- Open Access
- Total Downloads : 13
- Authors : Pankaj Sharma
- Paper ID : IJERTCONV1IS02002
- Volume & Issue : NCEAM – 2013 (Volume 1 – Issue 02)
- Published (First Online): 16-07-2018
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
STRESSORS – SOURCES and REMOVERS: A STUDY on EDUCATORS in HARYANA
STRESSORS – SOURCES AND REMOVERS: A STUDY ON EDUCATORS IN HARYANA
1A.P., Geeta Engineering College, Panipat
Keywords: Stress, Likert Scale, Stress-Remover, depression, frustration
Stress is the mental or physical condition that results from a perceived threat of danger (physical or emotional) and the pressure to remove it. Stress is also defined as a nonspecific response of the body to a stimulus or event (stressor).
To define stress various researchers have given different terms and explained it in different ways. Few of them are as:
Selye (1976) defines stress as the bodily response we make to the troublesome event.
Holmes & Rahe,(1967) defined stress as a stimulus event that presents unusual demands.
Ganster and Murphy (2000) define it as a form of strain provoked in response to situational demands labelled stressors which occur when jobs are simultaneously high in demands and low in control. From the above definitions of the term stress, Stress means different things to different people. From a layman's perspective, stress can be described as feeling tense, anxious, or worried. The term stress itself has been defined in literally hundreds of ways in the literature. Virtually all of
the definitions can be placed into one of the two categories, however; stress can be defined as either a stimulus or a response. A stimulus definition treats stress as some characteristic or event that may result in a disruptive consequence. Under a general model of the stress response, when an individual experiences a stressor, the stressor will lead to a physiological response, one that can be measured by several indicators, such as elevated heart rate. In related literature, the term stress is used to refer to this physiological response. Stressors vary in form and can include extreme temperature or lighting, time pressure, lack of sleep, and exposure to threat or danger, among others. All stressors, however, tend to produce similar physiological responses within the body.
In a response definition, stress is seen partially to
some stimulus, called a stressor. A stressor is a potentially harmful or threatening external event or situation. In a response definition, stress is the consequence of the interaction between an environmental stimulus (a stressor) and the individuals response. That is, stress is the result of a unique interaction between stimulus conditions in the environment and the individuals predisposition to respond in a particular way.
Richard Lazarus has defined general principles of stress Like, (i) Stress may be either physical or psychological (ii) Physical and psychological stress may overlap and interact (iii) The appraisal of stress is not necessarily objective (iv) Stress may be self-imposed (v) Our response to stress is complex and multidimensional (vi) The effects of stress may be cumulative or additive
Stress affects performance of any one and can cause serious impact physical and psychological as well. Few of the manifestations can be Impairment of cognitive functioning, Shock and disorientation, Burnout, Disruption of social relations, Psychological Problems and Disorders, and Physical problems and even illness.
The circumstances that cause stress are called stressors. Stressors vary in severity and duration. For example, the responsibility of caring for a sick parent may be an ongoing source of major stress, whereas getting stuck in a traffic jam may cause mild, short-term stress. Some events, such as the death of a loved one, are stressful for everyone. But in other situations, individuals may respond
differently to the same eventwhat is a stressor for one person may not be stressful for another.
Stressors can be classified into three general categories: catastrophic events, major life changes, and daily hassles. In addition, simply thinking about unpleasant past events or anticipating unpleasant future events can cause stress for many people.
To reduce stress various options are available for any person. Selection of method is purely based on individuals preference. Some of them are discussed here briefly.
Autogenic training is a relaxation technique developed by the German psychiatrist Johannes Heinrich Schultz and first published in 1932. The technique involves the daily practice of sessions that lasts around 15 minutes, usually in the morning, at lunch time, and in the evening. During each session, the practitioner will repeat a set of visualizations that induce a state of relaxation. Each session can be practiced in a position chosen amongst a set of recommended postures (for example, lying down, sitting meditation, sitting like a rag doll). The technique can be used to alleviate many stress-induced psychosomatic disorders (Having physical symptoms but originating from mental or emotional causes).
Cognitive therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapy developed by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck. CT is one of the therapeutic approaches within the larger group of cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT) and was first expounded by Beck in the 1960s. Cognitive therapy seeks to help the patient overcome difficulties by identifying and changing dysfunctional thinking, behaviour, and emotional responses. This involves helping patients develop skills for modifying beliefs, identifying distorted thinking, relating to others in different ways, and changing behaviours. Treatment is based on collaboration between patient and therapist and on testing beliefs. Therapy may consist of testing the assumptions which one makes and identifying how certain of one's usually unquestioned thoughts are distorted, unrealistic and unhelpful. Once those thoughts have been challenged, one's feelings about the subject matter of those thoughts are more easily subject to change. Beck initially focused on depression and developed a list of "errors" in thinking that he proposed could maintain depression, including arbitrary inference, selective abstraction, over-generalization, and magnification (of negatives) and minimization (of positives).
Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the
peaceful ending of some social conflict. Often, committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of the group (e.g., intentions; reasons for holding certain beliefs), and by engaging in collective negotiation. Ultimately, a wide range of methods and procedures for addressing conflict exist, including but not limited to, negotiation, mediation, diplomacy, and creative peace building.
Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose of enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity. It also improves mental health, helps prevent depression, helps to promote or maintain positive self esteem, and can even ugment an individual's sex appeal or body image, which is also found to be linked with higher levels of self esteem. Childhood obesity is a growing global concern and physical exercise may help decrease some of the effects of childhood and adult obesity. Health care providers often call exercise the "miracle" or "wonder" drug – eluding to the wide variety of proven benefits that it provides.
Meditation is any form of a family of practices in which practitioners train their minds or self-induce a mode of consciousness to realize some benefit. Meditation is generally an inwardly oriented, personal practice, which individuals can do by themselves. Prayer beads or other ritual objects may be used during meditation. Meditation may involve invoking or cultivating a feeling or internal state, such as compassion, or attending to a specific focal point. The term can refer to the state itself, as well as to practices or techniques employed to cultivate the state.
Dating back over 5000 years, yoga is the oldest defined practice of self development. The methods of classical yoga include ethical disciplines, physical postures, breathing control and meditation. Traditionally an Eastern practice, its now becoming popular in the West. In fact, many companies, especially in Britain, are seeing the benefit of yoga, recognizing that relaxed workers are healthier and more creative, and are sponsoring yoga fitness programs.
Various entertainment methods can be used for stress busting ranging from music, movie or playing video games etc. Selection of methods is
totally based on individual interest but in many research it has seen that it is among the most choose method of stress busting.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In this area many research has already been done and they have described various aspects of stress and its management. Shirley Reynoldsa & Rob B. Briner (1994) in their work found that Stress- management interventions are based on inadequate and over simplistic theories which obscure the many conflicting interests of employees, employers and researchers, and ignore empirical evidence which suggests that individual well-being, attitudes to work, and work behaviours are minimally linked. It is suggested that alleviating the problems that people experience at work will remain elusive unless the conceptual problems in occupational stress are more fully acknowledged, where Stephen Palmer & Windy Dryden (1994) discussed the different approaches, possible interventions and subsequent evaluation problems related to stress management and counselling. In his work Andrew
Arthur (2004) suggests that an integrated approach that acknowledges how social, economic, political, and organisational factors impact on individual needs and values . This integrated approach is described, with its required input from communities and politicians, as well as occupational health specialists. Yoshitaka Iwasaki (2005) conducted the study which included (a) Aboriginal individuals with diabetes, (b) individuals with physical disabilities, (c) older adults with arthritis, (d) gays and lesbians, and (e) a group of professional managers to understand ways in which leisure contributes to managing, relieving, or counteracting stress. Findings suggest the strategy incorporates two elements: a positive diversion or time-out from stress-inducing situations and thoughts, and a context for rejuvenation and renewal. Leisure also provided opportunities for promoting life balance, whereby the intentional creation of a leisure space became an oasis for personal renewal (physical, psychological, emotional) that facilitated resilience and the capacity to proactively cope with or counteract stress. Paper by Linda Trenberth (2004) points to the explanatory potential in concepts like appraisal that provide the psychological links between the individual and the stressful encounter. Moreover it shows how coping researchers should focus on more process-focused models. This paper examined a number of issues at the heart of the debate on coping research this paper focuses on what may be ways of bridging the gap between coping research and practice.
OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
To identify the factors which are influencing the educators and causing stress and their impacts on them along with various stress buster techniques they use. Still main objectives of the study are
To find various stressors.
To find effect of stressors.
To find various techniques used by educators to reduce stress.
Last but not the least stress' impact on performance.
This study is an empirical research based on the interview and questionnaire along with secondary data. The study is largely based on primary data collected by interviewing the sample respondents personally and the secondary data were obtained from books, journals and internet. A detailed questionnaire embracing the objectives were designed and canvassed to the sample respondents personally. The first-hand information from the sample respondents with the help of an interview schedule was collected. It is decided to use convenient sampling method originally, it was planned to collect the data from 120 respondents working in different professional institute (Engineering and Management) in Haryana for the use of study. Likert scale (five points) was used to measure the level of stress among respondents. The study analysed the following aspects of stress:
Str ong ly Ag ree
Und ecid ed
Dis agr ee
Str ong ly Dis agr
Bein g Over work
Gend er Biasn
Job insecurity, high demand for performance, technological changes, work place and culture, personal and family problems, gender issues, insomnia, loss of mental concentration, anxiety, absenteeism, depression, frustration, family conflict, handling tense situation without overreacting, controlling one's emotions under pressure, unsatisfied with work, family support when one is under stress. Methods used in removing of stress were also located.
Wron g Job
Blam e Cultu
Bad Mana geme
Over Expe ctatio n for Perfo rman
Famil y Probl
Poor Work ing Envir onme
agreed on bad management as a factor for stress but 20 percent are disagreeing for the same.
Performance is a crucial factor for success and is important for both individual and for organisation as well. In this study over expectations for performance is a factor for stress agreed by 45 percent of respondents and 25 percent strongly agreed for this factor.
Table 1: Aspects of Stress on Likert Scale in Percentages
IV.ANALYSIS OF THE STUDY
It is observed from the table that out of 100 people surveyed, 38 percent respondents agree for being overworked, 40 percent agreed for gender biasness, 18 percent are undecided and 12 percent disagree for gender biasness reason. It is further seen that job security is very essential in every organization. It is revealed from all respondents only 27 percent respondents strongly agree that job security is an aspect of stress and 43 percent agree for it, while 13 percent were undecided, 12 percent disagree and 5 percent strongly disagree.
Progress is also considered as an important factor for stress. As to the cause of stress about 21 percent attribute strongly to progress while 38 percent were agreed for this reason of stress.
In this study choosing wrong profession is also considered as a factor for stress and it is found that only 23 percent agree for this cause while 31 percent disagreed for the same. An environment where blaming culture exists, having stress is inevitable. 39 percent agreed for this reason and 13 percent were undecided about the same.
When educational institutes are becoming global in their working but still at management point they are lagging in terms of poor management which is also a stress causing factor. 40 percent respondents
Family is a very important factor for any one if there is support from family side one can have great moral and stamina to fight with stress but if there is a problem in family it can cause stress as well. In this study 50 percent agreed for family problems for the reasons of stress and 33 percent strongly agreed for this reasons. 44 percents respondents are agree poor working environment responsible for stress and whereas only 13 percent disagree with this reason to cause stress.
VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
In the present study, it is found that majority of the respondents opined that various factors cause stress to them and to reduce it they use different stress busting techniques like exercise, music etc. but this study also revealed that to reduce stress one needs to handle the situation one is into and find out the root cause of stress because temporary solution can help to flight it but it is not the solution. For this, one has to seek root cause and resolve it to get permanent solution. Otherwise it will start affecting performance and in long term it is harmful for individual as well as for the organisation. In present environment where stress has become inevitable one needs to understand the link between procrastination (Habitual Carelessness) and stress and stop procrastinate once and for all.
REFERENCES. Shirley Reynoldsa & Rob B. Briner , Stress management at work: With whom, for whom and to what ends?, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Volume 22, Issue 1, January 1994,
pages 75-89.. Stephen Palmer & Windy Dryden, Stress management: Approaches and interventions, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Volume 22,
Issue 1, January 1994, pages 5-12. Andrew R. Arthur, Work-related stress, the blind men and the elephant, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Volume 32, Issue 2, May 2004, pages
157-169. Yoshitaka Iwasaki, Jennifer MacTavish & Kelly MacKay, Building on strengths and resilience: leisure as a stress survival strategy . Linda Trenberth & Philip Dewe, Work stress and coping: drawing together research and practice, British Journal of Guidance & Counselling,
Volume 32, Issue 2, May 2004, pages 143-156. Prasad, L.M (2009), Principle & Practice of Management, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi.