 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 222
 Authors : K. C. Ghosh, S. K. Mazumder, M. C. Majumdar
 Paper ID : IJERTV6IS070223
 Volume & Issue : Volume 06, Issue 07 (July 2017)
 DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV6IS070223
 Published (First Online): 21072017
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Steady State Performance Characteristics of Isoviscous Finite Flexible Oil Journal Bearings Including Fluid Inertia Effect
K.C Ghosp, 
S.K.Mazumder2, 
M.C.Majumdar3 
Professor, 
Professor, 
Professor, 
Department of Mechanical Engineering, 
Department of Mechanical Engineering 
Department of Mechanical Engineering 
DR. B.C Roy Engineering College, 
DR. B.C Roy Engineering College 
NIT,Durgapur, 
Durgapur, West Bengal, India 
Durgapur, West Bengal, India 
West Bengal,India 
Abstract: The aim of this work is to analyse the steady state on performance characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearing including combined effect of bearing liner surface deformation and fluidinertia. The average Reynolds equation that modified to include the fluid inertia effect and surface deformation is used to obtain pressure field in the fluidfilm. The solutions of modified average Reynolds equations are obtained using finite difference method and appropriate iterative schemes. The effects of surface deformation factor and modified Reynolds number on circumferential fluidfilm pressure distribution, load carrying capacity, attitude angle, and end flow of the bearing are studied for various eccentricity ratio, slenderness ratio, Poisson ratios, and liner thickness to radius ratio. The steady state bearing performance analysis is done through parametric study of the various variables like modified Reynolds number, eccentricity ratio, slenderness ratio, attitude angle, surface deformation factor. The variation of bearing load carrying capacity, attitude angle, end flow, friction parameters has been studied and plotted against various parameters.
Keyword Modified Reynolds number, slenderness ratio, attitude angle, sommerfeld number, eccentricity ratio, journal bearings, inertia, and deformation factor.

INTRODUCTION
The fluid inertia effect cannot be neglected when the viscous and the inertia forces are of the same order of magnitude shown by Pinkus and Sterlincht [1], though the basic assumptions in the classical hydrodynamic theory include negligible fluid inertia forces in comparison to the viscous forces. In recent times synthetic lubricants, low viscosity lubricants, are used in industries and owing to high velocity it is possible to arrive at such a situation where flow is laminar but the fluid inertia effect cannot be neglected. In such cases the classical Reynolds equation is not valid.
Keeping in view of the above, consideration of inertia effect of a lubricant flow may be one of the areas of recent extension of the classical lubrication theory. Among the few studies related to effect fluid inertia effect, Constatinescu and Galetuse [2] evaluated the momentum equations for laminar and turbulent flows by assuming the velocity profiles is not strongly affected by the inertia forces. Banerjee et.al [3] introduced an extended form of Reynolds equation to include the effect of fluid inertia, adopting an iteration scheme. Chen and Chen [5] obtained the steadystate characteristics of finite bearings including inertia effect using the formulation of Banerjee et al.[3]. Kakoty and Majumdar [4, 13] used the method of averaged inertia in which inertia terms are
effect in their studies. The above studies were mainly based on ideally smooth rigid bearing surfaces.
When the fluidfilm thickness in a journal bearing system is of the order of few micrometres, the bearing surface is not rigid, rather deformable, then surface deformation due to elastic distortion has a profound effect on bearing performance. In the present study it has been consider that the journal bearing is a cylindrical sleeve bearing made of comparatively soft material than shaft material and a rigid circular shaft rotates inside. The bearing liner is actually a thin tube surrounded by a relatively rigid housing. Since the periphery of the bearing is much larger than its thickness the radial deformation of the latter at a point may be assumed to be proportional to the pressure at that point. Elastic deformation of the journal and the bearing material by hydrodynamic fluid pressure changes the fluid film profile, modifies the pressure distribution and therefore changes the performance characteristics of the journal bearings.
Theoretical research on flexible (soft shell) bearings with a rigid rotor was started with the work of Higginson [6] using a simplified method (the distortion is proportional to the pressure). Since then many workers notably Hooke, Brighton, and O'Donoghue [79], Conway and Lee [11], and Oh and Huebner [12] solved the journal bearing problem considering the effect of elastic distortions of the bearing liner.
In the present work, a modified average Reynolds equation and a solution algorithm are developed to include fluid inertia and bearing sleeve surface deformation effects in the analysis of lubrication problems. The developed model is being used to study the influence of fluid inertia and surface deformation effects on the steady state characteristics such as circumferential pressure, load carrying capacity, attitude angle and side leakage of a hydrodynamic oil journal bearing.

BASIC THEORY
The modified average Reynolds equation for fully lubricated surfaces is derived starting from the NavierStokes equations and the continuity equation with few assumptions. The non dimensional form of the momentum equations and the continuity equation for a journal bearing may be written as (Figure.1)
integrated over the film thickness to account for the inertia
velocity components may be expressed in nondimensional form as follows:

y
2
y
y
(7)
u Q 2
h
h
h
2
y
y
(8)
w Qz 2
h
h
Q and Qz are dimensionless flow parameter in and
_
z direction respectively.
Substituting these two into momentum equations and integrating give
2
Figure.1 The schematic diagram of oil Journal Bearing
Q h p R I
(9)
2 (1)
2 e X
Re
u u u v u w D u p u
2
y
L z
_
2
y
Q h
D p R I
(10)
_ z 2
L e Z
0
p (2)
_
y
Where
z
_
h 1 1 h 1 _ Q 1 1 1 2 h
2 (3)
I X 2 2 1 3 Q 6 h 3 1 2 Q 10 Q
R w u w v w w D w D p w
e
L
L _ 2
y
z
z y
1 1 1 Q
1 D Q
3 h 5 Q 2 h Qz
_ _ _
30 L z
u v D w 0
(4)
_ _
(11)
y L z
1 D 1
1 Qz 1 D
1 1 h
h
Q
Qz Q
Where,
z , _ y , x ,
.t , p ,
6 L 5
2 z
6 L 5 2 z
y
z L c R p
2
1 _
_ Q
I h
Q h 1 h
z 1 Q 1 Q 1 h
_ _ _ 2
Z 2 6
z 6
6
z 5
2
u u , v v
R c
w w
R
p c
p R2
and
1 1
1 Q
1 Q
c c2
h Q
5
6
z
2
hQ
z
30
Re Re . R
1 D
h Q
Q
Qz 1 D 2 h
(12)
z z
15 L 30 L
The fluid film thickness in the case of flexible bearing can be
z
z
written as
h c e cos
(5)
From continuity equation one can obtain the following form of modified Reynolds equation in rotating coordinate
_ _ system
h 1 cos
(6)
2
h 3
p D
h 3 p 6 1 2. h

e h
L
where
,
c
, h ,
c c
z
z
where is the elastic deformation of the bearing surface and
12 h 2 R I
D I
(13)
e h
X L h z
it is a function of and z .
z
Here the variation in the density with time is considered to
The modified Reynolds equation under steady state condition neglecting all time derivatives can be written as
be negligible. The momentum equations may be presented in the following form using equation of continuity. However,
D
h0 3 p0
2
h0 3 p0 6 h0
L
the second momentum equation is not used any further
z
z
because there is no variation in pressure across the film.
D
(14)
After Constantinescu and Galetuse [ 2 ] the velocity
2 Re h0 I X L h0 I z
components are approximated by the parabolic profiles. The
z
Where
1 1
1
l l 2 m z
(20)
I h0 1
Q Q 2 h0
m,n
p0 pm,n cos
cos n
X 2 3
2 10
m n L
1 1 1 Q
1 D Q
where
l indicates that the first term of the series is halved.
3 h0 5 Q 2 h0 Qz
30 L z
(15)
pm ,n
and
m,n are given as follows,
1 D 1 1 Qz 1 D 1 1 h0
h0 Q Qz Q 1
6 L 5
2 z
6 L
5 2
z
2 L
2 m z
2 2
2
p cos
4 0 0 L
cos n dz d
(21)
I h0 1 Q 1 Q 1 h0 1 h
1 Q 1 Qz
pm,n 2
Z 2 6
z 5
2
6 0 5
2
L
2 L
2
p cos
2 m z L
sin n dz d
Q
(16)
0 0

h Q
1 D h
Q Qz 1 D Q 2
h0
30 0
z
0
z
z L
15 L
z 30
L
z
2 2

m z
p cos L sin n dz d
(22)
tan 1 0 0
_ _ m,n L
h0 1 0
cos 0
(17)
2 2
p cos
2 m z
cos n dz d
2 0 0 L
Q h0 p0 R I
(18) L
2 e X
2 2 2
(23)
p0,0 L p d dz
2
0 0
Q h0
D p0 R I
(19)
The first term of the righthand side of equation (20) is 1 p .
z 2 L e Z
2 0,0
z
Where, h
and h
Using the end condition of the bearing (i,e p 0 at
z L ) we
2
0 0 sin 0
0 0
z z
can obtain
p0,0 . This term does not contribute any
Boundary conditions for equation (14) are as follows

The pressure at the ends of the bearing is assumed to be
deformation at
z L . Its effect for the other values of z is
2
zero (ambient):
, 1 0
included in the total deformation. The boundary conditions of the inner radius are
r
p0
p ,
r
0, r z 0
(24)

The pressure distribution is symmetrical about the mid plane of the bearing:
After nondimensionalisation, the equation (21), (22) and
(23) becomes
p0 , 0 0
2 1
1
2
2
p cos m z cos n d z d
z

Cavitation boundary condition is given by:
pm,n
2 0 0
2 1
2
(25)
p
p cos m z sin n d z d
0 2 , z 0
and
p0 , z 0
for 1 2 T
0 0
2 1
he equation (14) along with the equations (15) to (19) are
p cos m z sin n d z d
tan 1 0 0
(26)
first expressed in finite difference form and solved using GaussSiedel method in a finite difference scheme.
Before trying to find the solution of equation (14) satisfying
m,n
2 1
p cos m z cos n d z d
0 0
the appropriate boundary conditions, the elastic deformation
and
1 2 1
(27)
is obtained in the following way:
p0,0
p d d z
0
The method is similar to that of Brighton et.al [8,9] and also
0 0

p c2
p c2
Majumder et al. [7].In the present calculation the three displacement components u, v, and w are solved
where p
0
m,n
m,n ,
0
R2
p R2
, z z L
2
simultaneously satisfying the boundary conditions.
The oil film pressure between the shaft and the bearing can be expressed in a double Fourier series of the form as indicated by Brighton et.al [8,9] and Majumder et.al., [7]
The outer surface of the bearing is rigidly enclosed by the
housing, preventing any displacement of the outer surface. The ends of the bearing are prevented from expanding axially, but are free to move circumferentially or radially.
The displacement components in
r, and z directions are
or, d
R p0 r
cos n
cos 2 m z
found from the pressure distribution, which has been
0 m,n i
m,n L
expressed in a Fourier series. It is apparent that the displacements will also be harmonic functions.
These displacements were substituted in the stressstrain
Considering the bearing clearance is very small in compare to the diameter of the journal, the total radial deformation will be
relationshis using Lame's constants. The six components of
R p0,0 d0,0 d
R p cos n
cos 2 m z
(36)
stresses were then used in the equations of equilibrium to 0
obtain the following three displacement equations.
2 m0 n 0
m,n 0,0
m,n
m,n
m,n L
d 2 u *
*

C *
d u *
*
2 u *
* n
d v*
Using
2
p c
m,n
, and is replaced by
C 2 C n 2
d y y d y y
C 1
y d y
pm,n
0
R 2
z L 2

C
* 1 n
2
v*
k 2 u
* C
* 1k
d w*
0
(28)
E ,
21
y d y
the radial deformation in the inner surface will be in the
d 2 v* 1
dv*
* 2 v*
2
2 *
* n
du*
form,
2
d y y d y
1 C n k v
y
C 1
y d y
21
F p0,0
d0.0
m 0
n 0
pm,n
dm,n
cos n
m,n
cos m (37)
z

C
* 1 n
2
y
u *
n k C
* w*
1
0
y
(29)
m,n 0,0
In steady condition radial deformation in the inner surface may be written as,
d 2 w*

1 d w*

n 2
. w* C * k 2 w*/ k C * 1
d u *
(38)
2 2
0 2 1 F p0,0 d0.0
pm,n dm,n cos n m,n cos m z
d y y d y y
d y
m 0
n 0
* u*
* v*
(30)
m,n0,0
k C 1
n C 1. k 0
Where
0 & R3
y y 0 c
F 0
E c3
Where,
C* 2 &
k 2 m ri
L
_
III METHOD OF SOLUTION

SteadyState Analysis.
To find out steadystate pressure all the time derivatives are
The boundary conditions are, at
y 1 ,
set equal to zero and the nondimensionalised all equations
d u
*
C* 1 p
C* 2 u


k w*
(31)
(14) to (19) and also equations (25) to (30) and equation (37) are written in finite difference form along with all required
n v*
*
y
d m,n
y y
boundary conditions to proceed for calculation. For
d v* n u* v*
(32)
0 0.2 the pressure distribution and flow parameters
d y y y
Q and Qz are evaluated from inertia less ( Re* 0 )
d w*
u* k
(33)
solution, i.e., solving classical Reynolds equation. These values are then used as initial value of flow parameters to
d y solve Eqs.(18) and (19) simultaneously for
Q and
and at
b
y , a
Qz Using GaussSiedel method in a finite difference scheme. Then updated I and I and then calculate Q and
u* v* w* 0
(34)
x z
The equations (28), (29) and (30) expressed first in finite difference form solving the displacement equations with the
Qz for use to solve Eq.(14) with initial zero surface
_
deformation for new pressure p with inertia effect by using
boundary conditions (31 to 34) the values of the distortion
coefficient dm ,n were obtained and expressed as,
a successive over relaxation scheme. The latest values of
_
u*
(35)
Q and Qz and p are used iteratively to solve the set of
dm,n R p
The radial deformation
0 of the bearing surface will be
equations until all variables converges using a finite difference method (GaussSeidel) with successive over relaxation scheme. The convergence criterion adopted for
u
_
_
0 pressure is
1 p p
10 5 and also same
new
old
criterion for Q and Q .. The distribution was expressed as
_ 1 2 _ _
z
a double Fourier series as given by equation (20). The deformation equation (37) was then calculated for a given
F using distortion coefficients from equation (35) after
F 0 p0 sin d d z
0 1
_ F C 2 _
F C 2
(40)
Where, F
r0 , F 0
calculating displacement components solving equations (28),
r0 R3 L
0 R3 L
(29), and (30) using boundary conditions (31) to (35). The film thickness equation was then modified using equation (17). The fluid film pressure was again obtained from equation (14) simultaneously with equation (15), (16) and equation (18) and (19) and then get modified film shape. The process was repeated until a compatible film shape and pressure distribution was determined.
where 1 and 2 are angular coordinates at which the fluid film commences and cavitates respectively.
C. SteadyState Load and Attitude Angle.
The steady state nondimensional load and attitude angle are
For higher eccentricity ratios ( 0 0.2 ) the initial values for
given by
the variables are taken from the results corresponding to the W F r 2 F 2
(41)
0
previous eccentricity ratios. Very small increment in is to
be provided as Re* increases. The procedure converges up to
0 0
_
a value of
Re* 1.5which should be good enough for the
tan 1
F
0
(42)
present study.
Since the bearing is symmetrical about its central plane
_
( z =0),only one half of the bearing needs to be considered for the analysis, Once the pressure distribution is evaluated
_
o _
F
r
0
Since the steady state film pressure distribution has been obtained at all the mesh points, integration of equations (39) and (40) can be easily performed numerically by using
Simpsons 1/ 3 rd. rule to get F r and F . The teady state
fluid film forces and the load bearing capacity Wo
attitude angle () are calculated
and
load W 0
and the attitude angle 0 are calculated using

Steady State Fluid Film Forces.
The nondimensional fluid film forces along line of centres and perpendicular to the line of centres are given by
equations (41) and (42).
Re* 
_ W0 
_ W0 
_ W0 
0 
0 
0 

Present 
Kakoty 
Chen Chen 
Present 
Kakoty 
Chen Chen 

0 
0.2 
0.499 
0.504 
0.501 
77.377 
73.71 
73.90 

0.5 
1.728 
1.790 
1.779 
58.847 
56.64 
56.80 

0.8 
7.046 
7.459 
7.1460 
36.641 
34.66 
36.20 

0.9 
16.91 
17.714 
16.982 
26.370 
23.90 
26.40 

0.28 
0.2 
0.494 
0.5055 
0.504 
77.427 
73.75 
74.20 

0.5 
1.734 
1.7980 
1.7850 
58.460 
56.72 
57.00 

0.8 
7.101 
7.4837 
7.1510 
36.543 
34.72 
36.30 

0.9 
17.05 
17.761 
16.993 
26.365 
23.93 
26.40 

0.56 
0.2 
0.495 
0.5070 
0.505 
77.538 
73.79 
74.50 

0.5 
1.740 
1.8058 
1.790 
58.674 
56.79 
57.20 

0.8 
7.156 
7.5081 
7.159 
36.446 
34.78 
36.40 

0.9 
17.094 
17.809 
17.00 
26.36.1 
23.97 
26.40 

1.4 
0.2 
0.508 
0.5112 
0.508 
77.622 
73.95 
75.30 

0.5 
1.7562 
1.830 
1.587 
56.893 
57.05 
58.00 

0.8 
7.3172 
7.585 
7.187 
36.149 
35.02 
36.70 

0.9 
17.359 
—— 
17.03 
26.339 
— 
26.60 
The present theoretical study has been done considering combine effect of fluid Inertia effects and bearing surface deformation The results have been compared with available data of researchers.
IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The present steady state results (considering only fluid inertia effect) are compared to the results of Kakoty et.al.,
[4] and Chen & Chen [5] (for D 1.0 ) as given in Table3. These three results are in good agreement
Table 1: Comparison of Steady state characteristics of a oil
journal bearings for
L D 1.0 , F 0.0
i.e, with
considering Inertia Effect only
The steadystate results are compared to the results of Kakoty & Majumder [4] Chen and Chen [5] for
L D 1.0 and
F 0.0
as given in Table 1. These two
e
results are in good agreement. A slight increase in load
capacity with modified Reynolds number
R is observed in
0 0
_ 1 2 _ _
Fr p cos d d z
0 1
(39)
the present study. In the present study it is observed that the attitude angle increases slightly for eccentricity ratio 0.2, whereas the attitude angle reduces slightly for eccentricity ratio 0.8 & 0.9.
Table 2. Comparison of maximum steady state pressure obtained by the present method to that of Brighton et.al [ 9] and Majumder, Brewe et.al [ 7 ] [ D 1.0 , 0 0.85,
R 0.3, 0.4]
Deformation factor, F 
P max (Present) 
P max (Brighton) 
P max (Majumder) 
0.0 
18.2231 
16.8 
17.25 
0.05 
14.9515 
14.10 
13.5 
0.1 
12.4542 
11.40 
11.5 
0.2 
8.8761 
8.7 
9,0 
0.4 
5.8980 
6.3 
6.25 
It may be seen that the peak pressure decreases with increase in the elasticity parameter / deformation factor.
In Table 2 the comparison of maximum centreline pressures in the circumferential direction of the present solution for a
finite bearing with
LD 1.0 , 0 0.85 , and for values of
F varying from 0 to 0.4 with those of reference [7, 9] are shown.
Figure 2 shows the steadystate load capacity variation with elasticity parameter for seven eccentricity ratios (i.e.,
0 0.2 , 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9). Although there is little variation of load with F at low eccentricity ratios, the load drops very sharply with F at 0 0.9 . The increase in F increases the minimum film thickness as shown in fig. 3. This in effect reduces the true eccentricity ratio, therefore pressures and load capacity drop. It may be mentioned that a similar observation has been made by Conway and Lee [11] while analyzing a flexible bearing using the short bearing approximation
Figure 4 shows the steadystate attitude angle variation with elasticity parameter for seven eccentricity ratios (i.e.,
0 0.2 , 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9). The increasing trend of
the variation of attitude angle with F is observed
Figure 5 shows the steadystate Load carrying capacity variation with elasticity parameter for different slenderness ratio (i.e., D 0.5,1.0, 2.0 ). Although there is little variation of load with F at low slenderness ratios, the load drops very sharply with F at L D 2.0
e
Figure 6 shows the steadystate Load carrying capacity variation with elasticity parameter for different modified
Figure 8 shows the steadystate Load carrying capacity variation with elasticity parameter for different poisson ratio. The load drops very sharply with F . The load carrying
capacity increases as Poisson ratio increases.
Reynolds number (i.e.,
R 0.0,

, 1.4). The load
Figure 9 shows the steadystate End flow variation with
drops very sharply with F . The load carrying capacity increases as modified Reynolds number increases.
elasticity parameter for different Eccentricity ratio. The End flow increases marginally at higher eccentricity ratio
0 0.8 but at low eccentricity ratio the variation is almost constant with F .
V CONCLUSIONS

The region of load carrying capacity decreases as the bearing liner is made more flexible for high eccentricity ratios
(i.e.,
0 0.7 ). For
0 0.7 , the flexibility of the bearing
Figure 7 shows the steadystate Load carrying capacity variation with elasticity parameter for different R ratio. The load drops very sharply with F . The load carrying
liner had little or no effect on stability.

As L/D is increased, distortion effects are more prominent. This leads to a decrease in load carrying capacity.

The hydrodynamic pressure and hence the load capacity is reduced as the bearing liner becomes more flexible, especially at eccentricities greater than 0.8.

As the Reynolds number increases the load carrying capacity increases but drop when bearing liner is made more flexible

As the Poisson ratio increases the load carrying capacity increases but drop sharply when bearing liner is made more
capacity increases as H
R ratio decreases.
flexible.

As the liner thickness to radius ratio increases the load carrying capacity decreases but drop when bearing liner is made more flexible
a ri
b r0
NOMENCLATURE
Inner radius of the bearing liner [ m ] Outer radius of the bearing liner [ m ]
c Radial clearance [ m ]
R Journal radius [ m ]
D Journal diameter [ m ]
dm ,n
Ditortion coefficient of m ,n harmonic
m,n Axial and circumferential harmonics
e Eccentricity [ m ]
e0 Steady state eccentricity [ m ]

Youngs modulus [ N / m2 ]

Elasticity parameter or deformation factor,

Nondimensional fluid film force along the line of
F r centers

Nondimensional fluid film force perpendicular the

1 Angular coordinates at which the fluid film commences [ rad ]
2 Angular coordinates at which the fluid film cavitates [ rad ]
Angular velocity of journal [ rad / s]
p
Whirl ratio. [ ]
F line of centres
p t
Non dimensional time.
F r0 , F0
Nondimensional steady state fluid film forces
Deformation of bearing surface. [ m ]
h Oil film thickness [ m ]
h0 Steady state oil film thickness [ m ]
0
0
,
Steady state deformation of bearing surface. [ m ] Nondimensional deformation of bearing surface
Lames constants
h0 Nondimensional steady state oil film thickness
R = Reynolds number,
cR
H Thickness of bearing liner [ m ]
J Mechanical equivalent of heat
e
Re
= Modified Reynolds number, c R
Length of bearing [ m ]
R e
L
p Oil film pressure [ Pa ]
Q = Dimensionless flow parameter in direction
p0 Steady state film pressure [ Pa ]
p 0 Dimensionless oil pressure
Q End flow of oil [ m3 / s ]
_
Qz = Dimensionless flow parameter in z direction
REFERENCES

Pinkus, O. and Sternlicht, B., Theory of Hydrodynamic Lubrication, New York, McGrawHill (1961).

V. N. Constantinescu and S. Galetuse On the Possibilities of
Q
u ,v , w
Nondimensional End flow
Components of fluid velocity in the x, y, and z direction, respectively. [ m / s ]
Improving the Accuracy of the Evaluation of Inertia Forces in Laminar and Turbulent Films J. Tribol. Vol 96 (1), 6977 (Jan 01, 1974) (9 pages), ASME, Journal of Tribology  Volume 96  Issue 1 

Banerjee Mihir B .,Shandil R.G.,and Katyal S.P.A Nonlinear Theory of Hydrodynamic Lubrication Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 117,4856(1986)
U Shaft peripheral speed [ m / s ]
W0 Steady state load [ N ]

Kakoty S. K. and Majumdar B. C., Effect of Fluid Inertia on Stability of Oil Journal Bearing. ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol 122, pp 741745, October 2000

Chen, C.H. and Chen, C.K., The influence of fluid inertia on the
W 0
x, y, z
Dimensionless steady state load
Circumferential, radial and axial coordinates
operating characteristics of finite journal bearings, Wear, Vol. 131, (1989), pp. 229240.

Higginson, G. R., "The Theoretical Effects of Elastic Deformation of the Bearing Liner on Journal Bearing Performance,"

ElastohydrodynamicLubrication, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Vol. 180,
, y, z
0
Dimensionless coordinates in circumferential, radial and axial directions
Viscosity at inlet condition [ Pa s]
Part 3B, 19651966, pp. 3137.


B.C.Majumder, D.E.Brewe and M.M.Khonsari, Stability of a rigid rotor supported on flexible oil Journal bearings, Journal of Tribology Trans Vol 110, 1988, pp 181 – 187.

J.O'Donoghue, D.K.Brighton and C.J.K.Hooke, The effect of elastic distortions on Journal bearing performance, Journal of Lubrication
Density [ kg / m3 ]
Poissons ratio
Eccentricity ratio
0 Steady state eccentricity ratio
Attitude angle [ rad ]
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