- Open Access
- Authors : Shalendra Kumar , Anup Kumar , Nitin Kumar
- Paper ID : IJERTV10IS080005
- Volume & Issue : Volume 10, Issue 08 (August 2021)
- Published (First Online): 12-08-2021
- ISSN (Online) : 2278-0181
- Publisher Name : IJERT
- License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Solar Rooftop Economic Analysis and Its Installetion
1 2 3
Shalendra Kumar, Anup Kumar, Nitin Kumar
1, 2, 3 Department of Electrical Engineering, IIMT University
Abstract:- Solar power is energy from the sun that is converted into thermal or electrical energy. Solar energy is the cleanest and most abundant renewable energy source available, and the U.S. has some of the richest solar resources in the world. Solar technologies can harness this energy for a variety of uses, including generating electricity, providing light or a comfortable interior environment, and heating water for domestic, commercial, or industrial use. Solar power is energy from the sun that is converted into thermal or electrical energy. Solar energy is the cleanest and most abundant renewable energy source available, and the U.S. has some of the richest solar resources in the world. Solar technologies can harness this energy for a variety of uses, including generating electricity, providing light or a comfortable interior environment, and heating water for domestic, commercial, or industrial use. Solar Rooftop Solar Power System is a power generation system that can be installed for residential houses. Office building, factory building, car park roof, which the system will produce electricity for use in conjunction with the distribution system of electricity. Recently Government of India has revised the target of Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) from 20,000 MW to 100,000 MW of solar power capacity by 2022. To achieve the ambitious target, the Indian government has set state wise targets to be achieved by 2022. The Northern region has a target of about 31 GW followed by Western region (28.4 GW), Southern region (26.5 GW), and Eastern region (12.2 GW).
Key word PV system, Array mounting racks, PV solar panel.
The PV modules are a gathering of numerous phones associated either in arrangement to expand the voltage or in corresponding to build the current. The quantity of cells in the model is administered by the voltage of the module. The ostensible working voltage of the framework generally needs to match to ostensible voltage of the capacity framework. PV modules are classified as either glasslike or dainty film, and they are decided on two essential variables: proficiency and financial matters. Glasslike modules are ordered into two primary sorts: mono translucent and polycrystalline. Mono translucent modules are produced using a huge precious stone of silicon. They are the most proficient sort in changing over daylight into power with a productivity arrives at 18%. Additionally, this sort is more costly than polycrystalline. Polycrystalline modules are the most well-known sort of the PV modules and they are less productive than the mono translucent modules and more affordable. The effectiveness of polycrystalline modules are appraised from 13% to 15%.
Exhibits are most usually mounted on rooftops or on steel shafts set in concrete. In specific applications, they might be mounted at ground level or on building dividers. Sun powered modules can likewise be mounted to fill in as part or the entirety of a shade construction, for example, a deck cover. On rooftop mounted frameworks, the PV cluster is normally mounted on fixed racks, corresponding to the rooftop for tasteful reasons and remained off a few creeps over the rooftop surface to permit wind current that will keep them as cool as pragmatic.
PV SYSTEM DESIGN
The site assessment is the essential advance to be followed, that empowers a PV fashioner to generally appraise the necessary measure of power for an entire structure as it would give us the rug space of the roof, permitting the originator to ascertain the unpleasant number of sun oriented boards (having a foreordained measurement) needed on the structure. The following stage of the site assessment is to decide the components of different constructions, for example, water tanks, structures giving style to the structure and so forth, so a plan can be assessed to forestall shadow falling on the board from those designs in order to forestall concealing and keep a sensible effectiveness in the force age of the board. The third piece of the site assessment is to decide the ideal spot for arrangement of a sun powered inverter and the circulation boxes, so the DC run isn't excessively long. The more extended the DC links, the bigger the misfortunes. Subsequently, an ideal plan ought to be with the end goal that the DC links conveying the yield from the boards ought not travel long towards a circulation box, however to be short long and give an extension to negligible misfortunes. Subsequent stage includes the area of the meter space for neighborhood lattice, so as it gives a reasonable spot to connect a net meter and furthermore permits the architect to process the AC run from the inverter. Typically a matrix meter is set at the ground level of a structure, thus the site assessment should consolidate the construction tallness likewise, to decide the length of links needed to make a trip from the roof tothe meter room.
After the site esteem subtleties, a fashioner makes a construction in a plan device (AutoCAD creator, Google Sketch up and so on) o for all intents and purposes reproduce the structure and give a harsh situation of the foreordained sun oriented board, remembering the shadows and different limitations. These imperatives are for the most part the sun powered irradiance accessible, the albedo factor and some sun based precise qualities acquired for the organize of the roof. This gives the rough number of boards that can be mounted on the roof, therefore permitting the fashioner to cite the most extreme force yield that can be removed from the boards that would be mounted.
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
To improve the proficiency of sun oriented cells and produce Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) ought to be utilized. It is an electronic framework that works module of the PV in a manner with the end goal that it permits the module to create all fit force. MPPT increments electrical productivity of PV and assists with diminishing number of sun powered boards, required region for introducing PV clusters for delivering the ideal yield. Concerning Maximum Power Point (MPP), a trial was led and the fundamental goal was to decide the trademark bend of the PV module, and to have the option to find the MPP of the PV module, through utilizing PV module cells. The open circuit voltage of the PV is estimated and followed by estimating the PV hamper. A variable opposition which takes after the heap across PV board was differed in advances, and for each comparing worth of the heap, the voltage across the heap and current through the heap was estimated. These outcomes were utilized to get the trademark bend of the PV module. Fig. shows PV trademark bend. As the obstruction of the heap expand, the created current abatements and the yield voltage across the PV board increments. Thus, the connection between the delivered voltage and current is contrarily relative as it tends to be seen in the attributes bend of PV from Fig. It very well may be seen from Fig. that there is a point in the bend where the yield voltage and yield current delivers the most extreme yield power which addresses MPP (12.1 V, 2.9 A, 35 W).
FIG.- PV output voltage vs. PV output current characteristics
FIG. – Voltage VS Power Curve According to Different Values of the Load Resistance
Project Implementation Strategy
It is conceived that the task will have the underneath refereced period of exercises. These stages are not fundamentally unrelated; to execute the venture on quick track premise some level of covering is conceived.
Stage I – Project Development
Stage II – Finalization of the Equipment and adornmentsStage III – Procurement and Construction Stage IV – Plant CommissioningStage I – Project Development
In a force project, improvement of the undertaking advancement assumes a significant part. Right around 50 % of the work is done on the off chance that one accomplishes power buy arrangement from the individual state utilities. The venture advancement begins with visits to the area, understanding about the provincial conditions, financial conditions, transportation offices and framework offices accessible around there. Aside from the over the underneath recorded undertakings will be under project improvement:
Preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR)
Submission of DPR
Power buy understanding (PPA)
Expedite Central Regulatory Authority freedom
During this stage, an undertaking group will be framed during the execution of the task. The architects from gathering will be included from beginning phases of execution of the undertaking. This would offer them the chance to acquaint with the gear and frameworks being introduced. These staff ought to include with the basic group of establishment and appointing. After the plant being appointed, these designers and experts would possess key situations in the association structure for the activity and upkeep of the plant. The obligations of the task group will be:
Planning and programming of the relative multitude of assets needed for projectfulfillment
Inspection of significant manufacture things
Organize the development and appointing of the plant
Monitoring and controlling the undertaking progress
Execute the undertaking inside the arranged financial plan
PV syst programming we use in planning the SPV plant, to figure by and large age , which incorporate the contemplations, all things considered, , either soil or because of debasement of parts , SPV module or inverter.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The main target is to design up to 50 kW PV solar system. It is required to obtain the produced energy, the cost and financial analysis, the reduction of CO2 emission by means of using the PVSYST software. In addition, determination of effective area that is required for the PV panels installation. With the help of using Helios scope software we designed 50 KW SPV plant array lay out at IIMT campus roof, though there is already solar plant installed but for our study purpose designed SPV plant again.
The batteries are utilized to store electric energy and to be utilized when there is no daylight. There are two principle sorts of the batteries that are utilized in the PV framework: Lead Acid battery and Deep Cycle battery. The batteries in most basic use are lead-corrosive sort in light of their great accessibility and cost viability and furthermore it is equipped for delivering high flows.
A charge regulator is a current-directing gadget that is put between the sun powered exhibit yield and the batteries. These gadgets are intended to keep the batteries from being cheated or excessively released. Some charge regulators use on/off control utilizing beat width tweak. It attempts to gradually diminish the measure of charge that follow into the battery as the battery approach its completely charge stage. Inverters are utilized to change over the battery or sun powered boards yield to ac amount that can be utilized either to be associated with the lattice or utilized by electric devises. There are three primary sorts of inverters, specifically; independent inverters, it runs the electrical gadgets inside the framework however it can't be associated with the network. Framework tie inverters, it tends to be associated with the lattice and they are intended to naturally disengage and close down when there is a deficiency of utility stockpile yet they don't give reinforcement power during black outs . Battery reinforcement inverters, it is a blend of the past two kinds. They give the power needs by the framework and they can likewise be associated with the matrix.
S.Sallem, M.Chaabene, M.B.A.Kamoun, Energy management algorithm for an optimum control of a photovoltaic water pumping system, applied energy, volume 86, pp. 2671- 2680, 2009.
A. Betka and A. Moussi, Performance Optimization of a Photovoltaic Induction Motor Pumping System, Renewable Energy, volume. 29, pp. 2167- 2181, 2004.
A. Terki, A. Moussi, A. Betka, N. Terki, An improved efficiency of fuzzy logic control of PMBLDC for PV pumping system, Applied Mathematical Modeling, Vo1ume 36, no.3, pp. 934-944, 2012.
S. Sumathi, L.Ashok Kumar, P. Surekha, 'Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems 2015.
D. M. Scholten, N. Ertugrul and W. L. Soong, Micro-Inverters in small scale PV systems: a review and future directions, Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference, AUPEC 2013, Hobart, TAS, Australia, 29 September – 3 October, 2013, pp. 1- 6.
D. M. Lee, and B. W. Raichle, A side by side comparison of micro and central inverters in shaded and unshaded conditions, World Renewable Energy Forum, Denver, USA, 2012.
H. D. Venable, The k factor: A new mathemathical tool for stability analysis and synthesis, Proceedings of POWERCON 10, Tenth International Solid-State Power Electronics Conference, San Diego, California, March 22-24, 1983.