_{4}, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY (IJERT) AMRP – 2013 (Volume 1 – Issue 01),

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**Authors :**Ruby Jindal, M.M.Sinha, H.C.Gupta -
**Paper ID :**IJERTCONV1IS01009 -
**Volume & Issue :**AMRP – 2013 (Volume 1 – Issue 01) -
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**ISSN (Online) :**2278-0181 -
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#### Study of Zone Center Phonons in CdWO_{4}

Ruby Jindal1, M.M.Sinha2 and H.C.Gupta3

1Department of Applied Science and Humanities, ITM University Gurgaon (Haryana) -122017(Email: gr_rby@yahoo.com)

2Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology Longowal, Sangrur-148106

3Physics Department, IIT Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India 110016

Abstract

Raman and the infrared wave numbers in CdWO4 in monoclinic phase having space group P2/c, have been investigated by applying short-range force constant model. The calculation of zone center phonons has been made with eight stretching and five bending force constants. The calculated Raman and infrared wavenumbers are in good agreement with the observed ones. The potential energy distribution has also been investigated for determining the significance of contribution from each force constant toward the Raman and the infrared wave numbers.

Introduction

Metal tungstates has been studied due to many applications [1-2]. Tungstates AWO4 crystallize in either the tetragonal scheelite structures or the monoclinic wolframite structures depending on the size of cation A i.e tungstates of relatively large bivalent cations crystallize in scheelite structure and of smaller bivalent cations exhibit the wolframite structure. CdWO4 has the wolframite crystal structure.

Phonon properties of CdWO4 are very important and have not been studied widely. R.Lacomba et al. [3] had studied CdWO4 compound with the help of Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory. In infrared modes they have calculated two frequencies which are very near to each other i.e 252.9 cm-1 and 255.1 cm-1 by ab-initio method which is not generally possible in experiment. Also there is not a good agreement between their calculated values and experimentally observed higher infrared modes. Hence in this paper we have presented the calculated values of Raman and infrared modes using short range force constant model in P2/c structure with eight stretching and five bending force constants, which are in very good sync with the experimental results. Also all the infrared modes have

been assigned properly. The PED (potential energy distribution) has also been investigated which determined the contribution of each force constant towards the Raman and infrared wavenumbers.

Structure

CdWO4 crystallizes in a monoclinic structure. Lattice parameters are a = 5.028 Ã…, b = 5.862 Ã…, c = 5.067 Ã…, =91.50Â°, V=149.3 Ã…3 and Z=2 [1]. Atomic co-

ordinates are taken from the work of J. Macavei et al. [4]. The total no. of zone center phonon modes present for each species of space group is total =8 Ag +10 Bg

+8 Au+10 Bu. Out of these normal modes, 1Au+2Bu are acoustical and rest are optical modes.Out of thoes 8 Ag

+ 10Bg are Raman active and 7 Au + 8Bu are infrared active.

Theory

The frequency of normal mode vibrations is determinate by solving the secular equation using Wilsons GF matrix method [5]. If F is the potential energy matrix and G is the inverse kinetic energy matrix, then the secular equation can be written as det | FG E | = 0, where = 42c22 and E is the unit matrix, c is velocity of light and is the wave number. The stretching forces between two atoms were assumed to be obeying the Hooks law. The input parameters used for the calculation are the lattice parameter, masses of the atoms, symmetry coordinates [2] and the available Raman and infrared wavenumbers [3,6].

Results and discussion

In this work we have calculated the Raman and infrared wavenumbers given in Table 1 by using force constants (N/cm) given below

K1(W-O2):3.681; K2(W-O1):1.775; K3(Cd-O1):

0.669; K4(W-O1):1.102; K5(Cd-O2):0.400; K6(Cd-

O2): 0.351; K7(O2-O2):0.117; K8(W-Cd):2.509;

H1(O1-Cd-O2): 0.277; H2(O1-W-O2):0.089; H3(O1-

W-Cd):0.452; H4(W-O1-W):1.609; H5(Cd-W- O1):0.593.

The calculated Raman and infrared modes are compared with the experimently results of Lacomba et al.[3] and Daturi et al.[6]. Higher infrared modes calculated by Lacomba et al. [3] are not in good agreement with the experimental values [6] of the infrared modes. But it is clear from Table 1 that present calculations provide a very good agreement with the experimental results of the Raman and the infrared modes. It can be seen from Table 1 that our calculated results are better than the theoretically calculated results of Lacomba et al.[3]. The PED for each mode has also investigated in this work. The interpretations drawn from the PED are described below.

For the high frequency mode i.e. 827 cm-1 of Ag mode,

Table 1. Calculated and observed Raman and infrared active zone center modes (cm-1) for CdWO4

830 cm-1

of Bg mode, 834 cm-1

of Au mode, 876 cm-1

of Bu mode, the force constant W-O1-W contributes in a dominant way. For frequencies 700 cm-1 of Ag, 699 cm-1 of Bg , 699 cm-1 of Au and 698 cm-1 of Bu , W-O2 force constant was found as leading force constant.

From theoretical calculations, W-O1 force constant plays an important role for frequencies 493 cm-1 of Ag, 508 cm-1 of Bg, 500 cm-1 of Au and 508 cm-1 of Bu.

Force constant Cd-W-O1 plays a very significant role in frequencies 388 cm-1 of Ag, 392 cm-1 of Bg, 383 cm- 1 of Au and 376 cm-1 of Bu. Force constant W-Cd is of utmost importance for frequencies 291 cm-1 of Ag, 278 cm-1 of Bg, 309 cm-1 of Au and 310 cm-1 of Bu.

Frequencies 244cm-1 of Ag, 245 cm-1 of Bg, 232 cm-1 of Au and 244 cm-1 of Bu are mainly contributed by Cd-O2 force constant. For lower frequencies i.e 125 cm-1 of Ag, 74 cm-1 of Bg, 127 cm-1 of Au and 83 cm-1 of Bu force constant O1-W-O2 dominates.

Daturi et al [6] had observed experimentally only seven frequencies of Bu mode. The present calculation has mentioned the remaining one frequency i.e. 310 cm-1 of Bu mode which is found to be in agreement with the experimental result of similar compounds [7] . Lacomba et al had not calculated frequency of this range in Bu mode.

It is important to mention that the bond between W

Cd is very important for explaining the lower set of frequencies. When this bond is not considered the lower frequencies of Bu mode become very small in comparison to the experimental value.

249

Species

Exp.[3]

Exp.[6]

Present cal.

Cal.[3]

Ag

897

896

827

864

707

706

700

684

546

547

493

530

388

387

388

357

306

307

291

287

229

229

244

220

177

177

150

177

100

99

125

97

Bg

771

771

830

742

688

687

699

655

514

514

508

490

352

351

392

338

269

269

278

252

248

245

238

148

148

191

142

134

133

153

126

118

117

119

111

78

77

74

67

Au

–

835

834

839

–

693

699

627

–

455

500

471

–

354

383

379

–

310

309

322

–

230

232

270

–

131

127

121

–

0.0

0.0

0.0

Bu

–

884

876

744

–

595

698

524

–

510

508

421

–

408

376

—-

–

—-

310

—-

–

260

244

253,255

–

161

165

145

–

107

83

105

–

0.0

0.0

0.0

–

0.0

0.0

0.0

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