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Safety of Women in India: What is to be Blamed


Call for Papers Engineering Journal, May 2019

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Safety of Women in India: What is to be Blamed

Dr. Jamal Fathima. J. I

Department of Statistics

Justice Basheer Ahmed Sayeed College for Women, Chennai, India

Aishwarya Lakshmi. S, Niveditha. H

Justice Basheer Ahmed Sayeed College for Women, Chennai, India

Abstract: Women have been supressed, harassed and disregarded for generations now. This treatment is not indigenous to any part of the world, any town, city or country and, despite multiple government plans and schemes all over, there seems to be no visible difference yet. Instead, as humans were only becoming more and more regressive, and the increasing rate of crimes against women occurring on a daily basis is enough proof to justify the same. Therefore, its of utmost importance that people know the issues and troubles that women face and also come up with ways to curb them. Treating women with the respect they deserve just like any other human being does shouldnt be as difficult as it currently is.

Keywords: Safety, Logistic regression, Chi-square, Gender, Harassment

  1. INTRODUCTION

    All over the world, violence against women is alarmingly on the rise regardless of age, caste, creed, colour et al. In the recent times, a lot of women have reached heights that have been unattainable by men despite years of attempt. However, all these achievements and progress have had nearly zero impact on the violence against women. Instead, it only seems to be an upward curve. According to the United Nations Declaration, violence against women includes any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life , (UN,1993).

    Thus, the study on womens safety is practically the need of the hour. It is only now, through extensive activism and with thanks to the internet, all forms of violence against women is receiving substantial attention globally. Unfortunately, even as awareness amongst the people is on the rise, so are cases of violence against women. According to an article in The Wire, up to 39 crimes against women were reported per hour in India in the year 2016, which however distressingly saw the lowest conviction rate (18.9%). Four rape cases were reported every hour in the country in 2016, up from two every hour in 2007. Of 39,068 rape victims in 2016, 43% were girls below 18 years. Offenders were known to the victim in 95% reported cases. Further saddening is the fact that, as a nation we believe that factors, especially demographic details like the age and locality of the victim influence the occurrence of such untoward events. It is this thought that has to be reviewed and dealt with in the best way possible.

    From all these given statistics, it is perspicuous that violence against women is growing to be an issue of

    alarming global concern that has to be looked into and appropriate action to be taken at the earliest.

  2. OBJECTIVES

    • To check how safe the society is for women who are just carving their way into it.

    • To check if the harassment that women go through regularly in life actually has anything to be blamed on them also, as claimed.

    • To provide possible solutions to all these problems, however small they may be.

    • To encourage women to come out in the open with any of the above-mentioned issues that they may have faced in their lives.

  3. LITERATURE REVIEW

    Dr. Rajeshwari M.Shettar (April 2015) finds Women empowerment involves the building up of a society, a political environment, wherein women can breathe without the fear of oppression, exploitation, apprehension, discrimination and the general feeling of persecution which goes with being a woman in a traditionally male dominated structure. Women are adept at mobilizing diverse groups for a common reason. They often work across ethnic, religious, political, and cultural divides to promote liberty. We are all aware of importance of women safety, but we must analyze that they should be properly protected. say Sujata P.Salunkhe, Bhausaheb S.Sonawane and Geeta N.Sonawane (October 2016).

    United Nations Human Rights Organization (2014) on their study titled Womens rights are human rights have discussed the cause of violence in a womans life, Understanding that violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, a human rights analysis posits that the specific causes of such violence and the factors that increase the risk of its occurrence are grounded in the broader context of systemic gender-based discrimination against women and other forms of subordination. Vulnerability to violence is understood as a condition created by the absence or denial of rights.

    Department of Foreign affairs and trade, Australian Government (2015) believe that Responding to such violence requires women to access essential and integrated support services. This is fundamental to responding to such violence, whatever the context.. Depression is also common, as victims are made to feel guilty for provoking the abuse and are frequently subjected to intense criticism. It is reported that 60% of victims meet the diagnostic

    criteria for depression, either during or after termination of the relationship, and have a greatly increased risk of suicidal tendencies., Pankaj Chhikara, Jitender Jakhar, Anil Malik, Kamal Singla, S. K. Dhattarwal (2013) feel that this is the mental impact of violence on women. Vic health (2017) has declared that in Australia Young women are especially vulnerable to sexual assault. The ABS has found that in the 12 months leading up to the PSS, the rate of sexual assault among young women (aged 18

    24 years) was higher than the national average (Cox 2015). The fear of what an aggressor will do next gives any kind of harassment its gut-wrenching power. People react to the underlying threat, not just the surface words or actions. Stop street harassment (2014).

  4. METHODOLOGY

    Data for the study was collected through the questionnaires from women of the age group 18-24 from various districts of Tamil Nadu. The sample size of 486 was selected and these samples were divided into two groups, harassed or not harassed, on comparing their socio-economic status some of the statistical tests were applied. The purpose of logistic regression is to correctly predict the outcome category for special occasions using logistic regression model. To achieve this goal, it has been created a model that includes all predictor variables that are useful to predict the outcome. (Ramosacaj.M, Hasani. V, Dumi. A) (September 2015). The Chi- Square test and the Logistic regression were the two main tests that were used to compare the age, their locality and the harassment faced.

    1. Logistic Regression

      The Regression model is given by:

      [ [()] = [ () ] = + + +

    2. Chi-square Test

    TABLE 2: OBSERVED FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLE OF AGE VS THE KIND OF ARASSMENT/EVE- TEASING.

    YEARS

    KIND OF HARASSMENT

    VERBAL

    PHYSICAL

    VISUAL

    TOTAL

    18

    55

    24

    36

    115

    19

    57

    26

    48

    131

    20

    44

    24

    29

    97

    21

    31

    16

    20

    67

    22

    15

    9

    5

    29

    23

    7

    4

    7

    18

    24

    16

    10

    12

    38

    TOTAL

    225

    113

    157

    495

    TABLE 3: OBSERVED FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS TYPE OF LOCALITY AND WHETHER BEEN HARASSED OR NOT.

    TYPE OF LOCALITY

    HARASSE D

    OR NOT

    YES

    NO

    TOTAL

    NORTH CHENNAI

    37

    20

    57

    WEST CHENNAI

    64

    35

    99

    SOUTH CHENNAI

    78

    73

    151

    SUBURBAN CHENNAI

    24

    16

    40

    TOTAL

    203

    144

    347

    On using the Chi-square test for finding the relation between the kind of harassment/eve-teasing faced by the respondents and their respective ages, the null hypothesis (H0) was assigned to be that the age of the respondents is independent of the type of harassment undergone. After calculating the observed and expected frequencies, the Chi-

    1()

    +

    1 1 2 2

    Square value was 0.90995697 which when compared with

    TABLE 1: PARAMETER ESTIMATES AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS VS BEEN HARASSED OR NOT.

    HarassedOrNot

    B

    Std. Error

    Wald

    Df

    Sig.

    Exp(B)

    YES

    [Age=18-19]

    .065

    .120

    .292

    1

    .589

    1.067

    [Age=20-21]

    .548

    .181

    9.121

    1

    .003

    1.729

    [Age=22-24]

    .634

    .243

    6.822

    .009

    1.885

    From the above analysis, it is known that irrespective of the age of a person, she is subjected to harassment. So, any woman of any age group can be and become a victim of abuse in this nation.

    the table value at 5% level of significance which is 21.026, it is inferred that the age of the respondent is completely independent of the type of harassment faced. The same test is repeated to find the relation between the type of the locality the respondent is from and whether she is harassed or not. The null hypothesis assigned here was that the Harassment is independent of the locality the respondent is from. Further after the test was conducted, the Chi-square value calculated was 0.243558245 and on comparing it with the table value 7.815 at 5% level of significance, it was inferred that the harassment a victim undergoes is completely independent of the locality she is from.

  5. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, it is evident that the rate of crime against women seems to be severely on the rise and something has to be done as soon as possible so as to bring about a change in this situation. Women are continuing to feel unsafe outside their homes, even inside them in a few cases, and there is a huge number of cases of harassment that are going unreported every year. From this it is apparent that either weve failed in teaching our women to step up for themselves, or the judicial has let people down so bad that they no longer believe in it enough to even file a complaint,

let alone hoping for action to be taken against the accused. Whatever may it be, the situation is in dire need of improvement. One very important conclusion that can be drawn from the above analyses is the fact that women face violence and go through harassment regardless of their demography, be it their age, locality et.al. This disproves all the baseless theories that for any untoward event happening to a woman, she is just as responsible if not more as the harasser.

Few solutions can be proposed with the help of the elaborate analysis of this survey. Firstly, it is the sole responsibility of parents of any generation to teach their sons to respect women and their daughters to fearlessly face every challenge. Only when this groundwork is strong, our nation will be a desirable place to live for the sisterhood. Respondents believe that severe punishments and faster judgements will help curb such violent crimes occurring against women on a regular basis. Oppression of women is just a daily routine in some houses in India. Women are being subject to so much discrimination and stereotyping in the society. Solution to such a problem is the woman herself. She must courageously fight such social stigmas, break every stereotype and prove to the world that women are meant to do more. This research is a small attempt to bring a small difference in this big world.

REFERENCES

  1. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/essay/status-of-women-in-india- with-statistics/41343/

  2. https://thewire.in/204644/conviction-rate-crimes-women-hits- record-low/

  3. Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (2016). Safe Homes and Safe Communities

  4. Dr. (Smt.) Rajeshwari M. Shettar (April 2015). A Study on Issues and Challenges of Women Empowerment in India. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), Volume 17, Issue 4.Ver. I, 13-19

  5. Dr Wei Leng Kwok, Dr Peta Cox, Ms Natalie Russell, Dr Emma Partridge, Ms Rebecca Zosel (January 2017). Violence against women in Australia: An overview of research and approaches to primary prevention. VicHealth

  6. K. Sateesh Kumar, G. Madhu (January 2012). Analysis and Multinomial Logistic Regression Modelling of Work Stress in Manufacturing Industries in Kerala, India. International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology, Volume 2, Issue 1, 410- 418

  7. Madhu.B, Ashok.N.C., S. Balasubramanian (May 2014). A Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis to Study the Influence of Residence and Socio-Economic Status on Breast Cancer Incidences in Southern Karnataka. International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention, Volume 2, Issue 5, 1-8

  8. Pankaj Chhikara, Jitender Jakhar, Anil Malik, Kamal Singla, S. K. Dhattarwal (2013). Domestic Violence: The Dark Truth of our Society. J Indian Acad Forensic Med., Vol. 35, No. 1, 71-75

  9. PhD. Miftar Ramosacaj, Prof. Dr. Vjollca Hasani, Prof. Dr. Alba Dumi (September 2015). Application of Logistic Regression in the Study of Students Performance Level (Case Study of Vlora University). Journal of Educational and Social Research, MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy, Volume 5, Number 3, 239-244

  10. Stop Street Harassment, Reston, Virginia (Spring 2014). Unsafe and Harassed in Public Spaces: A National Street Harassment Report

  11. Sujata P.Salunkhe, Bhausaheb S.Sonawane, Geeta N.Sonawane (October 2016). A Review on Various Techniques of Women Security. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Volume 6, Issue 5, 1811-1813

  12. United Nations Human Rights (2014). Womens Rights are Human Rights. United Nations Publication

  13. United Nations Population Fund. The Role of Data in Addressing Violence against Women and Girls

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