 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 834
 Authors : B. Sai Pranahita, A. Pradyush Babu, D. V. S. Aditya, A. Sai Kumar
 Paper ID : IJERTV4IS040841
 Volume & Issue : Volume 04, Issue 04 (April 2015)
 DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV4IS040841
 Published (First Online): 22042015
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Selective Harmonic Elimination Technique using Transformer Connection for PV fed Inverters
B. Sai Pranahita
Department of EEE SRM University Chennai, TamilNadu

Pradyush Babu
Department of EEE SRM University Chennai, TamilNadu

Sai Kumar

Department of EEE SRM University Chennai, TamilNadu

V. S. Aditya
Department of EEE SRM University Chennai, TamilNadu
Abstract This paper discusses a harmonic reduction technique implementation for both 1 and 3 PV fed system .PV system have become very prominent now a days for both standalone and grid connected system. When PV is used for AC loads an inverter is used for conversion of DCAC. The major drawback found among inverter is the harmful effect of harmonics. The major harmonics present are 3rd harmonic and 5th harmonic. Instead of using multilevel inverter or any complex technique, the method of selective harmonic elimination helps eliminate a particular harmonic whose effect is more without any mundane formulation. The selective harmonics elimination technique is analyzed for 1and 3 inverters their results are plotted in MATLAB/Simulink environment.
KeywordsSHE(Selective Harmonic Elimination), Harmonic, Inverter, MPPT(Maximum Power Point Tracking), PV(Photovoltaic), INC(Incremental Conductance).

INTRODUCTION
The rise in cost, deterioration of conventional have led to considerable attention to the nonconventional energy sources. As solar energy is free and abundant in most parts of the world, it has proven to be a challenging source of energy. PV cell converters the solar energy incident on it to electrical energy. To connect the PV arrays to any utility, some converters need to be included in the system to convert the dc voltage into ac voltage, boost the voltage and also ensure maximum power utilization for connection in any grid connected as standalone systems, the inverter is a very critical component. It converts the dc voltage from the boost converter to a clean sinusoidal voltage to be given to any electrical equipment. To obtain low harmonic distortion. Several new multilevel inverter topologies have been proposed. But the bad effects of these harmonics can be eliminated by using simple techniques to discard some harmonics.
The conventional PWM techniques like sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM), space vector modulation (SVM), are applied to reduce the harmonics content and also achieved the desired output voltage. The PWM technique fail in suppressing the lower order harmonics. Selective harmonic elimination method is used to eliminate the lower order harmonics. The paper proposes a methodology of selective harmonic elimination where the output voltage of two or more inverters is combined by means of transfer connection to
reduce the dominate harmonics. The dominate harmonics in any system are 3rd and 5th harmonics. The switching angles are computed using transcendental equations characteristics harmonics.
Section II deals with the system description. Section III deals with modelling of PV panel. Section IV deals with MPPT. Section V details on the selective harmonics technique for 1 and 3 inverter. Section VI presents the results and discussions. The conclusion are in section VII.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Figure 1. Block Diagram of overall system
The output of the PV panel is given to the input of the boost converter. The inputs of the INC MPPT controller are voltage and current from the PV panel. The pulses from the INC MPPT are given to the boost converter to make the PV panel operate at its peak power. The DC voltage from the boost converter is given as input to the inverter and the AC Output is given to the load.

MODELLING OF PV PANEL
Conversion of light energy to electrical energy is the basic function of the photo voltaic cell. The PV panel needs to be modelled mathematically to analyze the characteristics. The PV cells can be realized as a current source in parallel to a diode. The internal resistance is represented by a series resistance Rs in the equivalent circuit. The mathematical equations of the PV panel can be written as follows
(1)
Where,
Ipv= photo voltaic current
Io=saturation current of the diode q=electron charge in coulombs
=1.602*1019C
K=Boltzmann constant
=1.380*1023 J/K
a=diode ideality factor Rs=series resistance
Thus,
dI I dV V
dI I dV V dI I
dV V
at MPP
On left of MPP (6)
On right of MPP
Rp=parallel resistance T=Temperature in Kelvin
Figure 2. Modeling of PV Cell
The photo voltaic current Ipv is a function of the irradiance
(G) and is formulated as:
As the MPP is reached, the PV panel is operated at this point and is perturbed only if any change in current is obtained due to a variation in Irradiation. The flow chart of the INC MPPT Technique is given in figure 3.
(2)
Where;
IPV_STC=light generated current under standard test conditions (STC)
T= TTSTC (in kelvin)
G= surface irradiance of cell (W/m2) GSTC=1000W/m2
Irradiance under STC
Ki = short circuit current coefficient
The diode saturation current Io is given as:
(3)
Where;
Io,stc = normal saturation current under standard test conditions (STC)
TSTC= temperature under standard test conditions Eg= band gap energy of the semiconductor

INCREMENTAL CONDUCTANCE MPPT
The basic principle for formation of the incremental conductance algorithm is the fact that the slop of the PV array curve is zero at the peak, negative on the right side and positive on the left side.
The INC MPPT can be explained mathematically as in equations [48]
dP =0 at MPP
dV
dP >0 on left side of MPP (4)
dV
dP <0 on right side of MPP
dV
The Conductance can be further calculated as:
Figure 3. Flow Chart of INC MPPT
The advantage of the incremental conductance MPPT over the P&O algorithm is that, there are less number of steady state oscillations. In the Perturb & Observe algorithm, varying the perturbation size is not very feasible. But, in the INC, the step size can be selected for faster dynamics and reduction in steady state oscillations.

SELECTIVE HARMONIC ELIMINATION
In the method of selective harmonic elimination, the output voltage of two or more inverters are combined by means of transformer connection and the resultant output consists of reduced harmonic content when compared to individual inverter output voltage. The block diagram of the system is shown in Figure 4.
dP d (V * I ) I V * dI 0
(5)
dV dV dV
Figure 4. Circuit Diagram of Selective Harmonic Elimination
The condition that must be satisfied in order to avail this SHE is the output voltages of the two inverters must be similar but phase shifted from each other. The voltages v01 and v02 for the two inverters are obtained. The v02 waveform is phase shifted by /3 radians with respect to v01. The resultant output voltage will have the amplitude which is summation of two inverter voltages. The equations pertaining to the inverter voltages and the net voltage are shown below.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Single Phase Inverter
The output Voltage of 1 inverter is shown in Figure 5. The Figure 6 shows the harmonic spectrum of the system without employing Selective Harmonic Elimination.
Figure 5. Output Voltage of single phase inverter
V 4VS sint sin 3t si 5t sin 7t
(7)
01
3 5 7
…..
sin t sin 3t / 3
4VS
3 3
V
(8)
02
sin 5t 3 / 5 sin 7 t 3 / 7 ..
V V V
0 01 02
sin t 1
t
Figure 6. Harmonic Spectrum without employing SHE
4 3V
6 5 sin 5
6
(9)
s
7 6
1 sin 7t ………
The figure 7 shows the harmonic spectrum of the system with employing selective harmonic elimination for 3rd harmonic. The figure 8shows the harmonic spectrum of the system with employing selective harmonic elimination for 5th
From the figure it can be seen that v02
lags v01
by 600 for
harmonic.
fundamental frequency. By examining the expressions resultant of v01 and v02 must be times v01 and at same time resultant lags v01 by 300. Therefore net value of fundamental frequency voltage be associated with 3 sint / 6.For third harmonic, v02 lags v01 by 1800, so the resultant is zero. In the same manner it follows for remaining 5th, 7th and 9th and so on. As the inverter voltages are quasi square wave in shape, the effect of even harmonics will become zero. The analysis has been performed on 1 and 3 inverters to eliminate 3rd and 5th harmonics and the results have been discussed in Section VI.
Figure 7. Harmonic Spectrum with employing SHE for 3rd harmonic
Figure 8. Harmonic Spectrum with employing SHE for 3rd harmonic
Figure 9. Harmonic Spectrum with employing SHE for 5th harmonic
A single phase full bridge inverter has been simulated and the harmonics are reduced using transformer connection employing sinusoidal pulse width modulation. The third and fifth harmonics have been effectively reduced by giving a phase delay of /3 and /5 respectively.
The total THD is: Before transformer connection: 42.07%
After transformer connection: 30.13% 3rd harmonic: Before transformer connection: 23.38%
After transformer connection: 0.13% 5th harmonic: Before transformer connection: 23.56%
After transformer connection: 0.10%

Three Phase Inverter
The Output Voltage of 3 inverter is shown in Figure 10. The Figure 11 shows the harmonic spectrum of the system without employing Selective Harmonic Elimination.
Figure10. Output Voltage of 3 inverter
Figure 11. Harmonic Spectrum without employing SHE
It can be observed from the Figure 10 that 3rd harmonics are absent in the output Voltage of a 3 inverter. Thus, the technique has been employed to illustrate its effectiveness on the 5th harmonic. The harmonic spectrum of the output voltage with the SHE employed on the 5th harmonic is shown in figure 12.
Figure 12 Harmonic Spectrum with employing SHE for 5th harmonic


CONCLUSION

The methodology and implementation of the Selective Harmonic Elimination using Transformer connection has been discussed in the paper using PV as a source. The results have been obtained through simulation using MATLAB/ Simulink environment. The dominant harmonics in the single phase inverter being 3rd and 5th harmonic are eliminated successfully using this technique. The dominant harmonic in the three phase inverter being 5th harmonic is successfully eliminated using the technique. Further work can be carried out by exploring other novel techniques of selective harmonic elimination.
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