Satellite Projects by Indian Students

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Satellite Projects by Indian Students

Palani Murugan

IRS & SSS Programme Management and Systems Group UR Rao Satellite Centre, ISRO,

Bangalore-17

Abstract – Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has launched more than hundred satellites for various applications like communication, Earth observation, Astronomy, Navigation, Lunar studies and interplanetary mission from its inception. Addition to its own programmes, it induced Indian student community to make satellites by guiding, providing facilities to test the subsystems and satellites. It also launches these satellites by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). The student satellite projects provide the design, fabrication, assembly and testing experience of electrical and mechanical systems to university students. It provides experience in project management, budget, schedule and mission planning & operation also. Indian students have launched more than nine satellites so far and some more are under development. Due to this inspiration many Universities/Colleges had flown their satellites through balloons for testing their capabilities. Some students launched their satellites through other space agencies also. This paper presents the salient features of these satellites and technologies used in Indian Student satellites.

Keywords: Student satellites, Nano satellites, university satellites, Miniaturisation

  1. INTRODUCTION

    The artificial satellite is a system which mainly goes around the Earth with a specific purpose. It is a multidisciplinary system which can be divided into two main parts based on their functions as payloads and main frame.

    Payloads are the instruments or sensors which are directly related to the applications. In the case of Remote sensing satellites, they are cameras/imaging systems, synthetic aperture radars (SAR), scatterometer etc. and in communication satellites they are receivers and transmitters. Some scientific purpose satellites carry instruments to measure the electron contents, gamma ray detectors. X-ray monitors, ultra violet detectors etc.,

    The main frame some times called as bus which carries the Payload. It can be broadly divided into electrical and mechanical systems. Electrical subsystems are power system, communication system, data handling digital systems and attitude & orbit control system. The power system generates power from solar radiation in sunlit, stores it in battery for the requirement of eclipse duration operation and distribute the power among different systems. The communication system is to receive the command from the ground stations and transmit various information like temperature, pressure, power consumptions consumption of different systems and attitude and orbit information of the satellites to the ground station. Addition to this it transmits the high volume data collected by payload instruments to the ground. The data handling digital system collects the telemetry information from different systems, format them and transmit to communication system[1]. It also collects the commands from communication systems and distribute to relevant

    system. Addition to this, the data handling system collect data from payload instruments, compress, encode and send to communication system. The Attitude and orbit control system consists of various sensors and actuators. It measures the attitude and orbit information from sensors and activates the actuators for correction if required.

    The spacecraft mechanical systems are structure, thermal control systems (TCS) and mechanisms. The structural system is the skeleton of the satellite, mainly made up of Aluminum alloys and Carbon Fiber Reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials. It provides space to mount the electrical and other mechanical systems. The structure is designed to provide sufficient stiffness to maintain the look angles of the payloads and attitude sensors. The Thermal control system provide suitable thermal environment to the electrical and other mechanical systems for their better functionality. As size of some systems like solar panels and antennas violate the heat shield volume of the launch vehicle. They are to be kept folded during launch and deployed after reaching orbit. For this purpose, some mechanisms are designed and employed. Orbit raising and attitude correction are done by propulsion system.

    Many satellites are using chemical propulsion for its high thrust and simple design.

    The combination of these mechanical and electrical systems is called as main frame and to support payloads. Each system has interface with other system and all work together to achieve a common goal. The data handling and Attitude and orbit control systems utilize embedded software extensively. The ground systems for satellite tracking and payload data processing involve computing and communication systems with tracking antenna.

    The satellite design fabrication and testing need multiple field expertise. Satellite projects provide practical experience for students of many disciplines. As the student satellites are launched as piggy back to main operational satellites, the challenge in fabrication of student satellites lies in making satellites with less mass and small in size.

    Fig. 1 Subsystems of satellite

    MLI Multi-Layer Insulation OSR- Optical Solar Reflector DC/DC Power Converter DTG Dynamically Tuned Gyro FOG Fiber optic Gyro ES Earth Sensor

    SS- Sun Sensor MT- Magnetic torquer

    RW- Reaction Wheel TH- Thrusters RTG- Radioactive Thermal Generator

    MLI Multi-Layer Insulation OSR- Optical Solar Reflector DC/DC Power Converter DTG Dynamically Tuned Gyro FOG Fiber optic Gyro ES Earth Sensor

    SS- Sun Sensor MT- Magnetic torquer

    RW- Reaction Wheel TH- Thrusters RTG- Radioactive Thermal Generator

    Due to this, student satellites are in mini, cube, pico, nano and micro satellites categories with payloads catering to specific applications. These satellites were designed, fabricated and assembled at corresponding institutions using their funds. ISRO supported in test activities by providing access to its test facilities at UR Rao Satellite centre because the test facilities like thermo vacuum chamber and vibration table are costly. Free launch support was also provided by Polar Satellite Launch vehicle (PSLV). The Fig.-1 provides different subsystems in the satellites and table-1 provides the Names of Indian Student satellites and institutions.

    TABLE I. LIST OF INDIAN STUDENT SATELLITES.

    Sl.N

    Satellite Name

    Institution

    Launch Mass

    Launch Vehicl

    PSLV

    Launch Date

    1

    ANUSAT

    Anna University

    40

    C12

    Apr 20, 2009

    2

    STUDSAT

    Consortium o colleges

    <1

    C15

    Jul 12, 2010

    3

    JUGNU

    IIT Kanpur

    <3

    C18

    Oct 12, 2011

    4

    SRMSAT

    SRM University

    10.9

    C18

    Oct 12, 2011

    5

    SWAYAM

    University Pune

    1

    C34

    June 22, 2016

    6

    Sathyabamasat

    Sathyabama University

    1.5

    C34

    June 22, 2016

    7

    PISAT

    PES University

    5.25

    C35

    Sept. 26, 2016

    8

    PRATHAM

    IIT Bombay

    10

    C35

    Sept. 26, 2016

    9

    NIUSAT

    Nurul Isla University

    m 15

    C38

    June 23, 2017

    10

    Kalamsat-V2

    Space Kids

    1.26

    C44

    Jan. 24, 2019

    11

    ManipalSAT*

    Manipal University

    12

    IITMSAT*

    IIT Madras

    Sl.N

    Satellite Name

    Institution

    Launch Mass

    Launch Vehicl

    PSLV

    Launch Date

    1

    ANUSAT

    Anna University

    40

    C12

    Apr 20, 2009

    2

    STUDSAT

    Consortium o colleges

    <1

    C15

    Jul 12, 2010

    3

    JUGNU

    IIT Kanpur

    <3

    C18

    Oct 12, 2011

    4

    SRMSAT

    SRM University

    10.9

    C18

    Oct 12, 2011

    5

    SWAYAM

    University Pune

    1

    C34

    June 22, 2016

    6

    Sathyabamasat

    Sathyabama University

    1.5

    C34

    June 22, 2016

    7

    PISAT

    PES University

    5.25

    C35

    Sept. 26, 2016

    8

    PRATHAM

    IIT Bombay

    10

    C35

    Sept. 26, 2016

    9

    NIUSAT

    Nurul Isla University

    m 15

    C38

    June 23, 2017

    10

    Kalamsat-V2

    Space Kids

    1.26

    C44

    Jan. 24, 2019

    11

    ManipalSAT*

    Manipal University

    12

    IITMSAT*

    IIT Madras

    Objective

    Fig. 2 ANUSAT

    • To encourage the involvement of the Anna University faculty, researchers and students in Space technologies to work as a team.

    • To gain hands-on experience a micro-satellite development

      *To be launched

  2. LAUNCHED SATELLITES

    Payload

    The ANUSAT Payload was designed to relay the data collected from one place to another place. The payload was designed and fabricated by the Anna University.

    Sl.No

    Parameter

    Value/ system

    1

    Payload

    Data relay satellite

    2

    Mass(kg)

    38

    3

    Size (mm3)

    600 x 600x 600

    4

    Power (W)

    40W

    Body mounted GaAs solar cells.

    Battery: Li-ion 4 x 4

    10 AH.

    Bus Volt: 15.5-16 V

    5

    Attitude sensor

    Sun Sensor, Magnetometer

    6

    Actuators

    Torquers (4.5 AM2)

    7

    Stabilization

    Spin Stabilized 4+ 0.5 RPM

    8

    Telecommand

    VHF (PCM/FSK/AM); 100

    bits/sec,

    149.2 MHz.

    9

    Telemetry

    VHF(PCM/FSK/AM);

    256 bits/sec.,

    137.4 MHz,

    10

    Payload data Transmission

    435 MHz

    11

    Orbit

    Inclined

    12

    Altitude km

    550

    13

    Inclination

    41 deg

    14

    Orbital Time

    95.9 min

    15

    Launch Date

    20 April 2009

    16

    Launch Vehicle

    PSLV-C12

    Sl.No

    Parameter

    Value/ system

    1

    Payload

    Data relay satellite

    2

    Mass(kg)

    38

    3

    Size (mm3)

    600 x 600x 600

    4

    Power (W)

    40W

    Body mounted GaAs solar cells.

    Battery: Li-ion 4 x 4

    10 AH.

    Bus Volt: 15.5-16 V

    5

    Attitude sensor

    Sun Sensor, Magnetometer

    6

    Actuators

    Torquers (4.5 AM2)

    7

    Stabilization

    Spin Stabilized 4+ 0.5 RPM

    8

    Telecommand

    VHF (PCM/FSK/AM); 100

    bits/sec,

    149.2 MHz.

    9

    Telemetry

    VHF(PCM/FSK/AM);

    256 bits/sec.,

    137.4 MHz,

    10

    Payload data Transmission

    435 MHz

    11

    Orbit

    Inclined

    12

    Altitude km

    550

    13

    Inclination

    41 deg

    14

    Orbital Time

    95.9 min

    15

    Launch Date

    20 April 2009

    16

    Launch Vehicle

    PSLV-C12

    TABLE II. SALIENT FEATURES OF ANUSAT

    1. ANUSAT

      ANna University SATellite (ANUSAT) is the first satellite designed, fabricated and tested by Indian students[2]. It was a cooperative mission of Anna University, Chennai, and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)[3]. This satellite was designed and fabricated at Madras Institute of Technology (MIT) campus of Anna University. Most of the sub systems in this satellite are made up of Commercial Off- The-Self (COTS) components.

      The Fig.2 shows the satellite and the Table-2 provides the salient features of the ANUSAT.

      Ground station

      Independent ground station was set up in MIT campus of Anna University and houses the Telecommand, Transmitter

      and Telemetry Receiver systems. The telemetry Receiver sensitivity is -110 dBm.

    2. STUDSAT

      STUDSAT was the second student satellite of India fabricated by a consortium of colleges from Bangalore and Hyderabad. The consortium was led by NIITE Meenakshi Institute of Technology (NMIT), Bangalore. Other colleges contributed by designing and fabricating different subsystems [4]. The list of colleges involved in this project is as follows.

      Bangalore :

      • Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology (NMIT), – M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology (MSRIT),

      • Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering

      • B. M. S. Institute of Technology (BMSIT), Hyderabad

      • Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology CBIT),

      • Institute of Aeronautical Engineering (IARE),

      • Vignan Institute of Technology & Science (VITS),

        The Fig.3 shows the Studsat-1 and the Table-3 provides the salient features of the STUDSAT.

        Sl.No

        Parameter

        Value/systems

        8

        OBC

        Atmels ARM based AVR32 UC3A0512 microcontroller

        9

        TCUplink TM Downlink

        145.9 MHz

        437 MHz

        10

        Orbit

        SSPO,635 km Altitude Local Time on desc Node

        11

        Altitude (km)

        635

        12

        Local time

        9.30 AM

        13

        Period

        14

        Inclination

        87.44o

        15

        Launch Date

        12-July-2010

        16

        Launch vehicle

        PSLV-C15

        17

        Life Time

        Three Months

        Ground station

        An independent ground station called NASTRAC was setup in Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology. It received the Telemetry Data and confirmed the satellite is in mission mode.

    3. JUGNU

      Jugnu is a nano satellite designed and fabricated by students of Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur[5]. It is a 3U cubesat aimed to image the earth for Agriculture and disaster monitoring purpose. The Fig.4 and Table-4 provides the view and salient features of the STUDSAT.

      Objective

      Fig. 3 Image of the StudSat-1 CubeSat

      • To promote space technology in educational institutions.

      • To encourage research and development in the design of a miniaturized satellite along with all the experiences, enthusiasm and efforts necessary to bring such a project to completion

        Payload

        The STUDSAT payload is a CMOS detector based camera designed to get 90m spatial resolution.

        TABLE III. SALIENT FEATURES OF STUDSAT

        Objective

        Fig. 4 Jugnu without solar panel

        Sl.No

        Parameter

        Value/systems

        1

        Payload

        CMOS Camera with 90m Resolution

        2

        Mass(kg)

        1.3

        3

        Size (mm3)

        100 x 100x 13.5

        4

        Power (W)

        33W, Body mounted Si cells,Li polymer battery 1.24 AH

        5

        Attitude sensor

        Sun Sensor, Magnetometer

        6

        Actuators

        Magnetic Torquers

        4.5 AM2

        7

        Stabilization

        Spin Stabilized 4+ 0.5 RPM

        Sl.No

        Parameter

        Value/systems

        1

        Payload

        CMOS Camera with 90m Resolution

        2

        Mass(kg)

        1.3

        3

        Size (mm3)

        100 x 100x 13.5

        4

        Power (W)

        33W, Body mounted Si cells,Li polymer battery 1.24 AH

        5

        Attitude sensor

        Sun Sensor, Magnetometer

        6

        Actuators

        Magnetic Torquers

        4.5 AM2

        7

        Stabilization

        Spin Stabilized 4+ 0.5 RPM

        • To get students involved in research activities based on affordable MEMS technologies

        • To test new solutions for the future cost effective space missions

        • To set the path for future up gradations and study such validation of concepts

      Payload

      The JUGNU payload is a near infrared (NIR) camera with 640 x 480 pixel area array detector operating in

      700-850 nm spectral range. It has an F/4 optical system with 35 mm focal length. The acquired data can be stored in 2 Gb Triple modular redundant memory.

      TABLE IV. SALIENT FEATURES OF JUGNU

      Sl.No

      Parameter

      Value/System

      1

      Payload

      Near IR Camera

      640 x 480 pixel Image

      197 m resolution

      2

      Mass(kg)

      3

      3

      Size (mm3)

      10 x 10 x 34 cm3

      4

      Power (W)

      Solar cells, batteries

      5

      Attitude sensor

      MEMS based IMU

      6

      Actuators

      7

      Stabilization

      3 axis stabilisation

      8

      OBC

      9

      TC Uplink TM Downlink Beacon

      145.980 MHz

      437.505 MHz

      437.275 MHz

      10

      Orbit

      Near Equatorial orbit

      11

      Altitude (km

      850 km × 866 km

      12

      Local time

      NA

      13

      Orbital Period

      ~102 min

      14

      Inclination

      19.9°

      15

      Launch Date

      12th October 2011

      16

      Launch vehicle

      PSLV-C18

      Ground Station

      A ground station for monitoring and control has been established in IIT Kanpur. It consists of Yagi-Uda antenna for uplink and down link, GUI interface in Lab VIEW and rotary system.

    4. SRMSAT

      SRMSAT was designed and developed by the students of Sri Ramasamy Memorial (SRM) University, Kattankulathur, Kanchepuram district. The view and salient features of the satellite are provided in Fig.-5 and Table-5 respectively.

      TABLE V. SALIENT FEATURES OF SRMSAT

      Sl.No

      Parameter

      Value/ System

      1

      Payload

      Near IR Camera

      640 x 480 pixel Image

      161 m resolution

      2

      Mass(kg)

      3

      3

      Size (mm3)

      10 x 10 x 34 cm3

      4

      Power (W)

      Solar cells, batteries

      5

      Attitude sensor

      IMU

      6

      Actuators

      Magnetic Torquer

      7

      Stabilization

      3 axis stabilisation

      8

      OBC

      9

      TCUplink TM Downlink

      437.505 MHz (UHF)

      145.98 MHz(VHF)

      10

      Orbit

      SSPO

      11

      Altitude (km)

      860 km

      12

      Local time

      9.30 AM

      13

      Orbital Period

      102 min

      14

      Inclination

      19.9°

      15

      Launch Date

      12th October 2011

      16

      Launch vehicle

      PSLV-C18

      Ground Station

      The SRMSAT team setup aground station at the SRM University Kattankulathur campus and tracked the satellite

    5. SWAYAM

      Swayam a passive stabilization communication Satellite was developed by undergraduate students of College of Engineering, Pune. The payload flown on this satellite is to support point to point communication[6]. User can send and receive messages from one point to other point on the earth. The view and salient features of the satellite are provided in Fig.6 and Table-6 respectively.

      Fig. 5 SRSAT

      Objective

      Fig. 6 SWAYAM

      Objective

      • To monitor green house gases in Near Infrared region 900 nm – 1700 nm.

        Payload

        SRMSAT Payload is a grating spectrometer for monitoring Earth-based sources and sinks of anthropogenic and natural sources of greenhouse gases.

      • To demonstrate passive attitude control.

        To provide point to point messaging services to the HAM Community using a bidirectional communication satellite.

        UHF channel performance evaluation develop a bidirectional communication satellite.

        Payload

        The payload was designed to support message store and forward.

        TABLE VI. SALIENT FEATURES OF SWAYAM

        Sl.No

        Parameter

        Value/System

        1

        Payload

        Store and Forward Messaging

        2

        Mass(kg)

        990 g.

        3

        Size (mm3)

        10 x 10 x 11.35 cm

        4

        Power (W)

        3.3 Solar Cells Batteries

        5

        Attitude sensor

        6

        Actuators

        Magnetic torque MEMS gyroscope

        7

        Stabilization

        3 axis stabilisation

        8

        OBC

        9

        TT Uplink TM Downlink

        437.025 MHz

        10

        Orbit

        SSPO

        11

        Altitude (km)

        515

        12

        Local time

        9.30 AM

        13

        Orbital Period

        94.5 min

        14

        Inclination

        97.3 deg

        15

        Launch Date

        22nd June, 2016

        16

        Launch vehicle

        PSLV-C34

    6. SATYABAMASAT

      The satyabamasatellite was designed and fabricated by the students of Sathyabama university, Chennai to measure the concentration of green house effect gases [7]. The satellite is shown in Fig.7 and the salient feature of the satellite are provided in Table-7

      TABLE VII. SALIENT FEATURES OF SATHYABAMA SATELLITE

      Sl.No

      Parameter

      Value/System

      1

      Payload

      Imaging satellite to detect green house gases. (Argus 1000)

      2

      Mass(kg)

      1.779 (2U)

      3

      Size (mm3)

      10 x 10 x 22 cm

      4

      Power (W)

      3.6

      5

      Attitude sensor

      Sun sensor

      6

      Actuators

      Magnetic torquer

      7

      Stabilization

      3 axis stabilized

      8

      OBC

      ARM 7 Based

      9

      TT Uplink TM Downlink BEACON

      437.980 MHz

      145.980 MHz

      145.980 MHz

      10

      Orbit

      SSPO

      11

      Altitude (km)

      505

      12

      Local time

      9.30 AM

      13

      Orbital Period

      94.5 min

      14

      Inclination

      97.3 Deg

      15

      Launch Date

      22nd June, 2016

      16

      Launch vehicle

      PSLV-C34

      Ground Station

      Ground station is established in Sathyabama university, Chennai.

    7. PISAT

      PISAT was designed and fabricated by a consortium of Indian colleges led by PES University, with the support of ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) and IE (Institution of Engineers) of India to provide a hands-on environment for students in all aspects of satellite building and operations[8].

      Objective

      Fig. 7 SathyabamaSat

      • To maximize the learning experience of the students

      • To provide a real-time design and development experience for the students on compact space systems.

      • To monitor the concentration of green house gases present in the atmosphere.

      • To obtain the pollution model for India through the data collected using spectrometer payload.

      • To interpret the acquired data and represent the concentration of greenhouse gases in PPM.

        Payload

        It is an imaging camera (ARGUS 1000) operated in Infrared spectral region. The payload is operated only over the regions where the experimentations are interested, and it delivers the data to the On-Board Computer (OBC) for transmission, when it crosses the radio window of ground station, which is being built in Sathyabama University campus, Chennai, India.

        Fig. 8 PISAT

        Objective

      • To develop, design a space system in university environment with our students and young faculty.

        Payload

        The PISAT payload is a 166 gm CMOS based camera with 10-bit radiometric resolution. It has an area array detector with 2048 H x 1536 V pixels. This covers 185 km x 135 km area with 90 m spatial resolution.

        Sl.No

        Parameter

        Value/System

        1

        Payload

        Imaging camera

        2

        Mass(kg)

        5 .3

        3

        Size (mm3)

        254 x 256 x 181

        4

        Power (W)

        13W in sunlit

        5.2 Ahr Battery

        5

        Attitude sensor

        Tri-axial MEMS based IMU

        Sl.No

        Parameter

        Value/System

        1

        Payload

        Imaging camera

        2

        Mass(kg)

        5 .3

        3

        Size (mm3)

        254 x 256 x 181

        4

        Power (W)

        13W in sunlit

        5.2 Ahr Battery

        5

        Attitude sensor

        Tri-axial MEMS based IMU

        TABLE VIII. SALIENT FEATURES OF PISAT

        6

        Actuators

        Magnetic Torquer

        7

        Stabilization

        3 Axis stabilised

        8

        OBC

        9

        TCUplink TM Downlink Beacon

        No uplink 437 MHz

        145.98 MHz

        10

        Orbit

        SSPO

        11

        Altitude (km)

        670

        12

        Local time

        1.30 AM

        13

        Orbital Period

        98.4 min

        14

        Inclination

        98 deg

        15

        Launch Date

        26th Sept 2016

        16

        Launch vehicle

        PSLV- C35

        Sl.No

        Parameter

        Value/System

        (Inertial Measurement Unit) and FPSS

        6

        Actuators

        Magnetic Torque Rods

        7

        Stabilization

        Three axis stabilisation

        8

        OBC

        Based on AVR32- AT32UC3A0512

        micro controller. Pointing accuracy 5 deg.

        9

        TCUplink TM Downlink

        2030 MHz

        2240 MHz

        10

        Orbit

        SSPO

        11

        Altitude (km)

        690

        12

        Local time

        11.30 AM

        13

        Orbital Period

        98.4 min

        14

        Inclination

        98 deg

        15

        Launch Date

        26th Sept 2016

        16

        Launch vehicle

        PSLVC35

        Sl.No

        Parameter

        Value/System

        (Inertial Measurement Unit) and FPSS

        6

        Actuators

        Magnetic Torque Rods

        7

        Stabilization

        Three axis stabilisation

        8

        OBC

        Based on AVR32- AT32UC3A0512

        micro controller. Pointing accuracy 5 deg.

        9

        TCUplink TM Downlink

        2030 MHz

        2240 MHz

        10

        Orbit

        SSPO

        11

        Altitude (km)

        690

        12

        Local time

        11.30 AM

        13

        Orbital Period

        98.4 min

        14

        Inclination

        98 deg

        15

        Launch Date

        26th Sept 2016

        16

        Launch vehicle

        PSLVC35

        Ground station

        PISAT team has developed a ground station with 3/7m paraboloid antenna with prime focus.

    8. PRATHAM

      This satellite was designed and fabricated by Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay Students[9,10].

      Ground Station

      Separate ground station is established at roof top of Aerospace department. in IIT Mumbai. Atharva college of engineering also established a ground station for Pratham One ground station was setup in France by French students to receive data from Pratham.

    9. NIUSAT

      This satellite was designed and fabricated by Noorul Islam University, thuckalay, Kumarakoil, Tamilnadu[11].

      Objective

      Fig. 10 NIUSAT

      Objective

      Fig. 9 PRATHAM

      • To enable new entrants in the industry/next generation students and aerospace aspirants.

        • To enable students and faculty to gain knowledge and experience in the field of Satellite and Space Technology.

        • To empower the Satellite Team with the skills to develop the Satellite through various phases of Design, Analysis, Fabrication and Testing until the Flight Model is made.

        • To launch the satellite into orbit and measuring Total Electron Count of the Ionosphere.

        • To involve students from other universities in our Satellite mission by building ground stations in their universities.

          Payload

          The NIUSAT payload is a four spectral band wide field Sensor. It covers 50 x 50 km and 25m resolution from the altitude of ~500 km

          TABLE X. SALIENT FEATURES OF NIUSAT

          Sl.No

          Parameter

          Value/System

          1

          Payload

          Imaging camera

          2

          Mass(kg)

          15

          3

          Size (mm3)

          274 x 274x 195

          4

          Power (W)

          Deployable solar panels with multi junction solar cells generates 40W in sunlit.

          10Ah Li-ion battery

          5

          Attitude sensor

          Sun sensors magnetometers, MEMS gyroscopes and star tracker

          6

          Actuators

          Miniature Reaction Wheels and Magnetic torquers

          7

          Stabilization

          3 axis stabilisation

          8

          OBC

          9

          TC Uplink TM Downlink Payload data

          144-148 MHz

          420-450 MHz

          2240 MHz(S-Band)

          10

          Orbit

          SSPO

          11

          Altitude (km)

          496 x 517

          12

          Local time

          9.30 AM

          Sl.No

          Parameter

          Value/System

          1

          Payload

          Imaging camera

          2

          Mass(kg)

          15

          3

          Size (mm3)

          274 x 274x 195

          4

          Power (W)

          Deployable solar panels with multi junction solar cells generates 40W in sunlit.

          10Ah Li-ion battery

          5

          Attitude sensor

          Sun sensors magnetometers, MEMS gyroscopes and star tracker

          6

          Actuators

          Miniature Reaction Wheels and Magnetic torquers

          7

          Stabilization

          3 axis stabilisation

          8

          OBC

          9

          TC Uplink TM Downlink Payload data

          144-148 MHz

          420-450 MHz

          2240 MHz(S-Band)

          10

          Orbit

          SSPO

          11

          Altitude (km)

          496 x 517

          12

          Local time

          9.30 AM

          Payload

          The PRATHAM Payload is designed to derive the total electron count in the ionosphere.

          TABLE IX. SALIENT FEATURES OF PRATHAM

          Sl.No

          Parameter

          Value/System

          1

          Payload

          Total Electron Count (TEC) in ionosphere

          2

          Mass(kg)

          10

          3

          Size (mm3)

          30.5 x 33.5 x 46.6 cm3

          4

          Power (W)

          13W 6.6 Ahr Battery

          5

          Attitude sensor

          Sun sensor Magnetometer

          Sl.No

          Parameter

          Value/System

          V. SATELLITES LAUNCHED BY OTHER

          AGENCIES

          1. KALAMSAT

          The Kalamsat, named after former Indian President

          13

          Orbital Period

          93 min

          14

          Inclination

          97.45 deg.

          15

          Launch Date

          23rd June, 2017

          16

          Launch vehicle

          PSLV- C34

          Ground station

          The NIUSAT ground station consists of mission control centre and Payload data processing centre. It has a three meter antenna which supports UHF downlink and VHF Uplink.

    10. KALAMSAT-V2

    The KalamsatV2, payload named after former Indian president APJ Abdul Kalam is the first to use the fourth stage of PSLV as an orbital platform. 24th January 2019. This payload was developed by students and Chennai-based Space Kidz India. The satellite is the smallest weighing 1.2 kg and has a lifespan of two months.

  3. SATELLITES UNDER DEVELOPMENT(MOU WITH ISRO)

    1. PARIKSHIT

      Parikshit is being developed by Manipal Institute of technology, Manipal, Karnataka. MOU is signed with ISRO for the launch of this satellite[12].

    2. IITMSAT

      IITMSAT is being developed by students of Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras [13-16].

      Objective

      • The objective is to study the precipitation of high energy electrons and protons from Van- Allen radiation belts to lower altitude of 600-900 km due to resonance interaction with low frequency EM waves.

    Payload

    IITMSAT will carry Space based Proton Electron Energy Detector (SPEED) instrument as payload to measure proton and electron fluxes in the Earths magnetosphere.

  4. CONTINUATION SATELLITES PROJECTS Some educational institutions are proposing to launch

satellites. Satellites and the Institutions are listed in Table-11

TABLE XI. CONTINUATION SATELLITE PROJECTS

Satellite

Institution

STUDSAT-2

Nitte Meenakshi college

PISAT-2

PES institute of Technology

SRMSAT-2

SRM University

  1. STUDSAT-2

    The studsat-2 project is proposed with two nanosatellites to prove the capability of nanosatellites in docking experiment in space[17-18].

  2. PISAT-2

    PISAT-2 is proposed with imager which may point towards space for the study on stars.

  3. SRMSAT-2

SRMSAT-2 is proposed to reach moon and have a study on the moon surface[19].

Abdul Kalam, weighing 64 grams was designed and developed by 18-year old Tamil Nadu student and his team. This satellite is 3.8 cm cube with 3-D printed reinforced carbon fiber structure. The instrument carried by this satellite was Geiger Muller counter. This satellite was launched by NASAs sounding Rocket in June 2017. Sub-orbital spaceflights technically enter space, but do not get into orbit.

  1. INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN SPACE

    STUDIES

    Many Indian Institutes of Technologies have involved in space related studies through their various departments.

    Indian institute of space science and technology (IIST) which is under Indian Space research Organization is carrying out many space related research in collaboration with other universities in India and abroad. Mainly it focuses in developing new technologies required for future satellites and launch vehicles.

    1. SATELLITES LAUNCHED WITH BALLOONS

      Many colleges have started the satellite systems study and testing their systems by launching them using balloons. Some colleges are mentioned below as samples.

    2. PERIYAR MANIAMMAI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE

      TECHNOLOGY (DEEMED TO BE UNIVERSITY)

      A team of girls of Periyar Maniammai Institute of Science Technology (Deemed to be University), Vallam, launched a satellite using helium-filled balloon. The satellite was capable of sending live telemetry consisting of data and flight parameters to the control station at PMIST premises.

    3. VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (VIT)

    Twelve payloads with satellite bus were launched using a helium-filled balloon by school students during the National Space Challenge-2020 (NNSC)from Vellore Institute of Technology(VIT). The balloon was expected to reach an altitude of 20 kilometers.

  2. CONCLUSION

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has created Space systems awareness among Indian Students and helped in design, fabrication, testing and launch of satellites developed by Indian students. Now many colleges continuing the space study autonomously.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author wish to acknowledge the Director U.R Rao Satellite Centre, Bangalore and the Programme Director, IRS & SSS programme for their continuous support and encouragement.

REFERENCES

  1. Neetu Sharma, Satish K Jain, S.V.Charhate, Trend of Very Small Satellites Design and Development in Indian Prospective,

    Conference by Antenna Test & Measurement Society

  2. R.Dhanraj, Mala John, P.V.Ramakrishna, B.Umamaheshwari and V.Vaidehi, Design, Development and Two Years of On Orbit Operation of ANUSAT Paper presented at the Natioanl conference

    on Space Transportation systems STS 201 held at VSSC, ISRO Trivandrum 16th to 18thDec 2011.

  3. K. Thyagarajan, J.P.Gupta, P.S.Goel and Prof K. Jayaraman , University Small Satellite Program ANUSAT ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore India.

  4. C.Angadi, ZManjiyani, C. Dixit, K.vigneshwaran, G.S.Avinash, P.R.Narendra, S. Prasad, H. Ramavaram, R.M.Mamatha, G.Karthik, H.V.Arpan, A.H.Sharath. P.S. Kiran and K.Visweswaran. STUDSAT: Indias first student Pico Satellite project Aerospace Conference, pp. 1-15, 2011.

  5. Mayank singh,Rohit Singla,Sushant Rajliwa ,JUGNU for Carbon Check International journal for research in applied science and Engineering technology (IJRASET), comVol.2Issue IX, 2014.

  6. S.Kulkarni, S.Bangade, N. Sambhus, M.Khadse, D.Waghule, P.Aher, K.Gaikwad and S. Thakurdesai. Design and optimization of the on- board DC/DC converters of swayam satellite. IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES), pp1-6. 2015.

  7. B.Sheela Rani, .R.Santhosh, LeniSam Prabhu, Michel Federick, Vipin Kumar and Sai santhosh, A survey to select microcontroller for Sathyabama satellites Onboard Computer subsystem, in proceeding of the international conference, Recent Advances in Space Technology Services and Climate change (RSTSCC), 2010.

  8. Gaurav Agarwal, Ajay Kumar , Mahendra M Nayak and Dr. V K Agarwal Design of a Student Satellite PISAT,

    Volume26, Issues1APCOSEC 2016 911 Nov, Bangalore, India

  9. Pratham, IIT Bombay Student Satellite Project Website: www.aero.iitb.ac.in/pratham.

  10. Sanyam S. Mulay, Jaideep Joshi, Yashovardhan S. Chati, Vaibhav V. Unhelkar, Saptarshi Bandyopadhyay Shashank Tamaskar, Mallesh Bommanahal, Chaitanya Talnikar, Avnish Kumar and Hari B. Hablani, Attitude Determination And Control of Pratham, Indian Institute Of Technology Bombay's First Student Satellite, IAA-AAS- DyCoSS1-13-11.

  11. Shajin Nargunam A. Marappa Krishnaswamy Nano Satellite Based Environmental Monitoring 65th International Astronautical Congress 2014.

  12. Naman Vaidya, Aditya Shanker, Ankit Agarwal, Ananya Pramanik , Chandrasekhar Nagarajan Ankur Dev, Thomas John, Small and Very Small Advanced Space Power Systems IAC-13,C3,4,x19937 64th International Astronautical Congress2013.

  13. D.Kannapan, A. Gulati, G. Saha, and S. Kumar, Design of the attitude control subsystem of IITMSAT,Ageomagnetic field pointing satellite, Proc. of 24th AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, 2014.

  14. Sooraj Gopakumar, Saisree Eega, Susurla V S Suresh, Madadi Sai Sriram Reddy, Anand Antony, Harishankar Ramachandran and David Koilpillai. Design of Electrical Power Subsystem for IITMSAT International Conference on Space Science and Communication (IconSpace) held at Langkawi, Malaysia, 2015.

  15. Akshay Gulati, Shubham Chavan, Joseph Samuel, Sampoornam Srinivasan, Pradeep Shekhar, Akshat Dave, Aditya Sant, Sourbh Bhadane, Mayug Maniparambil, Vishnu Prasad Sivasankarakurup, Dhanalakshmi Durairaj, David Koilpillai, Harishankar Ramachandran, IITMSAT Communications System : A LeanSat Design Approach The 3rd IAA Conference On University Satellite Missions. December 2015.

  16. A.Gulati, N.Sivadas, D.Kannapan, H. D.Koilpillai, S.Ansari, A.Gaurav, J.Mohanbai, N.Chandrachoodan, and R.Talashila, An efficient nanosatellite for a large payload, Proc. of 5th nanosatellite symposium, 2013.

  17. Sandesh R Hegde, DivyanshuSahay,SSandya, Sandeep G M, Muralidhara, Nikhilesh K V Nitte Mahalinga Adyanthaya Design and Development of Inter-Satellite Separation Mechanism for Twin Nano Satellite-STUDSAT-2

  18. S. Nagabhushana, S.Dasiga, Loganathan.M, B.Rajulu and M.Divya, Orbital analysis and hardware configuration for InterSatellite Lnk in STUDSAT-2, IEEE Aerospace Conference, pp 1-6., 2014.

  19. AkashRatheesh et.al, SRMSAT: A Feasibility Study on Small Satellite Mission to Moon, 54th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA SciTech 2016 San Diego, CA.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *