Sound Pollution and Radiation Impact Survey of OML II Green Energy ‘Obolo’ Nigeria


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Sound Pollution and Radiation Impact Survey of OML II Green Energy Obolo Nigeria

F. U. Nte1 G. F. Aman2

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science University of Port Harcourt

Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria

Abstract Sound pollution has been a major challenge in both the developed and the developing nations and demand serious attention to check the health hazards, just as is the case of radiation studies. The effort is a drift from the urban noise to the rural oil and gas producing communities of Nigeria, taking Oil Mining Lease II as a case study. The communities cover Ebukuna, Ama- Ubulom, Amajob, Ama-Ngerenkpon, Agbalama, Otako, Okoloile, Ama-Friday, Otu-Ogon and Ngo town, in the other of 1 to 10 respectively. The communities have a noise range of 44.49dBA to 63.60dBA, with Ebukuna ranking highest and Otako lowest. This is indicative that the Oil and Gas industrial activities do not have adverse noise effect from delivery pipes. The participatory investigation shows severity from oil spills, which has left the creeks barren and caused migration of the citizenry across the shores of Nigeria and West Africa for green fishing. A complementary research results of the radionuclide contents of 40k (Bq/l), 235Ra(Bq/L)m show the values twice above the recommended standard by WHO in table 2, which is indicative of the Oil spill impact in the region and transport from Ogoni spill down to Andoni (Obolo) as the ultimate sink. The UNSCEAR of the bottom sediment is even much higher

Keywords Radiation, Sound Pollution

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Andoni (Obolo) is one of the 774 local government areas of Nigeria and among the 23 local government areas of Rivers State.

    It is located on 70 181E and 70 331E of Greenwich meridian but transverse laterally by latitude 40 311N. it is bounded by the Ogonis in the North, Bonny to the West, Imo River/Opobo /Ikot Abasi to the East and the Atlantic Ocean to the South. It has seven multinational firms on its land and offshore, namely;

    1. AMNI, International Petroleum Development Company (Ngo field)

    2. Chevron Tubu field Development OML 52

    3. Elf Petroleum Nigeria Limited OML (100)

    4. NNPC Joint Venture, Offshore Operations OML 99, OML 101, OML 102 with Production capacity of 500 million barrels of oil

    5. Mobil Oil Fields Eastern Obolo and Ibeno Ethnic brothers.

    6. Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Otakukpo field

    7. The Green energy International Limited and Lek Oil Collaboration on OML II and OML 52. A lot of competitive study has been done on sound pollution impact.

    These include [1] [23].

    The study show both the impact of noise and radiological hazard index for most communities as above the WHO standards and need a good environmental health educators to enlighten the people and government

  2. METHOD

    The methods involves the use of a CEL 231 and CEL 254 Digilert 100 and radalert 200, geographical positioning system (GSP) and a participatory tool box for forensic investigation of Oil and Gas exploitation impact.

    The result and analysis are as shown in table 1: Baseline flow station noise level of facilities while figures 1 – 4 tells us specific noise details at the surveyed point

    At the close; table 2 gives us summary of the radiation index in water while fig 5 show us the contour of the spread, fig 6 at the summary is indicative of the average noise level for the 10 sampled communities, which is minimal.

  3. RESULTS

    TABLE1. Sound pollution survey of flow station facilities

    S/N

    FACILITIES

    OPERATION

    NOISE LEVEL

    (Dba)

    Range

    (m)

    1

    Wind level/ Helipad

    Transport

    60-80

    500

    2

    Communication platform

    Radio

    transmission

    50-70

    500

    3

    Oil pumps/engine/metering

    Compression

    80-100

    1000

    4

    Perimeter drain and wall

    Drainage

    Negligible

    Sink

    5

    Pipelines and manifold

    Oil delivery

    High pressure

    Linear

    6

    Platform and gantry

    'base/floor

    Negligible

    Static

    7

    Reservoir ( fuel tank)/ gate vales

    Storage

    Negligible

    Static

    8

    Rig stand/swids and operations

    Base

    65-135dBA

    impulsive

    500

    9

    Roads and drill slot marine

    Assess

    Negligible

    Static

    10

    Saver pit/flow channel

    Drainage

    recycling

    Negligible

    Linear –

    11

    Swamp dozer, pipeline

    Excavation and laying of pipe

    80-90

    500

    12

    Test separators/scrubbers

    Processing

    70-90

    500

    l

    13

    Seismic blast exploration

    Dynamites

    100-140

    1200

    14

    Simo pumps and bole hole

    Pumping

    60-80

    400

    15

    Surge vessels

    Vertical tank

    50-70

    200

    16

    Swamps and wild life

    Ecological

    Negligible

    Random

    17

    Sewage/septic tanks

    Discharge

    Negligible

    Static

    18

    Gas flare stark

    Heat radiation

    N60-88

    Zoom

    and sound

    19

    Well head Christmas tree

    Well

    Negligible

    Static

    20

    Work site/ generators

    Camp

    60-80

    500

    Average minimum 55dBA ± 2, average minimum 87dBA ± 5 SPDC facility

    Figure1. Noise level of Ebukuma Community in Andoni L.G.A

    From the above chart, we see that:

    • The residents of Jetty village are exposed to the most noise (74.30dBA) in this community.

    • Those living around Hospital are least affected (44.20dBA) by the noise in the community.

    Figure 2. Noise Level of Ama-Ubulom Community in Andoni L.G.A

    From the above chart, we see that:

    -The residents of Bike Union House are exposed to the most noise (65.80 dBA) in this community.

    -Those living around Stream Water Boundary are least affected (44.20 dBA) by the noise in the community.

    From the above chart, we see that:

    Figure3. Noise level of Agbalama Community in Andoni L.G.A

    -The villagers staying around Town Square are exposed to the most noise (68.70 dBA) in this community.

    -Those living around Bere Compound are least affected (44.60 dBA) by the noise in the community.

    Figure4. Noiselevel of Otako Community in Andoni L.G.A

    From the above chart, we see that:

    -The villagers staying around the Entrance Boundary are exposed to the most noise (62.40 dBA) in this community.

    -Those living around the Anglican Church and Fah Edeh are least affected (42.40 dBA) by the noise in the community.

    Table2. Radiation hazard indices in sea water

    S/N

    Location

    Raeq (Bq/l)

    Hex (mSvy-1)

    Hin (mSvy-1)

    D

    (nGyh-1)

    AEDE

    (mSvy-1)

    Gonadal (mSvy-1)

    ELCR x 10-3

    1

    NGS 1

    153.33

    0.414

    0.497

    67.71

    0.08

    456.27

    0.29

    2

    NGS 2

    201.35

    0.544

    0.617

    88.70

    0.11

    598.58

    0.38

    3

    NGS 3

    103.99

    0.281

    0.337

    46.68

    0.06

    317.59

    0.20

    4

    NGS 4

    166.85

    0.451

    0.492

    73.61

    0.09

    498.15

    0.32

    5

    NGS 5

    166.81

    0.450

    0.498

    73.52

    0.09

    496.89

    0.32

    6

    ECS 6

    117.20

    0.317

    0.394

    52.02

    0.06

    350.93

    0.22

    7

    AFS 7

    150.14

    0.406

    0.494

    66.40

    0.08

    447.45

    0.29

    8

    AFS 8

    149.35

    0.403

    0.468

    65.71

    0.08

    442.62

    0.28

    9

    OTS 9

    118.96

    0.321

    0.364

    52.66

    0.07

    356.40

    0.23

    10

    AGS 10

    99.12

    0.268

    0.352

    44.06

    0.05

    296.55

    0.19

    MEAN VALUE

    142.71

    0.385

    0.451

    63.11

    0.08

    426.14

    0.27

    UNSCEAR 2000

    370

    1

    1

    57

    1

    300

    0.29

    From table 2 which shows the average Radiation Hazard Indices in Sea Water it is established that the index is above world health organization by twice the value and needs more caution as to the source and the impact on the fishing community which is a major discovery.

    Figure5. Contour mapping of Ama-Friday, Otu-Ogoon, Ngo and Ebukuma Communities

    The figure 5 shows the distribution of the Radiation Hazard Indices in Sea Water among the riverine community of the surveyed field.

  4. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION

Figure6. Average noise level for all Communities showing minimal impact

Sound pollution and radiation impact survey of OML II was carried out. The findings shown in figure 1-4 is indicative that industrial noise impact from network of oil and gas pipeline is negligible but could escalate for flow stations on full production process. Reference table 1.

The radio nucleic activity concentration in the water of the study area is very high, reference Table 2. This is traceable to the heavy drill work in the area, oil spillages and drift oil and gas pollutant from the Ogoni leakages and remediation work in Ogoni which is North of Andoni, the study area. The recommendation is for an integrated environmental evaluation, remediation and rehabilitation of the people on aqua cultural alternatives to boost fish production.

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