Self-Autonomous Drone for Flame Detection and Extinguishing using High-Pressure Water

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV11IS03064

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Self-Autonomous Drone for Flame Detection and Extinguishing using High-Pressure Water

Utheya Nithi S M

B.E Mechatronics

Bannari Amman Institute of Technology Erode, India

Amarnath G

B.E Mechatronics

Bannari Amman Institute of Technology Erode, India

Kaveyan P

B.E Electronic Instrumentation Bannari Amman Institute of Technology

Erode, India

A novel approach to damping out fires in hard-to-reach places, such as high-rise buildings or forests, is to use autonomous drones for flame detection and extinguishing using high-pressure water. Flame detection sensors aboard the drone provide information to the control center. The drone flies to the fire's location once it has been located and utilizes high-pressure water to put out the flames. It can also be manually operated in emergencies as it has a camera attached it can be easily monitored and controlled. This technique can save lives, dramatically cut down on property damage, and significantly reduce the amount of time it takes to put out flames.

Keywordshigh-rise, autonomous and high-pressure water.


    UAVs are autonomous drones that can do the work given to them. It can be fully automatic and we can also manually control it if we desire. Rather than using complex algorithms simple coding with conditions can be used to make it autonomous. And using PID controls with it will make navigation easy as it reduces all unwanted movements. It can navigate through fire and can even go to inaccessible regions. Using various sensors, it can find the region affected by fire and extinguish it. Water is used as it can be used in most situations and is the best possible choice out of foam and chemicals. Combining everything in a drone gives our firefighter UAV which can be used in many situations to save peoples lives.

    1. Various types of equipment used

      1. For sensing flames: Detecting flames is the main part that can be crucial for the UAV as only if it can detect fire properly then it can go to that location. And it should also be precise or it may encounter an obstacle and may fail the work given. So we are using two sensors which are a fume sensor and a flame detection sensor. The flame detection sensor can find the region of fire using temperature but it can be precise like it can detect inside the wall so the drone may hit. So we use a fume sensor so that it follows the fumes and then detects the area where the flame resides.

      2. For controlling the fire: Detecting flame can be a huge job but the next crucial part is controlling because only by controlling it we can save lives faster. We are using water as the main source because its cheap and also the best option which can be used in most situations. Using a servo motor for rotation and fixing another servo motor behind it can make the nuzzle rotate and revolve unidirectional so the water can be sprayed in even in corners of rooms or even ceilings. Using a refillable water tank. The water tank is typically made of lightweight and durable materials, such as carbon fiber or aluminum, and is capable of holding several liters of water. The nozzle system is designed to produce a high-pressure stream of water that can be precisely aimed at the target. The

        system typically includes a pump that pressurizes the water and a nozzle that shapes the water into a focused stream. The nozzle may also be adjustable, allowing the operator to control the flow rate and pattern of the water stream.

        1. Autonomous and manually controlling technology: We can use Arduino or raspberry pi which can be precise with the necessary coding and we can use a Bluetooth module to connect to the drone for the manual operation which is done by a joystick connected to the drone. Certain algorithms are used for PID control so that it wont hit any obstacle and reaches its destination in minimal time and minimal movement.

    2. The benefits and limitations of using drones for fire suppression

    The UAV has certain limitations i.e. it cant be used in complex structures but it can be solved if we manually controlled but that too can be hard if the pilot doesnt know the location precisely. This problem can be solved by using a mapping system where the joystick shows a screen where it displays the place in a map format which can further aid in fire suppression.

    It can be used in inaccessible regions, for example, it can even be used to suppress forest fire as it can travel quickly and suppresses the fire and it can even go to regions where the fire is intense where a normal person cant enter. It can reach the place faster as its travels in the sky. It can even be used for suppressing flame in buildings where it can go through windows and suppress the fire.

    Fig. 1. An UAV using high-pressure water to suppress the fire and the nuzzle can be moved in all directions.


The future of drones is vast as they can become more precise as more advanced technology comes. It can become much faster and if we used the 5G network we can directly surveillance any area without the need for much hardware. And we can also make different kinds of slots so that for each type of fire it uses suitable ones like for electrical appliances it uses foam etc.

More kinds of algorithms can be found for efficient routing and finally, it can be made such that it can lift the debris during fire accidents which can save a lot of lives.


This research was partially supported by Vignesh Sridhar. We thank our colleagues from Bannari Amman Institute of Technology who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research, although they may not agree with all of the interpretations/conclusions of this paper.

We thank you for your assistance with writing research journals, and Vignesh Sridhars special lab in charge of Bannari Amman Institute of Technology for comments that greatly improved the manuscript.


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