Structuring Green Open Space in Marginal Settlements in the City of Jakarta, Indonesia

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV5IS060002

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Structuring Green Open Space in Marginal Settlements in the City of Jakarta, Indonesia

Hinijati Widjaja

Departemen of Landscape Architecture

Faculty of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Technology Trisakti University Jakarta – Indonesia

Abstract Clean air, good atmosphere and eyes glued to the greenery of trees to be the desire of the city. Sadly most of the people who live and stay alive to earn a living in Jakarta do not take a hint or rules applicable to improve the quality of the existence of a State Capital

Some communities have ignored the public space as a socializing area, jogging, children's playground, mingle. While the facilities are already available are frequently targeted for destruction, vandalism, stolen equipment supporting a green open spaces such as garden lamps, park benches and iron fence. But people who know consider "normal" on the action and does not want to act to secure the green open space or report to the police.

People who do not care as it was because they were apathetic to the actions of law enforcement officers, when reporting the theft or destruction of public facilities. Because they instead were bombarded with various questions cornered and asked for operational costs, or money under the pretext of administrative costs for police officers to search for the thief or vandal garden. If convicted in the court process, the thief only imposed a light sentence or even released by the judge. Viewed in these things so that it is no wonder the green open spaces be diminishing its value, except for the green open spaces in several places on the way protocols are fairly well maintained.

Governor of Jakarta Special Capital Region, Basuki Tjahja Purnama who was appointed in 2014, has a land acquisition plan and to restore the function of the initial allotment of land into green open spaces. In an effort to restore the land allotment, and move the illegal community, the Governor has the right plan to build new settlements for marginalized communities managed by the government in the form of "flats". However, we recommend to the arrangement of the plants in the open green space settlements marginal, not planted just an ornamental plant, but the type of plants that have multifunctional, among others, as a shade tree, produces fruit, as a medicinal plant, as well as herb plants that can be processed into healthy food. In order to create a quality residential environment marginal, happy and healthy.

Keywords Green open space, the Setup, marginal settlements.


    Jakarta as the capital of the Republic of Indonesia, including in the zone country with two seasons, the summer half-year and half-year longer rainy season. In general, urban development in Indonesia is much influenced by their socio-

    economic changes, political policy, lifestyle and culture. In addition it also affected due to the dynamics of government policies regarding the appropriate Regional Autonomy Law No. 32 Year 2004.

    It thus indirectly participate effect occurs growing inequality between cities in Indonesia. Among them because there Local Government capable of utilizing these regulations to spur the growth of the city. But there is a government in areas that are still unprepared and confused to use the momentum right to the maintenance of the area without help or guidance from the central government in Jakarta, including in matters of budget utilization for the benefit of regional development and welfare. Other causes due to the absence of "Clean Government".

    The pace of economic development and socio-cultural dynamics and politics is very rapid especially in Metropolitan Jakarta and surrounding areas, an impact which eventually led to the emergence of the needs of infrastructure development on land with the macro-scale and widespread. During the reign today in the capital city under the Governor Basuki Tjahja Purnama (inducted in 2014), plans to build new settlements for marginalized communities managed by the Government in the form of "flats", or was termed also by former Governor Joko Widodo as "hometown series " both held in Jakarta and in the cities around them, or in big cities such as Bandung, Surabaya and others, then the model cities such as Jakarta can be regarded as a model of a city of service in it filled with activity community life.

    Tangerang, Bogor, Bekasi and Depok as a city that is around the capital Jakarta could be a "satellite city" of Jakarta, which has emerged as a container that can be expected to support all the city's infrastructure plan. By opening itself as a city service, then automatically the need for infrastructure will also be developed. Factors location of a satellite town very close to Jakarta, is a perfect support to the areas planned as a neighborhood place to live, work, relax and play. Therefore, a wide range of facilities with a planned suburban scale to meet the needs of residents in marginal settlements are managed by the Government. With an ideal the division of the region into the 70 percent area awoke and 30 percent green area remains a challenge in the make it happen.

    The movement of the existence of green open space is the same from time to time, which only amounts to 5 percent. For that much needed creativity of thought leaders in the capital city in the process of land available, and expected without

    always blame the planning system in force. However, this policy had caused social impact. Additionally reaction antipathy of those who already occupy the area that actually is not a legal settlement area. Those marginal groups who do not understand the importance of open green space or do not care about the necessity of water catchment areas. This last is then often becomes a discourse of certain political parties..


    First, how a marginal residential areas managed by the government can not be separated from the environment and builder. Second, how the implementation of concrete steps to plans marginal settlements become an ideal environment, these green open space as one of the most important parts of the environment that will be discussed.



    According Thohir (1985) the city is seen as an entity that is closed and is the center of economic activity, social, political and cultural as well as having a certain authority in the country, located in the geographic position remains, and is the "brain" of the surrounding area. While urban areas, there is a region that has a major non-agricultural activities with the composition as a function of the area of urban settlements, centralization and distribution, government services, social services and economic activities.

    The debate about the theory among city planners that occur between Lewis Mumford and Thomas Adams (1963) in Suparlan (1996 pp. 3-1). They debate was centered on the concept of life which is planned in the city. Lewis Mumford saw that the city as an artificial environment must be an integral part of the natural environment and of the functions of social and economic, the overall integrated. While Thomas Adams saw that the city should be a comfortable place for its citizens and community life can thrive, because it is stressed in the planning of a residential space low population density with open spaces that much materialized as parks and forests city.

    Further conveyed by Suparlan (1996), based on the above explanation in the specialized area of the capital Jakarta, as well as in large cities and modern, it is necssary guidelines for regional development planning and dwelling must also consider reforming the integrated, in order to support the beauty and comfort for the residents and their activities in the city in the form of green open space arrangement.

    Marginal communities are groups of people who are not ready or disadvantaged in the progressive development of the city, or did not get a chance to enjoy the results of development. Usually marginal communities also often get less attention than other elements of society and also sometimes get injustice when dealing with the authorities. Most of them are urban people also fail to improve living standards in the area of origin and or do not get serious attention from local authorities. While on the other hand, due to the economic background marginal encourage citizens to rely on violence as a problem-solving method. (Suparlan, 1996).

    For that, the region generally be marginal communities with necessary policies for handling people's social and environmental management techniques planned. As a guideline the arrangement, the Government through the

    Minister of Public Work issued Ministerial Regulation No.05 / PRT / M / 2008 on Guidelines for the Provision and Use of green open space in urban area mentioned, that the concept of green open space is an elongated area / lane and or groups, whose use more open, a place to grow plants, whether grown plants naturally or are deliberately planted. In Law No. 26 of 2007, is specifically mandated the need for the provision and utilization of green open space, which is the proportion of its range set at least 30% (thirty percent) of the total area of the city.

    Green open space in Urban Area by regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 1 of 2007, concerning the green open spaces of urban areas is part of the open space an urban area populated by plants and crops to support ecological, social, cultural, economic, and aesthetic.

    Details of the guidelines to the Minister of Public Works No. 05 / PRT / M / 2008 on Guidelines for the Provision and use of open green space in urban areas issued by the Directorate General of Spatial Planning Department of Public Works, Article 2: Guidelines for the Provision and Utilization of green open space in Urban Area for the purpose of:

    1. Provide references that facilitate stakeholders both municipalities, planners and stakeholders, in planning, designing and managing the construction of green open space.

    2. Provide practical guidance to stakeholders in the green open space planning and design development and management of green open space

    3. Provide material public campaign about the importance of open green space for urban public life.

    4. Provide information to the widest public and stakeholders on the need for open green space as forming a comfortable space for activities and residence.

    The guidelines then also strengthened with the issuance of Ministry of Home Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia Number. 27 Year 2014 on Guidelines for Preparation, Control and Evaluation Work Plan for Regional Development Year 2015 Listed on:

    Appendix II, No11.b. Fulfilling the needs of green open space, prevention of granting land use designation does not match that set out in the RT / RW, optimizing the utilization of cultivated area and safeguard protected areas, as well as socialization / education space utilization, according to Law Number. 26 Year 2007 on Spatial Planning.

    Appendix II, No. 11.c. The provision and management of green open space optimally in urban areas, according to Minister of the Interior circular No.. 650/4371 / SJ: About the method of calculating the extent of urban green open space.

    Based on the Regulation of the Minister of Public Works NO.5 / PRT / M / 2008 the division of the type of green open space as follows:

    1. Green open space courtyard is land outside the building, which serves for various activities. Spacious yard adjusted to the requirements basic building coefficient in urban areas, as stipulated in the Regional Pearaturan the Spatial Plan in each city.

    2. Green open space courtyard Offices, Shops and Establishments

    3. Green open space courtyard offices, shops, and places of business are generally in the form of lines sidewalks and parking lots.

    4. Green open space in the Shape of the Roof Garden Building (Roof Garden), On the condition of open land area is limited, then to green open spaces can utilize non green open spaces, such as the roof of the building, terrace houses, terraces and multi-storey buildings in addition to the building, and others by using additional media, such as a pot of various sizes according to the available land. Land with Basic Building Coefficient above 90 percent as in shopping area in downtown, or in areas with a high density with very limited land, green open spaces can be provided on the roof of the building. For that building must have a roof structure that is technically possible.

    5. Green open space at the Neighborhood Park is a park that is intended to serve the population within the scope of one

      (1) Neighborhood, particularly to serve the social activities in the neighborhood of the neighborhood association. The garden area is at least 1 m2 per resident Neighborhood, with a minimum area of 250 m2. Location of the park is at a radius of less than 300 m from the homes of the population served.

    6. On Green open space park in harmony Residents can be provided in the form of a garden intended to serve the population on the territory of the neighborhoods, particularly youth activities, community sports activities, as well as other community activities in environmental pillars of the resident. The park has at least 0.5 m2 per resident neighborhoods, with a minimum area of 1,250 m2. Location of the park is at a radius of less than 1000 m from the houses of the people it serves.

    7. Green open space at the village level can be provided in the form of a garden intended to serve the population of the villages. The garden area of at least 0.30 m2 per inhabitant village, with a garden area of at least 9,000 m2.

    8. Green open space subdistricts can be provided in the form of a garden intended to serve the population of the subdistrict. The garden area of at least 0.2 m2 per resident districts, with an area of at least 24,000 m2 park.

    9. Green open space City Park is a park that is intended to serve the population of the cities or parts of cities. These parks serve a minimum of 480,000 people with a standard of at least 0,3 m2 per resident of the town, with a garden area of at least 144,000 m2. The park can be shaped as a green open space (green field), equipped with recreational and sports facilities, and a sports complex with at least 80 percent of green open space 90 percent.

    10. Forest City, the goal of providing the urban forest as a buffer is a city neighborhood, which serves to improve and maintain the microclimate and aesthetic value, absorb water, creating balance and harmony of the physical environment of the city, and support the preservation and protection of Indonesia's biodiversity.

    11. Green Belt is a green open space that serves as a buffer zone and to limit the development of a land use (the city boundary, dividing the region, and others) or limiting the activity of the other activities that do not interfere with each other, as well as the security of the surrounding environmental factors.

    12. Green open space Green Line Road can be provided by placing plants between 20-30 percent of the right of way in accordance with the class.

    13. Green open space pedestrian space is a space reserved for pedestrians on the left side of the road or in the park. The room is equipped with a pedestrian green open space must pay attention to comfort, orientation (landmarks, road markings), and the ease of moving from one direction to another.

    14. Green open space nder the overpass serves as a water catchment area, so that the area under the neat, beautiful, and wonderful, avoiding untidiness and location homeless, avoid settlements, covering parts of the structure that are not attractive, as well as soften parts / rigid structure of the building is impressive.

    15. Green open space specified function is the green line include open green space borders the railroad tracks, the green open spaces of high voltage power lines, open space green river banks, coastal border of green open spaces, green open spaces border the lake, the green open space security raw water sources / springs. Identify the Headings

    Headings, or heads, are organizational devices that guide the reader through your paper. There are two types: component heads and text heads.


      1. Regulations and Decisions of the Governor.

        Jakarta has a total land area of 661.52 km² and a sea area of about 6977.50 sq km, with a population of 10,187,595 people (BPS DKI Jakarta, 2011). Jakarta metropolitan area and surrounding Jakarta about 28 million inhabitants, is one of the largest metropolitan city in Southeast Asia. Based on data from BPS Jakarta has a number of poor people in September 2015 amounted to 368.67 thousand (3.61 percent). Compared to March 2015 (398.92 thousand or 3.93 percent), the number of poor people decreased by 30.25 thousand, down 0.32 points.

        While compared to September 2014 the number of poor people amounted to 412.79 thousand (4.09 percent), and the number of poor people fell 44.12 thousand or down 0:48 points. Poverty Line (PL) in September 2015 amounted to Rp 503.038,- per capita per month, higher than the poverty line in March 2015 amounted to Rp 487.388,- per capita per month and from September 2014 poverty line of Rp 459. 560,- per capita per month. With people who occupy the Ciliwung riverbank is 250,000 which is an illegal.

        As reported by the news of the governor's office in 2015, Governor of Jakarta predict the number of poor people in Jakarta is expected to increase to 2 million people by poverty standard numeric decent living needs. "Roughly the number of poor people increased from 4 percent to nearly 20 percent. That means there are 20 percent, or 2 million people roughly income under Rp 2.4 million.

        According to the Governor of DKI Jakarta (2015), that the open green space in the capital is still inadequate. Known, the ideal condition of green open space in the city is 40 percent of the total area, and with a minimum 30 percent requirement must be fulfilled. While currently in Jakarta, these needs will be met only 9.97 percent. The green open space to the city park extent of 83.27 hectares and 1,170 hectares neighborhood park. At this time the increase of green open space never reaches 10 per cent, 9.97 per cent will be met only because a lot of land claimed people with all sorts of reasons. So that the land acquisition stalled and the ideal number of green open space in Jakarta's never met, still a lot of land to be acquired for a green open space by 20 percent. (Regulation 1 of 2008 on the area of the Medium Term Development Plan for Years 2007-2012).

        In order to expand the green open space in Jakarta, Decision of the Governor issued on the basis of some of the Act (decision of the Governor of Jakarta in 2015) as a reference, among others:

        1. Law No. 5 Year 1960 About: Basic Regulation of Agrarian

        2. Law No. 51 Year 1960 About Government Regulation: Prohibition of use of the land without their permission or their proxies are entitled.

        3. Law No. 26 Year 2007 About: Spatial Planning

        4. Law No. 29 Year 2007 About: Government Special Province of Jakarta as the Capital of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia.

        5. Law No. 12 Year 2011 About: Establishment of Legislation.

        6. Law No. 2 Year 2012 About: Procurement of of land for development in the public interest.

        7. Law No. 23 Year 2014 About: Regional Government as amended by Act No. 9, Year 2015.

        8. Presidential Regulation No. 54 Year 2008 About: regional spatial planning in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi, Puncak, Cianjur.

        9. Presidential Regulation No. 71 Year 2012 About: Implementation of land acquisition for the construction of the public interest as amended by Presidential Regulation No. 30, Year 2015.

        10. Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 72 Year 2012 About: Operating costs and support costs for the implementation of land acquisition for the the construction of public interest derived from the Regional Budget.

        11. Regulation of the National Land Agency No. 5 Year 2012 About: technical implementation of land procurement Directive as amended by Regulation of the Minister of Agrarian and Spatial Planning / Head of National Land Agency Number. 6, Year 2015.

        12. Regional Regulation No. 1 Year 2012 About: Spatial Plan Year 2030.

        13. Regional Regulation No. 1 Year 2014 About: Detailed Spatial Plan and Zoning Regulations.

        14. Regional Regulation No. 12 Year 2014 About: Regional Organization.

          Based on the aforementioned regulation, then issued Decision of Governor content of the decision is, in order to strengthen the land acquisition to meet the needs of green open space. Below is an example of Governor Decision show his consistent in realizing green open space in the Indonesian capital without distinguishing between people in an upscale residential or marginal neighborhoods, among other things:

          1. Decree No. 2777 Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space Swadaya Way, Kedaung Angke Urban Village, Cengkareng, West Jakarta Administration.

          2. Decree No. 2776 Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space Di Jalan Raya Kebayoran Lama, Village Cipulir, District Kebayoran Lama, South Jakarta Administration City.

          3. Decree No. 2775 Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space Ppa Depsos Way Rw 01 Rt 003, Village Bambu Apus, Cipayung Sub-District, City Administration, East Jakarta.

          4. Decree No. 2772, Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space Swakarsa On the Road, Village Pondok Kelapa, Duren Sawit subdistrict, East Jakarta Administration City.

          5. Decree No. 2760, Year 2015 On Location Determination for Development of green open space at Jalan

            H. Naimun, Kebayoran Lama Village South, District Kebayoran Lama, South Jakarta Administration City.

          6. Decree No. 2756, Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space in the village Pedaengan Rw 004 Rt 008, Village Mills, District Cakung, East Jakarta Administration.

          7. Decree No. 2755 Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space at Gang Masjid Rt 03 Rw 04, Pulo Gebang Village, Cakung sub-district, East Jakarta Administration City.

          8. Decree No. 2754 Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space In the village of Tanjung Barat, Jagakarsa, South Jakarta Administration City.

          9. Decree No. 2753 Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space at Jalan Pluit Timur Raya, Pluit Village, Penjaringan, North Jakarta City Administration.

          10. Decree No. 2749 Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space at Shooting Range Road, Village Pekayon, Pasar Rebo, East Jakarta Administration.

          11. Decree No. 2748 Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space in the Village Lubang Buaya, Cipayung subdistrict, East Jakarta Administration City.

          12. Decree No. 2746 Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space at Jalan Space No. 369, Village Cipedak, Jagakarsa, South Jakarta Administration City.

          13. Decree No. 2745 Year 205 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space in Pulogebang Indah, East Cakung Sub-District, District Cakung, East Jakarta Administration City

          14. Decree No. 2741 Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space in Pondok Kelapa, Village Pondok Kelapa, Duren Sawit subdistrict, East Jakarta Administration City.

          15. Decree No. 2740 Year 2015 About: Determining the location for construction of green open space in Rw 001, village of Ujung Menteng, Cakung sub-district, East Jakarta Administration City.


      2. Analysis of Green Open Space Structuring in the Marginal Settlement

    To organize and increase the amount of green open space, the provincial government should be guided by the analysis of the allotment of green areas, and hold land acquisition on one or several settlements illegal located along the river, the green belt along the railway, suburban cemetery, the area around the high voltage wires, under the road bridge or illegal settlements, of course, with a solid plan to consider would be placed where the people affected, while in terms of the law the governor's decisions overarching land acquisition act.

    In addressing the problem of marginal settlements there should be intervention from the provincial government, as well as green open space acquisition program, which was delivered to the community is on target or no improvement if it ever fails. Thus need cooperation among government agencies in improving marginal region, especially in terms of providing the necessary supporting infrastructure. In order for the provincial government immediately relocate to a particular area and build units flats for marginalized communities, in order to avoid social upheaval, so it needs hard work Government Capital.

    Allocated to the public, the government can build an integrated residential area is vertical (flats), the goal that did not spend a lot of land. In addition it should also be available the land for green open space, so that people still enjoy a healthy environment. In this case people should also participate and be involved early in the planning process or settlements, by planting and maintaining a green environment of the joint (participatory planning), can meet the needs of the existence of green open space urban areas, thus reducing even solve environmental problems such as reduce noise, air pollution becomes low, flood-free and support the preservation of water and soil.

    Structuring with appropriate plants in marginal settlements built in the city of Jakarta, is one solution. May indirectly increase the amount of green open space in urban areas. For green open spaces marginal settlements should consider the physical condition such as geography, climate, geology including soil type, texture, structure and contours of the land the city, need to be considered in favor of fertility and the viability of the plant.

    The physical condition of the city is generally hot climate with maximum temperatures ranging from 32.7 ° C – 34, ° C during the day, and the minimum air temperature ranges from

    23.8 ° C -25.4 ° C at night. The average rainfall throughout the

    year 237.96 mm. the humidity level reaches 73.0 to 78.0 percent and an average wind speed of 2.2 m / s – 2.5 m / sec, as well as the geological, all the plain consists of alluvial layer (Regulation No. 1 of 2009 of the Medium Term Development Plan for Years 2007-2012).

    For green open spaces managed by the provincial government, will be held standardization for the choice of plants, of course, which has the following criteria and adapted to the land and climatic conditions of the city, for example, selected plant trees that can absorb CO2 and timbal, can produce oxygen, high trees over 3 meters, and no more than

    12 meters, easy maintenance, growth is rather fast, tree branches are not easily broken when a high wind, twig or branch is not too large, because they are dangerous when uprooted and exposed to people who are under it, strong roots into the soil so that the tree is not easily uprooted when in contact with the brunt of the high winds, the roots do not arise to the surface that could damage the pavement.

    Examples of cover crops include: Acacia Tree (Acacia auriculiformis), Tanjung Tree (Mimusops elengi), Kencana Ketapang Tree (Terminalia mantaly), Mahagony Tree (Swietenia mahagoni). Biola Cantik Tree (Ficus lyrata), Bunga Kupu-Kupu Tree (Bauhinia purpurea). While the fruit trees that must exist in marginal settlements is the Jambu Batu Tree (Psidium guajava) and Belimbing Wuluh Tree (Averrhoa bilimbi), two types of fruit trees can be utilized in addition to the fruit, leaves can also be used for family medicine.

    For these types of clump crop and bushes that will be planted and that has certainly exploited the benefits of medicinal plants and spice plants. So that every family can cultivate medicinal plants independently and use in the treatment of families in marginal settlements.

    Medicinal plants and herbs that must exist in the neighborhood of green open space, of course, the criteria are easy to grow and require little careamong other things: Daun Katuk (Sauropus androgynus), Kunyit (Curcuma domestica Val.), Jahe (Zingiber officinale), Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb) , Lengkuas (Alpinia galanga), Daun Dewa (Gynura pseudochina), Daun Sirih (Piper betle), Brotowali (Tinospora crispa), Daun Kemangi (Ocimum tenuiflorum), and Lidah Buaya (Aloe vera). Structuring green open space for settlement marginal unneeded plants exotic ornamental, because in addition to the limited land, the necessary and planned is a multifunctional plant into a green open space and according to the conditions of its inhabitants.

    In addition to the physical condition of the arrangement of green open space required non-physical techniques, in the form of counseling, training or approach to people occupying the marginal settlements. Non-physical conditions such as the number of families and activities around the environment a top priority in support of the existence of green open space. Consideration of residential areas and communities are also essential for the survival of green open space, so that plants receive the attention and protection. Cause a sense of belonging in the community of green open space should be awakened. With the approach of the community in the form of counseling to marginal groups are heterogeneous in terms of ethnicity, then presumably the government program to add green open space will be fulfilled.

    The important aspect is non-physical, namely funding, especially in terms of maintenance, should be taken into account at the time of physical planning, which should be decided and agreed by the parties involved, because maintenance is also an important factor for maintaining quality green open space from contamination, pollution, destruction, or the construction of wild back that could damage the value of beauty and comfort. In addition, security for users of green open space should be guaranteed and not be a place prone to cause a bad image the presence of green open space and the environment.


    Green open space should not be seen as the remaining space and empty or just happen to be planted plants, but green open space is planned for the long term will contribute significantly in it, there are many kinds of plants with a multi function so that it will support the ecological benefits, social, cultural, economic, and aesthetic for the occupants in marginal settlements.

    The need for counseling and training related to the participation of ownership in terms of procurement and maintaining open green spaces, because the social impact of the marginal people who do not understand the importance of open green space or do not care the necessity water catchment areas.


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