percentage of bagasse ash and rice husk ash was determined.

    A. Mix design

    M30 mix was designed as per IS 102262: 2009 and the mix proportion was obtained as 1:1.419:2.421. Water-cement ratio was 0.4. Eight mixes were made namely TBC0, TBC1, TBC2, TBC3, TBC4, TBC5, TBC6, TBC7 and

    TBC8 to determine mechanical properties and properties of fresh concrete. TBC0 is considered as control mix and other seven mixes TBC1, TBC2, TBC3, TBC4, TBC5, TBC6, TBC7 and TBC8 contained bagasse ash and rice husk ash at different percentages. Mix designation and mix proportion are given in the Table 1 and Table 2.

    TABLE 1: MIX DESIGNATION FOR DIFFERENT MIXES

    Sl.No.

    Mix designation

    SCBA (%)

    RHA (%)

    OPC (%)

    1

    TBC0

    0

    0

    100

    2

    TBC1

    0

    30

    70

    3

    TBC2

    5

    25

    70

    4

    TBC3

    10

    20

    70

    5

    TBC4

    15

    15

    70

    6

    TBC5

    20

    10

    70

    7

    TBC6

    25

    5

    70

    8

    TBC7

    30

    0

    70

    TABLE 2: MIX PROPORTION

    Mix design ation

    Ce men t (kg/ m3)

    Bag asse ash (kg/ m3)

    Rice husk ash (kg/ m3)

    Fine aggre gate (kg/m

    3)

    Coarse aggrega te (kg/m3)

    Wat er (kg/ m3)

    Wat er cem ent rati o

    TBC0

    29.9

    1

    0

    0

    42.4

    72.4

    11.9

    0.4

    TBC1

    20.9

    0

    9

    42.4

    72.4

    11.9

    0.4

    TBC2

    20.9

    1.5

    7.5

    42.4

    72.4

    11.9

    0.4

    TBC3

    20.9

    3

    4

    42.4

    72.4

    11.9

    0.4

    TBC4

    20.9

    4.5

    4.5

    42.4

    72.4

    11.9

    0.4

    TBC5

    20.9

    4

    3

    42.4

    72.4

    11.9

    0.4

    TBC6

    20.9

    7.5

    1.5

    42.4

    72.4

    11.9

    0.4

    TBC7

    20.9

    8.9

    0

    42.4

    72.4

    11.9

    0.4

    Based on the test results of hardened properties of shown in Table 3, TBC5 mix of 20% bagasse ash and 10% rice husk ash was selected as optimum mix which was used for the further investigation.

    TABLE 3: SUMMARY ON HARDENED PROPERTIES OF TBC MIX

  3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

    The main aim of the experimental investigation was to study the ductility and energy absorption capacity of Ternary Blended Steel Fibre Reinforced concrete beams. The influence of steel fibre on first crack load, load deflection behaviour, cracking pattern, ultimate load were studied. In the present study the effect of steel fibre with a volume fraction of 0.5% in the flexural and shear behaviour of TBC beams were studied.

    1. Mix proportion of Ternary Blended Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (TbSFRC)

      Ternary Blended Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (TbSFRC) was obtained by adding crimped steel fibres having diameter 0.5mm, length 25mm and aspect ratio 50 with a volume fraction of 0.5% added to the TBC mix after finding the optimum percentage of combined bagasse ash and rice husk ash. Table 4 shows the mix details and Table 5 shows the mix proportion of TbSFRC mix.

    2. Specimen details

      The specimens are standard cubes of 150mm side, cylinders of diameter 150mm and 300mm height, beams of size 500x100x100mm and large beams of size 1200x100x150mm. Details of number of specimens are given in the Table 6

      TABLE 4: MIX DESIGNATION OF TbSFRC MIX

      Sl.No.

      Mix designation

      Volume fraction (%)

      Steel fibre (%)

      1

      TbSFRC

      0.5

      0

      2

      TbSFRC1

      0.5

      0.25

      3

      TbSFRC2

      0.5

      0.5

      4

      TbSFRC3

      0.5

      0.75

      5

      TbSFRC4

      0.5

      1

      Mix designation

      TbSF RC

      TbSFR C1

      TbSFR C2

      TbSFR C3

      TbSFR C4

      Cement (kg/m3)

      42.1

      29.5

      29.5

      29.5

      29.5

      Bagasse ash (kg/m3)

      0

      8.4

      8.4

      8.4

      8.4

      Rice husk ash (kg/m3)

      0

      4.2

      4.2

      4.2

      4.2

      Fine aggregate (kg/m3)

      59.7

      59.7

      59.7

      59.7

      59.7

      Coarse aggregate (kg/m3)

      101.9

      101.9

      101.9

      101.9

      101.9

      Water (kg/m3)

      16.8

      16.8

      16.8

      16.8

      16.8

      Water cement ratio

      0.4

      0.4

      0.4

      0.4

      0.4

      Volume fraction (%)

      0.5

      0.5

      0.5

      0.5

      0.5

      Steel fibre (kg/m3)

      0

      0.889

      1.788

      2.676

      3.566

      Mix designation

      TbSF RC

      TbSFR C1

      TbSFR C2

      TbSFR C3

      TbSFR C4

      Cement (kg/m3)

      42.1

      29.5

      29.5

      29.5

      29.5

      Bagasse ash (kg/m3)

      0

      8.4

      8.4

      8.4

      8.4

      Rice husk ash (kg/m3)

      0

      4.2

      4.2

      4.2

      4.2

      Fine aggregate (kg/m3)

      59.7

      59.7

      59.7

      59.7

      59.7

      Coarse aggregate (kg/m3)

      101.9

      101.9

      101.9

      101.9

      101.9

      Water (kg/m3)

      16.8

      16.8

      16.8

      16.8

      16.8

      Water cement ratio

      0.4

      0.4

      0.4

      0.4

      0.4

      Volume fraction (%)

      0.5

      0.5

      0.5

      0.5

      0.5

      Steel fibre (kg/m3)

      0

      0.889

      1.788

      2.676

      3.566

      TABLE 5: MIX PROPORTION OF TbSFRC MIX

      Mix designation

      Cube compressive strength (N/mm2)

      Flexural strength (N/mm2)

      Splitting tensile strength (N/mm2)

      TBC0

      39.56

      3.43

      3.25

      TBC1

      20.44

      2.09

      2.05

      TBC2

      23.11

      2.56

      2.26

      TBC3

      24.44

      2.70

      2.48

      TBC4

      29.33

      2.91

      2.69

      TBC5

      34.67

      3.41

      3.11

      TBC6

      31.56

      3.20

      3.04

      TBC7

      30.22

      2.67

      2.83

      TABLE 6: SPECIMEN DETAILS

      Sl.

      No.

      Specimen

      Property

      Size

      Number s

      1

      Cube

      Compress ive strength

      150x150x150m

      m

      72

      2

      Cylinder

      Split tensile strength

      300mm height and 150mm diameter

      24

      3

      Beam

      Flexural strength

      500x100x100m

      m

      24

      4

      Large beam

      Flexural and shear behaviour

      1200x100x150m

      m

      20

      Total number of specimens

      140

    3. Preparation and casting of specimens

      For each mix of TBC and TbSFRC mix, six concrete cubes of size 150x150x150mm were casted for compressive strength test, and for TBC mix three cylinders of 150mm diameter and 300mm height for splitting tensile strength test and three beams of size 500x100x100mm for flexural strength test were casted.

      To study the flexural crack pattern and shear crack pattern, total of 20 reinforced concrete beams of 1200x100x150mm were casted. For each type, four reinforced concrete beams were casted. The beam details are shown in Table 7. The reinforcement details of the beams for flexural and shear are shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 respectively.

      Concrete was mixed in a concrete mixer in the laboratory. All the specimens were vibrated with a mechanical vibrator and were stored at temperature of about 230C in the cast in room. They were demoulded after 24 hours and were cured in a water curing tank. After 28 days, the large beams were white washed for easy detection of cracks.

      Sl.No.

      Steel Fibre (%)

      Flexural behaviour

      Shear behaviour

      1

      0

      F0TbSFRC

      S0TbSFRC

      2

      0.25

      F1TbSFRC

      S1TbSFRC

      3

      0.5

      F2TbSFRC

      S2TbSFRC

      4

      0.75

      F3TbSFRC

      S3TbSFRC

      5

      1

      F4TbSFRC

      S4TbSFRC

      Sl.No.

      Steel Fibre (%)

      Flexural behaviour

      Shear behaviour

      1

      0

      F0TbSFRC

      S0TbSFRC

      2

      0.25

      F1TbSFRC

      S1TbSFRC

      3

      0.5

      F2TbSFRC

      S2TbSFRC

      4

      0.75

      F3TbSFRC

      S3TbSFRC

      5

      1

      F4TbSFRC

      S4TbSFRC

      TABLE 7: BEAM DETAILS

      Fig.1 Reinforcement details (flexural)

      Fig. 2 Reinforcement details (shear)

    4. Tests on specimens

      Testing of concrete specimens plays an important role in controlling and confirming the quality of concrete. Thus the experimental investigation carried out was divided into three main headings. They are as follows:

      1. Study on workability

        • Slump test

        • Compacting factor test

      2. Study on strength

        • Compressive strength test

        • Splitting tensile strength test

        • Flexural strength test

      3. Study on flexural and shear behaviour of RC beam

    5. Test setup for studying flexural and shear behaviour

      A two point flexural bending system is adopted for the tests. Specimens were tested in a loading frame of 2000kN (200t) capacity with an effective span of 1100mm. Load cell of 200kN capacity with a least count of 1kN is used to measure the applied load. Fig. 3 shows the test setup. The load was increased in stages till the failure of the specimen and at each stage of lading the following observations was made.

      1. First crack load

      2. Displacement at mid span

      3. Ultimate load

      4. Crack pattern and failure mode

        TABLE 8: TEST RESULTS ON FRESH PROPERTIES OF TbSFRC MIX

        Sl.No.

        % of Steel Fibre

        Mixes

        Workability

        Slump (mm)

        Compacting factor

        1

        0

        TbSFRC

        32.9

        0.85

        2

        0.25

        TbSFRC1

        29

        0.83

        3

        0.5

        TbSFRC2

        28

        0.81

        4

        0.75

        TbSFRC3

        26

        0.78

        5

        1

        TbSFRC4

        25

        0.75

        Fig. 3: Test setup for RC beam

  4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Fresh properties and compressive strength of TbSFRC mix were tested. The detailed investigation on the effect of steel fibre on the flexural and shear behaviour was carried out.

        1. Test on fresh properties of TbSFRC specimens

          Studies conducted on fresh properties are given in Table 8. From the results obtained it can be concluded the workability decreases with percentage increase of steel fibre.

        2. Cube compressive strength of TbSFRC mix

          From test results, it was observed that compressive strength generally increased with increase in steel fibre percentage in fibre content. Maximum compressive strength was found for TbSFRC3. The test results are shown in Table 9.

          TABLE 9: TEST RESULTS ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH ON TbSFRC MIX

          Sl. No

          Mixes

          Compressive strength (N/mm2)

          7days

          28 days

          1

          TbSFRC

          26.15

          33.42

          2

          TbSFRC1

          27.38

          36.32

          3

          TbSFRC2

          31.38

          38.02

          4

          TbSFRC3

          32.90

          40.05

          5

          TbSFRC4

          29.80

          38.27

        3. Test results on Beams

    1. First crack load and ultimate load

      The test results show that the steel fibre addition increased the first crack load and ultimate load of TbSFRc beams. The first crack load and ultimate load increased with the increase of steel fibre percentage and the maximum was obtained for1% of steel fibre content. The test results for flexural beam specimens are tabulated in Table 10 and that for shear beam specimens are shown in Table 11.

      Sl. No

      Beam Designation

      First Crack Load (kN)

      Ultimate Load (KN)

      Deflection at Ultimate load

      (mm)

      1

      F0TbSFRC

      12

      46

      9.8

      2

      F1TbSFRC

      15

      49

      10.2

      3

      F2TbSFRC

      16

      52

      10.5

      4

      F3TbSFRC

      20

      54

      10.9

      5

      F4TbSFRC

      21

      55

      11.2

      Sl. No

      Beam Designation

      First Crack Load (kN)

      Ultimate Load (KN)

      Deflection at Ultimate load

      (mm)

      1

      F0TbSFRC

      12

      46

      9.8

      2

      F1TbSFRC

      15

      49

      10.2

      3

      F2TbSFRC

      16

      52

      10.5

      4

      F3TbSFRC

      20

      54

      10.9

      5

      F4TbSFRC

      21

      55

      11.2

      TABLE 10: TEST RESULTS FOR FIRST CRACK AND ULTIMATE LOAD OF FLEXURAL BEAM SPECIMENS

      TABLE 11: TEST RESULTS FOR FIRST CRACK AND ULTIMATE LOAD OF SHEAR BEAM SPECIMENS

      Sl. No

      Beam Designation

      First Crack Load (kN)

      Ultimate Load (kN)

      Deflection at Ultimate Load (mm)

      1

      SSSFRC

      10

      32

      3.8

      2

      S1SSFRC

      12

      33

      3.9

      3

      S2SSFRC

      15

      36

      4.1

      4

      S3SSFRC

      17

      40

      4.5

      5

      S4SSFRC

      19

      42

      4.9

    2. Load deflection behaviour

      Load (kN)

      Load (kN)

      Mid span deflection was noted at every 2kN load increment. Defection of all specimens was observed to increase considerably after the first crack was observed. Deformations corresponding to each increment of load for all specimens were noted. The load deflection graph for all the flexural specimen is shown in Fig. 4 and shear specimens is shown in Fig. 5.

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      F0TbSFRC F1TbSFRC F2TbSFRC F3TbSFRC

      F4TbSFRC

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      F0TbSFRC F1TbSFRC F2TbSFRC F3TbSFRC

      F4TbSFRC

      0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

      Deflection (mm)

      0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

      Deflection (mm)

      Load (kN)

      Load (kN)

      Fig. 4: Influence of fibre on the flexural behaviour of beam under loading

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      0

      5

      Deflection (mm)

      10

      S0TbSFRC S1TbSFRC S2TbSFRC S3TbSFRC

      S4TbSFRC

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

      0

      0

      5

      Deflection (mm)

      10

      S0TbSFRC S1TbSFRC S2TbSFRC S3TbSFRC

      S4TbSFRC

      Fig. 5: Influence of fibre on the shear behaviour of beam under loading

    3. Crack pattern and failure mode

      The typical crack pattern of the flexural beam specimen is shown in Fig. 6 and shear beam specimen are shown in Fig.7

      Fig.6 Typical crack pattern of flexural beam specimen

      Fig.7 Typical crack pattern of shear beam specimen

    4. Energy absorption capacity

      In general energy absorption capacity of a given material could be obtained from area under the load deflection plot of the specimen. Concrete will be effective in resisting the load until the formation of the first crack. At this stage concrete is relieved of its tensile stress and steel becomes effective at the cracked section. Energy absorbed at ultimate load can be obtained by calculating the area under load deflection curve up to the ultimate load. Energy absorption capacity of all flexural specimens is shown in Table 12 and shear beam specimen is shown in Table 13.

      TABLE 12: ENERGY ABSORPTION CAPACITY FOR ALL FLEXURAL BEAM SPECIMENS

      Sl. No

      Beam Designation

      Energy absorption (kNm)

      1

      F0TbSFRC

      0.277

      2

      F1TbSFRC

      0.344

      3

      F2TbSFRC

      0.390

      4

      F3TbSFRC

      0.432

      5

      F4TbSFRC

      0.463

      TABLE 13: ENERGY ABSORPTION CAPACITY FOR ALL SHEAR BEAM SPECIMENS

      Sl. No

      Beam Designation

      Energy absorption (kNm)

      1

      S0TbSFRC

      0.069

      2

      S1TbSFRC

      0.078

      3

      S2TbSFRC

      0.093

      4

      S3TbSFRC

      0.115

      5

      S4TbSFRC

      0.139

      From the results obtained it can be seen that energy absorption capacity was maximum for 1% steel fibre content.

    5. Ductility index

    Ductility is an important parameter in the design of structures subjected to large deformation. Ductility is the property of the material by which it undergoes large deformation without any reduction in load carrying capacity. Generally ductility of members subjected to flexure can be obtained from ductility factor. Table 14 shows the ductility index for flexural specimens and Fig. 8 shows a graphical representation of ductility index for all flexural specimens.

    TABLE 14: DUCTILITY INDEX FOR FLEXURAL SPECIMENS

    Sl. No

    Beam Designation

    Ductility index

    1

    F0TbSFRC

    1.27

    2

    F1TbSFRC

    1.63

    3

    F2TbSFRC

    1.83

    4

    F3TbSFRC

    2.00

    5

    F4TbSFRC

    2.14

    2.5

    2

    1.5

    1

    0.5

    0

    Ductility index

    2.5

    2

    1.5

    1

    0.5

    0

    Ductility index

    Mix designation

    Mix designation

    Ductlity index

    Ductlity index

    Fig. 8 Ductility index for all flexural specimens

  5. CONCLUSION

The major conclusions of my thesis work are presented below:

  • Ternary Blended concrete with 20% bagasse ash and 10% rice husk ash showed satisfactory flexural strength when compared with the control mix and thus it was selected as the optimum mix.

  • The addition of steel fibres in Ternary Blended concrete further enhances the compressive strength of concrete. There is a further increase in the compressive strength by 16.55% with the addition of steel fibre. The percentage of steel fibre for this being 0.75%.

  • Workability of concrete mixes containing steel fibre is low due to problems in mixing and compacting. Therefore the inclusion of fibre percentage should be limited and should not be more than 0.75%.

  • Addition of steel fibre in TBC mix improved all the hardened properties of the mix.

  • The load deflection characteristics of the Ternary Blended steel fibre reinforced concrete beam specimens were better than control mix.

  • Addition of steel fibre improved the energy absorption capacity and ductility of TbSFRC beams.

  • Three dimensionally distributed steel fibres helped in arresting the cracks and also reduced the spacing and width of the cracks.

  • The steel fibre volume fraction of 0.5% significantly improves the overall performance of Ternary Blended Steel fibre reinforced concrete beams.

  • The Ternary Blended Steel Fibre Reinforced concrete beam exihibit greater reduction in crack width at all load levels when compared to the control beam.

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