Sleep Inducing Device

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Sleep Inducing Device

P. Kala K. Sivaranjani

Dept Of EEE- Dept Of EEE-

Star Lion College Of Engineering Star Lion College Of Engineering And Technology And Technology

Abstract:- In todays competitive world mental stress is major problem which results in insomnia. It involves difficulty in falling asleep for one who go to bed at night, waking up too early in the morning and waking up too often in night period. This lack restless of sleep can alaffect their responsibilities. Insomnia, memory problems, depression, frustration, irritability, an increased risk of heart disease, anxiety, poor concentration and automobile related accidents etc… are some side effects of sleeplessness.

As there is nothing pleasant as a sound sleep, people usually take high drug dosages to overcome this problem which is disadvantageous for body. High dosages ultimately lead to the addiction which has adverse effect on the patient. Magnetic field associated with the is called geo-magnetic fields. It is essentially dipolar on the earths surface.

Many people experience sleeping well in the natural surroundings into a tent or a wooden hut. This fact is due to not only to the healthy atmosphere but also from our unconscious ability to perceive natural earths magnetic fields. In this paper, is a circuit which creates and radiates an electromagnetic field through a radiator coil which is low-cost and user-friendly that helps to fight against insomnia by creating an electromagnetic field. It creates an environment which is helpful to fall first stage of sleep.

Keywords ; Insomnia, Geo-magnetic field, Anti-medication.

INTRODUCTION

All types of insomnia lead to diverse effects like day time drowsiness, Irritability, lack of concentration which affects our day to day responsibilities as we have trouble concentrating due to the sleep deprivation. For treatment ofvarious physical disorders magnets have been used for centuries. Accelerated Transition theory can be used toexplain how to get relief from insomnia by achieving low strength magnetic fields. Impulsive magnetic field therapywas also conducted where patient got clear improvement, the results were satisfactory like 24% patients got clear results, 49% had no improvement, and 6% got slight improvement.

From various researches it was disclosed that it was possible to induce a wave from a single pulse that looks identical to the brain waves formed normally during sleep. Binaural beat and pulsating light also contribute to brainwave entertainment and it was discovered decade ago, but it also had some limitations. The main purpose behind all these researches was to design a circuit which will form the similar pattern of waves which are created by the brain during sleep. This will generate an electromagnetic-field, which results in a prolonged and sound sleep without drugs.

TYPES OF INSOMNIA

  1. Transient insomnia:

    In this, patient cant sleep lasts for less than a week. It is also known as short term insomnia.

  2. Acute insomnia:

    It means inability to sleep well for a period of less than a month. It is also known as chronic or long-term insomnia which is lasts for longer than a month. Both types of insomnia can lead to daytime drowsiness, poor concentration, and the inability to feel refreshed and rested in the morning.

    CAUSES OF INSOMNIA

    • Life events such as fear, stress, anxiety,emotional or mental tension, work problems,financial stress, birth of a child andbereavement.

    • Use of fluoroquinolone antibiotic drugs,associated with more severe and chronictypes of insomnia.

    • Restless Legs Syndrome, which can causesleep onset insomnia due to thediscomforting sensations felt and the need tomove the legs or other body parts to relievethese sensations.

    • Disturbances of the circadian rhythm, suchas shift work and jet lag, can cause aninability to

    • sleep at sometimes of the dayand excessive sleepiness at other times of theday. Chronic circadian rhythm disorders arecharacterized by similar symptoms.

    • Abuse of over-the counter or prescriptionsleep aids (sedative or depressant drugs) canproduce rebound insomnia.

      SYMPTOMS OF INSOMNIA

      Night-time Symptoms:

    • Frequent difficulty falling asleep.

    • Frequent episodes of waking up accompaniedby difficulty in falling back to sleep.

    • Waking too early in the morning withinability to fall back to sleep again.

    • Non-refreshing night time sleep. Day-time Symptoms:

    • Fatigue

    • Memory of attention impairment

    • Anxiety and irritability

    • Depression

    • Sleepiness

      Now, a survey is presented in the form of a bar chart where it is shown in percentage which indicates patterns of insomnia observed among people. It is clear from thefigure that, major portion of these people wake up anytime from sleep and feel drowsy or tired. Among them, 56% people are at terminal stages who are suffering chronicinsomnia.

      INSOMNIA & ITS DIFFERENT STAGES

      Insomnia or sleeplessness is an individual's reported sleepingdifficulties. A definition of insomnia is, Difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep, or nonrestorative sleep, associated with impairments of daytime functioning or marked distress for more than 1 month. Insomnia can occur at any age, but it is particularly common in the elderly. Insomnia can be transient insomnia (lasts for less than a week) or Acute insomnia (means inability to consistently sleep well for a period of less than a month) or chronic insomnia (lasts for longer than a month) which can lead to memory problems, depression, irritability and an increased risk of heart disease and automobile related accidents for math, etc.

      CATEGORIES OF BRAIN WAVE PATTERNS

      Beta (14-30Hz)

      • Concentration, arousal, alertness, cognition

      • Higher levels associated with anxiety, disease, feelings of spa ration, fight.

        Alpha(8-13.9Hz)

      • Relaxation, super learning, relaxed focus, increased serotonin production.

        Theta (4-7.9Hz)

      • Dreaming sleep (REM sleep)

      • Increased production of catechol amines, increased creativity

        Delta(1-3.9Hz)

      • Dreamless sleep

      • Human growth hormone released

      • Deep, trance-like, non-physical state, loss of body awareness

SLEEP THEORY

Sleep occurs in repeating periods. Sleep is divided into two parts in which the body alternates. Sleep occurs in periods of approximately 90 minutes. Sleep proceeds in cycles of NREM and REM. As humans fall asleep, body

activity slows down like body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and energy all decrease, brain waves get slower and bigger. Sleep affects other brain-body functions, including virtual paralysis of the body. Humans may suffer from various sleep disorders, Insomnia, hypersomnia, sleep apnea and sleep walking etc.

Sleep modes are known as non-REM and REM sleep. Both types are associated with a distinct set of physiological and neurological features.

  1. REM stands for "rapid eye movement.

    REM sleep is consisting of more dreaming, faster brain waves, low muscle tone throughout the body, muscle paralysis abnormal behavior during sleep phase, fast pulse and breathing.

  2. Non-REM sleep stands for non-rapid eye movement.

In this dreaming are rare, muscles are not paralyzed, and sleep walk problem occurred. The brain uses less energy during sleep than it des in waking. In quiet waking the brain uses 20% of the body's energy.

NREM is divided into three stages: N1, N2, and N3. The whole period proceeds in the order from N1 to N2 to N3 to N2 to REM.

Stage 1(N1):

It is the stage between wakefulness and sleep, in which the muscles are quite active, and the eyes rolls slowly, and dreaming is rare. Random beta (12-30 Hz) and gamma (25-100 Hz) brain waves are appear, which is the normal range for the awake state. Breathing gradually becomes more regular and the heart rate begins to slow. The person may be aware of sounds and conversations but does not respond to them. This stage represents 5% of the total sleep time.

Stage 2 (N2):

Theta waves are appearing only. Muscle activity decreases, awareness of the outside world begin to fade fully. If any sounds are heard, the sleeper is not able to understand. It covers 45%-50% of total sleep time for adults.

Stage 3 (N3):

It is known as deep or delta (0.5 to 4Hz) or slow- wave sleep (SWS). Greater amount of deep sleep occurred earlier in the night. So, the sleeper response to the outer world is very less and unaware of any sound. Sleep- walking, sleep-talking and bedwetting occur. It covers 15%-20% of total adult sleep time. Brain temperature, breathing rate, heart rate and blood pressure all are decreases. Dreaming is more common. . It is difficult to wake a person during this stage. Stage 3 was divided into two stages, stage 3 and stage 4and it is depending on the frequency of delta waves

METHODOLOGY

The brain is always generating a pattern of internal neural frequencies. These neural frequencies of the human brain are:

  1. Beta waves (14 to 30 Hz)

  2. Alpha waves (8 to 13 Hz)

  3. Theta waves (4 to 7 Hz)

  4. Delta waves (1 to 3 Hz)

    At Alpha frequencies human brain is in the relaxed condition. At Theta frequencies brain becomes dreamy and creative. At delta frequency brain is in the first stage of sleep.

    These formations are changed by the resulting patterns of electromagnetism from surroundings around us. Radio waves, mobile phone waves, TV, Noise from circuits are different kind of waves responsible for generation of electromagnetic frequencies, the smaller electromagnetic forms of the Earth are also a portion of the environment. This fact is known by all of us that earth is encircled by compelling fields, some are formed by its own magnetism and others are created by the fluctuations in weather and solar storms. Electronic devices (e.g. motors, televisions, computers, power lines) also create magnetic field, even humans generate an insidious magnetic field, which is due to chemical reactions taking place in ionic currents of the nervous system.

    Researchers have also ascertained that external magnetic fields impact the functioning of human body in various ways. To treat and diagnose both physical and emotional pain magnetic field is very useful; it alleviates signs and decelerate the series of new disease. Nowadays magnetic therapies are used to reduce pain, healing of fractured bones and to fight stress. Scientists had discovered that if a magnetic field is applied to the topmost part of head it results in soothing, and has sleep-inducing effect on brain and bodily functions, which is possible due to the incentive of the formation of the hormone melatonin.

    BLOCK DIAGRAM

    Major points regarding circuit

    • Mean current drawing is about 7mA.

    • Battery life can be dramatically increased omitting LED D2 and its associated resistor R5.

    • Plastic box can be used to enclose the circuit; metal cases can severely limit electromagnetic radiation.

    • To reset a cycle press P1 push button.

      CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING

      IC2C and IC2D generate two square waves at about 1.2 and 5 Hz respectively. These waveforms are con verted into 60S pulses at the same frequencies by means of C5 & C6 and mixed at Q1 Base. This transistor drives the Radiator coil with a scalar series of pulses of 60S length and 9V amplitude.

      IC1, IC2A & IC2B form the timer section. C1 & R2 provide auto-reset of IC1 at switch-on. The internal oscillator of IC1 drives the 14-stage ripple counter and, after about 15 minutes, output pin 1 goes high. Pin 3 of IC2A goes low and stops IC2C & IC2D oscillation.

      If SW2 is left open (Alternate mode operation), after 15 minutes pin 1 of IC1 goes low, pin 3 of IC2A goes high and oscillators are enabled again.

      If SW2 is closed (Stop mode operation), the first- time output pin 1 of IC1 goes high, the internal oscillator of the IC is disabled by means of D1. Therefore, the circuit remains off until a reset pulse is applied to pin 12 by means of P1 or when the whole device is switched-off and then restarted.

      FEATURES OF SLEEP INDUCER

      • Makes easier to fall asleep.

      • Induces a prolonged and sound sleep without drugs.

      • Generates a natural electromagnetic field and No side effect.

Timer circuit and oscillator require 5v dc and radiator coil drives on 12v dc. For all the purpose only one supply is given. By using timer circuit, set the time within an hour of generation of the magnetic field. Oscillator generates the two frequencies such as 2Hz and 5Hz which is given to radiator coil. Radiator coil generates the magnetic field of 2Hz and 5Hz.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

LIMITATIONS

  • Radiated power is very small. Because of this, we cannot measure the radiation by using conventional instruments.

  • Measuring frequency is difficult in practical case by using oscilloscope.

  • Practical value is surprisingly more than theoretical or simulation value.

  • Electromagnetic field has been detected through galvanometer deflection, but it cannot be measured accurately because lack of flux meter in the lab.

    ADVANTAGES

    • This project helps in fighting insomnia. apart fromthis it also supports relaxation, stress managementand induces sleep easily.

    • This project generates type of geo-magnetic fieldsand it helps the brain surrounded by an idealenvironment for a sound sleep.

DISADVANTAGES

  • Radiated power is very small. Because of this, wecannot measure the radiation by usingconventional instruments.

  • Measuring frequency is difficult in practical caseby using oscilloscope

CONCLUSION AND FUTUREWORK

This project helps in fighting insomnia. Apartfrom this it also supports relaxation, stressmanagement and induces sleep easily without medication.

This project generates type of geo-magnetic fieldsand it helps the brain surrounded by an idealenvironment for a sound sleep. This project canbe improved more.

The result is not so satisfactory and the researchon this respect is yet to develop furthermore.Now we should try to get more efficiency andavoid any kind of adverse effects.

REFERENCE

  1. Md. MahadiHasan, Sourav Dev, ArifAhammad,International Journal of Engineering Research &Technology, Vol.2 – Issue 9 (September – 2013),www.ijert.org.

  2. Arthur C.Guyton,Textbook of Medical Physiology, Eight Editions, Prism Books (PVT) Ltd.Bangalore, India.

  3. Nguyen Thi Mai Thanh,Design of Sleep Assistant Device, Vietnam National Universities HCMC International University Biomedical Engineering Department, Page No.-1, 29, Jan-2013.

  4. Marshall L, Helgadóttir H, Mölle M, Born J., Boosting slow oscillations during sleep potentiates memory, (University of Lübeck, Department of Neuroendocrinology

  5. F. Jie, W. Tiecheng, Y. Yan, B. H. Duc and L. Xiaoping, "A magnetic field projector for deep brain modulation," Neural Engineering (NER), 2013 6th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on, San Diego, CA, 2013, pp. 1214-1217.

  6. Z. Zhang et al., "Automatic sleep onset detection using single EEG sensor," 2014 36thAnnual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Chicago, IL, 2014, pp. 2265-2268.

  7. Gaurav Rohilla, Sakshi Sethi Microcontroller Based Brain Entrainment International Journal of Innovative Research in engineering and Technology, Vol.5 Issue 5, May 2016.

  8. Andrew A. Marino, Erik Nilsen, Andrew L. Chesson Jr., Clifton Frilot, Effect of low frequency magnetic fields on brain electrical activity in human subjects Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport, DOI: 10.1016, 2003.

  9. Ashish Garg, Anju Gupta, solution to insomnia, International journal of advance research in science and engineering Vol.No.4, Special Issue (01), September 2015.

  10. Datasheet of 4060 IC and 4093 IC provided by http://www.datasheetcatalog.com/

  11. de Benedictis, Tina, Heather Larson, Gina Kemp, Suzanne Barston, Robert Segal, "Understanding Sleep: Sleep Needs, Cycles, and Stages", 25 January 2008, DOA:8 March 2017.

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