Study of Geotechnical Properties of Clayey Soils Contaminated by Various Oils

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Study of Geotechnical Properties of Clayey Soils Contaminated by Various Oils

Swati Sukhwal, Pradyumna Dashora

Pacific University

Abstract – Swiftly expanding populace everywhere throughout the world is in direct extent to the advancement programmes in lodging and development of modern upgrade. The environment is been tainted by living persons deliberately or non-deliberately for their convenience. During this whole process not only, air and water is being tainted but the land is also been contaminated at large scale. Oil contamination in soil can take place as a result to several reasons such as oil leaking from pipelines that may have cracks or small holes, discharge from alongshore, tanker accidents and shoreside petroleum generation facilities. The main objective of this study is to analyse various laboratory testing program to study the effect of various oil contaminants on the geotechnical properties of place soil. The studied properties included the use of different percentages of heavy oil, diesel and castor oil.

Keywords: – Heavy oil, Diesel, Castor oil, Clayey soil.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    In the past few years, populace development, dynamic expectation for everyday comforts and mechanical advancement have prompted air, water and land in a very bad condition. Buried wastes, land disposal, industrial waste and chemical wastes led to many problems.

    It is necessary to run industries as it is very helpful for the socio-economic evolution of a country but simultaneously it produces a very large amount of waste.

    The modification of the mechanical and physical of the ground in the surrounding of industrial plants arises generally as a outcome of their pollution produced due to dumping of liquid or solid discharge by-product waste over the ground and /or accidental spills of chemical during the process of the source of industrial activities and exercise in pharmaceuticals, petroleum, paints etc. So, soil getting polluted highly effects the grain size of soil sample, specific gravity, plastic limit, hydraulic conductivity compaction and consolidation characteristics and strength properties of soil. The unforeseen variation can head over to numerous geotechnical problems such as progressive failure, underground structure stability, landslides, ground subsidence, settlement. To study the effect of all contamination on Geo technical properties of clay salts, the souls of a contaminated with various orders using different percentages by weight of soil. In this research silty clay, black cotton soil and kaolinite clay was used for the study physical, engineering and electrical properties of the contaminated soil has been studied.

  2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

    The research work was directed with silty clay, black cotton soil and kaolinite clay. Castor oil, heavy oil and diesel were utilised as contaminants. The sawdust was used as a stabiliser during the test. This soil was contaminated in the laboratory with different percentages of various contaminants to study the contaminated effect on different Geotechnical and engineering properties of soil.

    TABLE 1. BASIC AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF VIRGIN SOILS

    Property

    Silty clay

    Black Cotton

    Kaolinite Clay

    Specific gravity

    2.319

    2.58

    2.635

    Liquid limit (%)

    30.00

    77.14

    88.88

    Plastic limit (%)

    21.114

    38.545

    40.45

    Optimum Moisture Content (%)

    12.240

    21.269

    31.8

    Maximum dry density (gm/cc)

    1.822

    1.574

    1.38

    Unconfined compressive strength

    0.789

    1.189

    2.646

    Modulus of elasticity (kg/cm2)

    30.55

    85.61

    46.76

    Cohesion (kg/cm2)

    0.398

    1.416

    0.99

    Angle of internal friction

    23.350

    3.03

    14.630

    CBR value (Unsoaked)

    24.986

    17.827

    17.125

    CBR value (Soaked)

    11.651

    3.088

    1.684

    Dielectric constant

    7312

    568

    423.2

    Resistivity (k- cm)

    19.807

    1077.921

    787.181

  3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

    1. Specific Gravity

      10

      9

      8

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      10

      9

      8

      7

      6

      5

      4

      3

      2

      1

      2.316

      2.316

      2.207

      2.207

      2.093

      2.214

      2.093

      2.214

      2.214

      2.214

      2.099

      2.099

      2.235

      2.235

      SPECIFIC GRAVITY

      SPECIFIC GRAVITY

      The specific gravity of all contaminated soils was noticed to decrease with an increasing percentage of different soils, this was because of the oil fills up the pore spaces of soils which has less specific gravity than the soil.

      Virgin soil

      10% Diesel

      10% castor oil

      10% Heavy oil

      Virgin soil

      10% Diesel

      10% castor oil

      10% Heavy oil

      1.996

      1.996

      2.333

      2.333

      2.47 2.58 2.543

      Silty clay

      2.47 2.58 2.543

      Silty clay

      Black Cotton Kaolinitic clay

      soil

      TYPES OF SOIL

      Black Cotton Kaolinitic clay

      soil

      TYPES OF SOIL

      Fig 1. Specific gravity of various contaminated soil with 10% contaminants

    2. Atterberg Limits

      Depending on its water content, a soil may appear in one of the four states; solid, plastic, semi-solid, limit. The Atterberg limits that are most useful for engineering purpose are; plastic limit and liquid limit. The water content at which the soil changes from one state to the other are called as consistency limits or Atterberg's limits.

      1. Liquid Limit: Liquid limit is defined as the minimum water content at which the soil is still in the liquid state, but has very small shearing strength, which can be measured by standard laboratory equipment.

        Virgin soil

        10% Castor oil

        Virgin soil

        10% Castor oil

        10% Diesel 10% Heavy oil

        10% Diesel 10% Heavy oil

        100

        90

        80

        70

        60

        50

        40

        30

        20

        10

        0

        100

        90

        80

        70

        60

        50

        40

        30

        20

        10

        0

        88.88

        88.88

        77.14

        77.14

        69.28 68.77

        69.28 68.77

        65.07

        65.07

        61.36

        55.52

        50.67

        3223892.39541

        Silty clay

        61.36

        55.52

        50.67

        3223892.39541

        Silty clay

        Black Cotton soil Kaolinitic clay

        TYPES OF SOIL

        Black Cotton soil Kaolinitic clay

        TYPES OF SOIL

        LIQIUD LIMIT (%)

        LIQIUD LIMIT (%)

        Fig 2. Liquid limit for different contaminated soil with 10% contaminants

      2. Plastic Limit:

      Plastic limit is the water content after which the soil discontinued to behave as a plastic material i.e. it starts to tumble down when rolled into a thread of soil of 3 mm diameter At this stage of the water content, the soil loses its plasticity and passes to semi- solid state.

    3. Optimum Moisture Content

      10% Diesel 10% Heavy oil

      35

      31.8

      30

      25 2233..7434

      20 21.27

      17.03

      15

      10% Diesel 10% Heavy oil

      35

      31.8

      30

      25 2233..7434

      20 21.27

      17.03

      15

      OPTIMUM MOISTURE CONTENT (%)

      OPTIMUM MOISTURE CONTENT (%)

      The water content at which a soil can be compacted to the maximum dry unit weight by a given comp active effort is called as Optimum water content. It was noticed to get decrease with an increase in the oil contaminant.

      Virgin soil

      10% Castor oil

      Virgin soil

      10% Castor oil

      Silty clay Black Cotton soil Kaolinitic clay

      TYPES OF SOIL

      Silty clay Black Cotton soil Kaolinitic clay

      TYPES OF SOIL

      10

      10

      12.24

      9.97

      12.24

      9.97

      1143..3362

      10.6

      1143..3362

      10.6

      5

      5

      8.15

      6.41

      8.15

      6.41

      0

      0

      Fig 3 Optimum moisture content of various contaminated soil is the 10% contaminants

  4. CONCLUSION

The research was aimed to study the effect of various oil contaminants on geotechnical properties of clayey soils. It was observed that there was a great change in the geotechnical properties of the soil with an increase in the concentration of oil contaminant. The specific gravity of all contaminated soils was noticed to have a decreasing trend on an increase in the percentage of various oils. The liquid limit of varying contaminated soil with different percentages of contaminants (castor oil, diesel and heavy oil respectively) was observed to decrease as the percentage of contaminants increase. The optimum Moisture content of silty clay and black cotton soil decreased with an increase in a castor oil and heavy oil.

REFERENCE

    1. Ahmet Tuncan, Mustafa Tuncan and Hakan Koyuncu (May1999) "Use of petroleum-contaminated drilling wastes as sub-base material for road construction" Waste Management and Research.

    2. Charles M Reminds and Brent a Korean " Soil Remediation Demonstration Project: Biodegradation of Heavy Fuel Oils.

    3. Charles M Raymonds, Prasanta Bhunia, Brent A Koenen (August -1997) " Soil Remediation Demonstration Project: Biodegradation of Heavy Fuel Oils".

    4. Habib-ur-Rehman, Sahel-N-Abduljauwad " Geotechnical Behaviour of Oil-contaminant Fine-Grained Soils".

    5. Mohamed Gabr, Brian Kamnikar, Greg Smith " Physiochemical Phenomena in soils".

    6. Mitchell (1993) " Fundamental of Soil Behaviour" Wiley, New York,

    7. P Tiwari, M.K. Gupta and R.K. Srivastava (2006) " Laboratory Studies on Surfactant Enhanced Remediation of Engine Oil Contaminated Soils".

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