Speaker Dependent Emotion Recognition from Speech for Kannada language

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Speaker Dependent Emotion Recognition from Speech for Kannada language

Harshith B U

Dept. of Electronics and Communication Vidyavardhaka College of Engineering Mysuru, India

Mohith R

Dept. of Electronics and Communication Vidyavardhaka College of Engineering Mysuru, India

Dr. D J Ravi

Professor

Dept. of Electronics and Communication Vidyavardhaka College of Engineering Mysuru, India

K Bushra Jabeen

Dept. of Electronics and Communication Vidyavardhaka College of Engineering Mysuru, India

Sampreetha S

Dept. of Electronics and Communication Vidyavardhaka College of Engineering Mysuru, India

Geethashree A

Associate Professor

Dept. of Electronics and Communication Vidyavardhaka College of Engineering Mysuru, India

Abstract- Emotion is an integrated feature that creates a void between humans and humanoids. In order to fulfill this void, emotion recognition plays an important role. Though there are many other methods to recognize emotions, we have chosen speech as a basis for extraction of emotions as it is less effected from environmental constrains such as magnetic field, light and other factor. Emotion recognition has already been implemented in many languages except for Kannada. In this paper, we have created a system where in Kannada speech is an input and emotion is the output. Praat is used to extract features from the speech signal which is given by the speaker as input. A GUI in MATLAB has been created to interface human speech with the system. The neural network takes the features extracted from praat software and test the data to the trained feed forward neural network and recognizes the basic emotion of humans such as sad, happy, angry .

Keywords-Emotion recognition, MATLAB, Praat, Speech database neural network training and validation, confusion matrix.

  1. ARCHITECTURE

    Human communication developed with the origin of speech which approximately dates back to 500,000 BCE. From this speech humans could express their emotions[4]. These emotions of happy, sad, angry etc play an important role in understanding ones situation or desire in a better way.Thus emotion can be defined as a strong feeling of ones circumstance. Before the invention of emotion recognition system, the machines could not efficiently identify persons emotion and respond. By introducing this system, the machines are able to respond efficiently to the users needs and increase the utility of the machines corresponding to ones needs. In this system we have created GUI to record speech from the speaker. From the recorded speech the features are extracted. These extracted features are sent as test data to

    recognize the basic emotions of humans such as happy, sad, angry[3]. This recognized emotion is displayed on screen.

  2. METHODOLOGY

    Fig. 1. Block diagram

    1. Speech input : Emotion is identified based on the speech given by the speaker, the system takes Kannada speech as the input from the speaker.

    2. Pre-processing : The feature extraction process requires speech signal without the external noise. In-order to remove this noise system uses spectral subtraction and removes external non-periodic noises.

    3. Feature extraction : In this process, features are extracted from the original dataset, by decreasing the amount of variables. As the number of features increase, the accuracy increases accordingly.

      1. Pitch : It represents the variation of a tone giving prosodic information of an utterance.

      2. Intensity : Power carried by a sound wave per unit area in the direction perpendicular to that area.

      3. Jitter : Deviation from true periodicity of a presumably periodic signal.

      4. Shimmer : It relates to amplitude variation of the sound wave.

    4. Classification : The classifier differentiates the emotions of the speech. There are many classifiers such as HMM, GMM, ANN, SVM etc. In this project ANN classifier including feed forward neural network is used.

      ANN is popular choice as it can faciliate non linear relationship between features and classes. It has 3 layers (input, output, hidden). In ANN, generally 90% data is used for training and 10% is used for validation. ANN is a highly adaptable learning machine.

    5. Output : The desired emotion to be obtained is represented in the form of emojis hence indicating the recognition of particular emotion[4].

    TABLE I English transcription of the Kannada text.

  3. DATABASE

    Kannada is one of the Southern Dravidian language, and its history divided into three periods: Halegannada from 450 1200 CE, Nadugannada from 12001700, and Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced by Sanskrit. Influences of Prakrit and Pali, can also seen in Kannada language.

    We used read type as our speech corpora. For analyzing the emotion we considered 100 Kannada sentence. The total number of feature in dataset of 600 (100 sentence *3 emotion

    *2artist) were 9. The proposed emotion in speech corpus are Angry, Sad, Happy.

    The Praat software is used to record the Kannada sentences. The recording factors considered here are mono channel and sampling frequency of 44.1 kHz. The audio file recorded is saved in WAV file format for further feature extraction to be simple. Multiple sentences in Kannada recited by the speaker are collected through which the features such as pitch parameter (mean pitch, SD pitch, min pitch, max pitch), duration, jitter, shimmer are extracted and tabulated to create the database.

    Pitch – degree of highness or lowness of tone. Intensity – degree of loudness.

    Jitter – deviation from the tune periodicity.

    Shimmer – periodic variation between amplitude peaks.

    These features were chosen, as they were giving 90 percent of accuracy. Where as considering other features. By adding other features to these features just increase the accuracy of the emotion recognition system by just 10 percent. Thus limiting our work to these features yields higher efficiency with less number of features and limiting the database. Random audio clips were played and each clips were verified with corresponding emotion with the domain experts.

    The data sample from the speaker were artified and was recorded using praat software in noise less environment.

    The data collected from speakers here is audio samples. The sentences taken for training the system are roughly 100, however few sentence are given in the TABLE I[7].

    Sent.id

    Sentence

    1

    Shale bahala dooradalede. (School is very far)

    2

    Nanu oorige hoguthene. ( I'm going to town)

    3

    Swalpa mellage mathadi. (talk in low voice )

    4

    Nanage sahaya madi. ( Please help me)

    5

    Navu adanu nodidevu. ( We saw it )

    6

    Shalege makkalu baralilla. (Children did not come to school)

    7

    Ninna hesaru yenu. (What is your name)

    Sent.id

    Sentence

    1

    Shale bahala dooradalede. (School is very far)

    2

    Nanu oorige hoguthene. ( I'm going to town)

    3

    Swalpa mellage mathadi. (talk in low voice )

    4

    Nanage sahaya madi. ( Please helpme)

    5

    Navu adanu nodidevu. ( We saw it )

    6

    Shalege makkalu baralilla. (Children did not come to school)

    7

    Ninna hesaru yenu. (What is your name)

  4. TRAINING AND VALIDATION

    Once the database is created, it is used for training and validation using the MATLAB software, where the MATLAB has inbuilt tool for training neural network namely nntool(neural network toolbox) and for verifying validation and testing namely nftool(neural fitting toolbox). The feed forward back propagation is the network type used for training the system where former update the data in forward direction and back propagation helps to reduce the error by working has feedback system. The TRAINLM is used as training function that change the weight and bias based on levenberg-marquardt optimization further TRAINLM is the fastest among all the algorithm in MATLAB toolbox.

    There are 3 types of layers as usual in feed forward neural network namely input layer, hidden layer and output layer. The input layer consist of 9 neuron ,output consist of 3 neuron single hidden layer is considered with 6 neuron and the system is trained. 70% of the dataset is used for training 15% of dataset is used for validation and 15% of remaining data is used for testing[4].

  5. EXECUTION

    Graphical User Interface (GUI) created as user- friendly method using MATLAB software. The GUI includes 5 push button and one axes. For selecting the system whether to identify the emotion of male or female two button were included, further after selecting it has the push button for record ,stop and play. The record and stop button perform operation as the name on the button. Play button play the denoised audio of the recorded audio.

    Fig. 2. GUI for emotion detection.

    GUI takes the real-time input from the speaker and is saved in a temporary file for further analysis. Praat software is invoked in GUI through MATLAB to extract the required features from the real-time input. These extracted features are sent as a test data to the already trained neural network. The neural network analyses and compares from already trained dataset and recognizes the emotion. The result is then sent to GUI for display[8].

    The above figure shows that the system detecting male emotion in our experiment is 95.2% accurate.

    Similar results were obtained in female speech, emotion

    Here in MATLAB the nprtool is used to obtain confusion matrix

    The confusion matrix of male and female speech emotion recognition for training, validation, testing Using nprtool is as shown in figures 3 and 4.

    The confusion matrix obtained during manual testing method for male emotion detection.

  6. SOFTWARES

    Two softwares were used throughout the project they are MATLAB and PRAAT.

    1. MATLAB: High performance for technical computing. It has data structures, built-in editing and debugging tools and supports object oriented programming. It generates displays or outputs when commands are executed. It combines calculation and graphic plotting. It is designed for scientific computing.

    2. PRAAT : It is a computer program with which you can analyse, synthesize, and manipulate speech, and create high- quality pictures for your articles and thesis. It is a freeware program for the analysis and reconstruction of acoustic speech.

  7. RESULT

    The above project was verified using two methods one with the inbuilt toolbox in MATLAB and the other method by giving dataset manually.

    Fig. 3. Confusion matrix for male emotion detection.

    Fig. 4. Confusion matrix for female emotion detection.

    TABLE II system accuracy for male emotion recognition.

    Sad

    Angry

    Happy

    overall

    Sad

    100

    0

    0

    100

    Angry

    0

    100

    0

    100

    Happy

    5

    15

    80

    80

    overall

    93

    The Table II shows the emotion recognition of the male to detect exact emotion in real time by giving random sentence of each emotion, the result obtained were written in percentage. When the happy sentence were given to the system the error was more compared to that of angry and sad sentence. The fact for the reduced accuracy in happy sentence is that in angry sentence pitch will be high and for the sad sentence pitch will be low but in the happy sentence the pitch value will be in between the other two emotion. However, the main feature we considered is pitch and its parameter the accuracy will be dependent on pitch.

    The confusion matrix obtained during manual testing for female emotion detection.

    TABLE III System accuracy for female emotion recognition

    Sad

    Angry

    Happy

    overall

    Sad

    100

    0

    0

    100

    Angry

    0

    100

    0

    100

    Happy

    10

    20

    70

    70

    overall

    90

    The Table III shows the emotion recognition of the female at the real time by giving 10 sentence of each emotion, the result obtained were written in percentage. The result obtained during manual testing for male emotion recognition is around 93 percent and for female emotion recognition it was around 90 percent.

    The GUI result obtained after angry male sentence is given as input, is as shown in the below figure 5 similarly GUI will display the emotion of different type .

    Fig. 5 GUI after the recognition of emotion

  8. CONCLUSION

In his paper, emotion recognition system for Kannada language is undertaken, where the language lacked a proper database. Among all the prosodic features extracted, pitch contributed to be the highest, presenting amplitude and recognition ease. Linear feed forward neural network was used for the training of features, which includes back propagation algorithm which calculates the error and propagates it back to the previous layer. Due to variation in features for different emotions, the system could predict the emotion of the speaker. The plot of the variation of features with the emotion is displayed. With the increase in dataset, system is made more efficient. Hence giving the best recognition rate.

REFERENCE

  1. Dr. D.J.Ravi, Sudarshan Patil kulkarni TEXT-TO-SPEECH SYNTHESIS SYSTEM FOR KANNADA LANUAGE .

  2. Esther Ramdinmawii, Abhijit mohanta, Vinay Kumar Mittal, Emotion recognition from speech signal .

  3. Saikat Basu, Jaybrata Chakraborty Arnab Bag and Md. Aftabuddin, A Review on Emotion Recognition using Speech, International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologie.

  4. Ms. Swati Shinde, Prof. Mrs. Swati Shilaskar- Speech Based Emotion Recognition Using MFCC and ANN- International Journal of Computer Application, January 2015.

  5. Agenes jacob , P. Mythili- Prosodic feature based speech emotion recognition at segmental and supra segmental levels, 2015 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Informatics, Communication and Energy Systems (SPICES).

  6. Shaikh Nilofer R.A, Rani P.Gadhe, R.R Deshmukh,V.B Waghmare, P.P Shrishimal Automatic emotion recognition f.rom speech signals- International journal of scientific & Engineering Reserch.April- 2015.

  7. Sreenivasa Rao,Shashidhar G. KoolagudiRamu Reddy Vempada "Emotion recognition from speech using globaland local prosodic features".

  8. L. Dilbar Singh Human Emotion Recognition System.

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