Solar Tracking and Automated Water Pumping System

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV7IS08068

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Solar Tracking and Automated Water Pumping System

Special Issue – 2019 International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 RTESIT – 2019 Conference Proceedings Solar Tracking and Automated Water Pumping System #1 S Sushruthi Pai, #2 Yashaswini Y Acharya, #3 Vibha K P Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, NMAMIT NITTE, Karkala-574110 Abstract: Solar energy is an important means of renewable energy resource. Solar tracking urges extreme solar energy to generate out of the solar panel and enables to maintain a profile with the sun rays. The goal of our venture is to increase the amount of usable energy by utilizing a computerized tracking system to capture maximum intensity of the solar rays. This project deals with development of automated water pumping system using solar tracking. The rapidly increasing demand for energy calls a need for substitute for fossil fuels. Renewable energy source exhibits an outstanding figure for producing electricity without any fuel consumption. Keywords: LDR, MPPT, Ardino Nano board INTRODUCTION Energy plays a major role in the development of the nation. automatic turn on and off of the water pump. This helps in Present day scenario, huge amount of energy is produced the automation of water pumping systems in hospitals, using non-renewable energy sources. 85% of energy factories, schools, public places etc. hence reducing production is dependent on fossil fuels[1]. The resources of manpower also maintaining the adequate usage of the the fuels are limited and its usage is resulting to global resources[4] [5]. warming due to emission of greenhouse gases. To provide a sustainable power production and safe world to the future Solar based power is a rule progressively used worldwide as generation, there is a rapid increase in need of energy from an inexhaustible wellspring of vitality. India has tremendous renewable resources like solar, wind, geothermal and ocean undiscovered sun powered off-frame work openings. This tidal wave [2]. Solar radiations are converted into electrical paper gives data about advancement methodology of an energy by solar panels. Solar panel constitutes of installed framework for off grid water system frame work semiconductor materials. Major component used in the [7]. Resource of water is indispensible for satisfying daily making of solar panel is Silicon, which is 24.5% human needs varying, from agriculture to energy efficient.[3]. production. The demand of water for irrigation purpose is still an issue to be solved in developing countries, mainly To have the maximum utilization of the amount of intensity rural areas with energy crisis and environmental pollution captured it is essential to use the tracking system and hence created mostly by the use of fossil fuel, this problem has to maintain accuracy and precession. The control circuit for unfolded a solution using solar photovoltaic water pumping solar tracker is done by Arduino Uno board. This is system. Solar photovoltaic water pumping system has programmed to detect sunlight using LDR and actuate the become so popular not only in the agriculture sector but also stepper motor to position the solar panel where it can for drinking water and micro irrigation applications [8]. receive maximum sunlight. Stepper motor is controllable, energy efficient, steady and have high tracking accuracy and suffers little environmental affect.The undertaking is Abundant water supply in remote locations is required to expected to develop a programmed water system framework ensure the grazing evenly. Water pumping is most accepted which controls the draw engine ON/OFF on detecting water and admired application of solar energy in developing level sensors. The water pump is attached to the battery. countries such as India. The proposed system is reliable, Since the pump works on DC power supply, it is directly simple and requires less maintenance [9]. Many villages in attached to the battery. The water pumping system also India use fossil fuel based water pumping system for consists of water level sensors used to detect water levels for Volume 7, Issue 08 Published by, 1 Special Issue – 2019 International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 RTESIT – 2019 Conference Proceedings irrigation due to a shortage of electricity. Fossil fuel causes The second part of the project namely the water pumping great damage to the environment as they release harmful system consists of water level sensors, DC motor and greenhouse gases. In this research work, we propose a solar battery. The water level sensor is used to control and detect water level in the tank. The solar energy is stored and it is energy based automated water pumping system is implemented to these villagers in terms of cost and profit. In collected in battery. The absorbed power is then sent to the addition, this can save a lot of water and is environment- motor which runs the pump. friendly [10]. Increase in cell efficiency, maximizing the power output and employing a tracking system with solar panel are the three major ways to increase the overall efficiency. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is the process to maximize the output power from solar panel by keeping the solar panel’s operation on the knee point of P-V characteristics. MPPT technology only offers the maximum power that can be received from a stationary array of solar panels at a particular time; it cannot, however, increase the power generation when the sun is not aligned with the system. This system is mechanized to track the sun’s position that increases the power output of solar panel from 30% to 60% than the stationary system. Figure 1: Configuration of Solar Tracking and Water Pumping System To develop single axis solar tracking system which captures maximum intensity from the sun rays efficiently store the 2.1 Solar Panel generated energy in the battery for the future application to develop automated water pumping system which helps to Solar panel mainly consists of numerous photovoltaic (PV) cells which is combined to form a module. These PV cells save water and minimize man power. Overall objective is to build a power conserving, less use of manpower, resource are made up of semiconductor material namely silicon that conserving project for the sustainable development and to is usually connected in series or parallel to get additive help the mankind save time. voltage or current. The solar panel is basically a P-N junction, when sunlight falls on the PV cell; the electrons gain energy and jumps out of the atom hence leading to the II. SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM flow of electricity. Deciding the specification of the PV panel depends on the Table 1: Solar panel specification need of water tank, followed by rating of pump and battery. Single axis tracking is done using LDR controlled by Arduino Uno board and the panel is rotated accordingly Parameter Value which is driven by stepper motor using the driver L298N. Maximum Power 10 W The I-V and P-V characteristics and other parameters of Vmax 18Volts solar panel is then obtained. Constant voltage which is Imax 0.56Amps obtained from the panel is made to store in the rechargeable battery for future application i.e Pumping system. Hence the Voc 21.6Volts automated water pumping system with relay protection is Vsc 0.64Amps developed. Rechargeable 12Volts Battery The proposed system mainly consists of two parts, solar Dimension 280*54*22 tracking and water pumping system. The first part of the Weight 1.5kg system, the solar tracking system consists of LDR, stepper motor and solar panel. These LDR’s are connected to the The solar energy is extracted from the solar panel such that two ends of the solar panel. Based on the intensity of light maximum energy is captured and made to store in the falling on the LDR the arduino will decide the direction of rechargeable type of battery. This work makes use of a 12V, rotation of stepper motor. Stepper motor is in turn connected 4.5Ah lead acid battery. The battery maintenance is required to the panel. Thus arduino controls the rotation of both for better performance. If the battery is overcharged, it stepper motor and solar panel. might get heated up and if the battery is over discharged, the Volume 7, Issue 08 Published by, 2 Special Issue – 2019 International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 RTESIT – 2019 Conference Proceedings life cycle of the battery eventually decreases. To maintain IV. Solar panel Characteristic the battery life and to have better performance, battery should never be overcharged or over discharged. The electrical power generated by solar panel depends on the intensity of the solar isolation. The amount of solar The intensity of the rays falling on the solar panel is sensed energy that passes through the atmosphere and strikes a using LDR which is controlled and programmed using given area on the earth over specific time varies with latitude seasons and the weather which is known as Arduino Nano board. In the parallel case the relay circuit of insulation (incident solar radiation). Due to the variation in the water pump is also controlled by the Arduino. Then the the intensity of the sun rays during the day and variations in energy is utilized to run the water pump. Pump is device that the length of the day, the power generated by the solar panel moves water content by mechanical action and are most also varies. The current voltage characteristic of the solar commonly used to lift the water from ground level. In the module provides useful information. The parameters project the water tank needs to be automatically filled based obtained from the I-V curve include short circuit current Isc, open circuit voltage Voc, maximum current Imax, and on levels sensed by ultrasonic sensors. maximum voltage Vmax at the maximum power point Pmax. III. Solar Charging Circuit Solar panel characterization is done by connecting the solar This circuit is mainly used to maintain constant DC voltage panel in series with the ammeter followed by a rheostat and obtaining from solar panel. This provides protection from voltmeter connected across the rheostat. The resistance is over charging and over discharging of the battery. varied and corresponding solar panel voltage and current are recorded, the I-V curve plotted for a 10W solar panel is shown in the below figure 4. Figure 2: Circuit diagram of Solar Charger circuits Figure 4: I-V Characteristics of solar panel The IV curve for the solar panel is plotted during the peak time of the day say approx 2pm. The graph is plotted by taking voltage along x-axis and current along y-axis. The graph having the maximum current of 0.4A obtained at voltage of 10V. Figure 3: Solar Tracking Unit Figure 5: Power v/s Voltage Curve of the solar panel Volume 7, Issue 08 Published by, 3 Special Issue – 2019 International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 RTESIT – 2019 Conference Proceedings This graph is obtained by taking solar panel voltage along x- axis and power (obtained by multiplying voltage and current at each point) along y-axis .It can be seen that the maximum power of 6.61W is obtained at voltage 17.4V and current 0.38A. From the above graph it can be inferred that the solar isolation is not constant throughout the day and the power generated varies accordingly, therefore, there is a need to store the electrical energy generated by the solar panel during maximum productivity. To achieve this battery is used as, renewable energy along with batteries allows stand- alone operations and therefore the batteries are now a Figure 7: LCD display showing the water level standard component of solar power system. I. V. Working of proposed system II. VI. Result and conclusion In this project the single axis solar tracking system is successfully implemented. The constant DC voltage of 12V is obtained with help of solar charger circuit. The energy obtained from the panel is stored into the rechargeable battery of 4.5Ah. The charge controller circuit prevents over charging and over discharging of the battery. Later implemented automation of water pumping system which senses the water level in the tank and automatically turns on and off the pump, based on the water sensed in the tank which is programmed using Arduino Uno. The production of solar energy by tracking increases its Figure 6: Solar Tracking and Automated Water Pumping Unit efficiency there by making it more useful. Solar energy is eco-friendly, widely available. The automated water When the solar panel is exposed to sunlight, the LDR pumping system helps in saving of water and electricity. As sensors are activated through arduino code and then the the system is automatic manual interaction is not required. The system designed is efficiently used to run the water LDR senses the intensity of the sunlight and then decide pump and can be installed at consumer site. whether the LDR1 or LDR2 is receiving maximum sunlight. And followed by the rotation of the solar panel through the References DC motor driven by motor driver L298N in the direction of the maximum intensity. [1] J.Rizik and Y.Chaiko ,”Solar tracking system : More efficient Use of solar panels”-2008 Once the solar energy is obtained it is made to store in the [2] M.Reyasudin basir khan,”Solar Tracking System lead acid battery for the future scope and for the protection Utilizing Pyranometer For optimal Photovoltaic of the battery the power trapped by the panel is made to pass Module Positioning”-2012 through the solar charger circuit and then towards the [3] Jeng -Nan Jung and R.Radharamanan,’Design of a solar battery. Meanwhile the ultrasonic sensor which is situated tracking system for Renewable energy’-2014 [4] M. Ouada, M.S. Meridjet and N. Talbi,’Optimization on the water tank keeps sensing the water levels and sends Photovoltaic Pumping System Based BLDC Using the message through LCD display. Once the sensor detects Fuzzy Logic MPPT Control’, International Renewable that the water level is low then the water pump is turned on and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC), pp.27- with the relay protection circuit, powered from the lead acid 31, 7-9 March 2013. battery which was storing the solar energy. Once the water [5] Neha Yadav, Manju Gupta, K. Sudhakar. Energy assessment of floating photovoltaic system, level in the tank reaches its maximum point the sensor International Conference on Electrical Power and senses and then turns off the pump automatically. Energy Systems (ICEPES) 2016, pp.264 – 269. [6] Yashar Ghiassi-Farrokhfal, Fiodar Kazhamiaka, Catherine Rosenberg, Srinivasan Keshav. Optimal Design of Solar PV Farms With Storage, IEEE Volume 7, Issue 08 Published by, 4 Special Issue – 2019 International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 RTESIT – 2019 Conference Proceedings Transactions on Sustainable Energy 2015, Vol. 6, Issue: 4, pp. 1586 – 1593. [7] Jia Uddin, S.M. Tasslim Reza, Qader Newaz, Jamal Uddin , Touhidul Islam and Jong-Myon Kim, Automated Water Irrigation System Using Solar Power,DOL:10.1109/ICECE.20126471527, pages:228-231, 2012. [8] Md.Samiul Alam , Md. Ashraful Hoque2, and Anik Chowdhury, Photovoltaic Water Pumping System using Maximum Power Point Tracking, 2017 [9] Bhim singh,Anjanee Kumar Mishra and Rajan Kumar, Solar Powered Water Pumping System Employing Switched Reluctance Motor Drive. IEEE Transaction on sustainable energy 2016. [10] Rajesh Kannan Megalingam, Vamsy Vivek Gedela Solar Powered Automated Water Pumping System for Eco-Friendly Irrigation. IEEE Xplore Compliant-Part Number:CFP17L34-ART, ISBN:978-1-5386-4031-9. Volume 7, Issue 08 Published by, 5

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