 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 2603
 Authors : Nehal .A.Ranabhatt, Sudhir Agarwal, Priyesh.P.Gandhi
 Paper ID : IJERTV2IS2043
 Volume & Issue : Volume 02, Issue 02 (February 2013)
 Published (First Online): 28022013
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
RTL Design and Implementation of BPSK Modulation at Low Bit Rate
International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)
ISSN: 22780181
Vol. 2 Issue 2, February 2013
Nehal .A.Ranabhatt1,Sudhir Agarwal2 , Priyesh.P.Gandhi3 1Nehal PG Student, L. C. Institute of Technology, Bhandu
2 Head, DCTD, Space Application Center, ISRO, Ahmedabad
3Assistant Professor, L. C. Institute of Technology, Bhandu
Abstract
This paper presents Simulation results and FPGA
the transmitted signal in BPSK modulation is given as following and fc is the frequency of the carrier[2].
S(t)= A sin(2f t), if m(t)=logic 1
implementation of BPSK modulation at Low Bit Rate c c
1200 bits/second on Altera Stratix III Development Board. In this BPSK scheme, we have two parameters: Binary Sequence and Carrier Frequency, which are user controllable. BPSK modulation technique was analyzed using QuartusII 9.1 Complier. We have designed BPSK Modulation using VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit) Hardware Description Language (VHDL). In BPSK Design, we used two Mega Functions PLL and ROM .

Introduction
In electronics, modulation is process of varying one or more properties of high frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with respect to modulating signal. Digital modulation provides more information capacity, compatibility with digital services, higher data security, better quality communications and quicker system availability. In Digital modulation, an analog carrier signal is modulated by a digital bit stream [1]. Digital modulation method can be considered as digital to analog conversion, and corresponding demodulation or detection as analog to digital conversion. BPSK is one type of digital modulation technique which uses a constant amplitude carrier and carries the information in phase variation. BPSK is simplest form of Phase shift keying (PSK)[1]. It uses two phases which are separated by 180 and so also can be termed as 2PSK. It is able to modulate 1 bit/symbol and so it is used in application where bandwidth is limited [1]. In BPSK, symbol rate and bit rate are same because it will pass one symbol per bit. In Fig 1, it is shown that binary code bipolar format signal is multiplied with carrier signal. Thereby, BPSK modulated signal is created. If m(t) is Binary sequence of bipolar format, c(t) is carrier signal and s(t) is modulated signal then
S(t)= Ac sin(2fct), if m(t)=logic 0
Figure 1. Principal of BPSK modulation[2]
Simulation Results for BPSK Modulation are carried out using Matlab R2010a and ModelSimAltera 6.5b (Quartus II 9.1).BPSK modulation is designed for Altera Stratix III FPGA development Board and the device used is EP3SL150F1152c2.

BPSK Modulation Design In MATLAB
The BPSK modulation is implemented in Matlab to compare BPSK output with FPGA simulation output and we use same concept to design BPSK modulation on FPGA. The code design in Matlab have two user controllable parameters i.e. carrier frequency and binary sequence. Block diagram for the Matlab design is shown in Figure. 2 .The Matlab BPSK modulation code designed has 4 inputs: Bit rate, Carrier frequency, sampling frequency and Input Bit stream (that is to be BPSK modulated). Code designed is such that all the input parameters can have variable values, thus making it a generic BPSK modulator. A Matlab function is
designed to which all the four parameters are passed as inputs while BPSK modulated output is returned in an array variable. As shown in the block diagram, samples per sine wave are determined by dividing sampling frequency with the carrier frequency. Number of sine waves per bit is determined by dividing carrier frequency with the bitrate.
Figure 2. BPSK modulation in MATLAB
Once we have the samples per sine wave required, we divide the 0 to 360 degrees in that no of values for representing 1 sine wave. For example if it is 8, then we get [0, 45, 90, 135, 180, 225, 270, 315] values in between 0 to 360. Then we compute
sine of all above values and store it in another array making one sine wave. Then we create an array in which we append sine waves per bit times the array representing one sine wave to get 1 bit modulated sine wave signal.
Then we multiply this array representing modulated 1 bit with the incoming NRZ input bit stream to get the BPSK modulated output. Thus if input NRZ bit was 1, then same array representing modulated 1bit is given out and if its 1, entire array is negated and given out so effectively phase shifting output by 180 degrees for 1. Simulation result for BPSK modulation in Matlab is shown in Figure.3, given as below.
Figure 3.Simulation for BPSK modulation

BPSK Modulation Design For FPGA
In our design, we have used three Altera Mega functions. They are PLL, Rom_bits and rom_sine_samples.PLL (Phase Lock Loop) and are used to convert the board clock of 125 MHz to 120 MHz, used in our entire design Rom_bits is a rom which stores a variable user bit pattern of 1200 bits which will be fetched in 1 sec to give an input bit rate of 1200 bps. Rom_sine_samples is a ROM which has 10 thousand samples of 14 bits, of a sine wave full cycle in between 0 to 360 degrees, stored in to it. The samples are generated and stored in following way.
Figure 4. Design of BPSK modulation on FPGA

Divided 0 to 360 degrees in 10000 parts with each value differing the previous by 360/10000.

Since our modulated samples of sine wave have to be given out to D/A converter, which is of 14 bits and has positive offset binary coding, we have to convert above 10000 values in range hexadecimal 0000 to 3fff.

Thus 1 should match to 0000 and +1 to 3fff.

So, we multiply all the 10000 sine values with hexadecimal 1fff and taking only integer part we get are values in range 1fff to +1fff.

To this, we add 1fff to each sample and we finally get the range of 10000 sine wave samples in between 0000 to 3ffe, which we have stored in rom_sine_samples.
As 125 MHz is divided by 1200 (which is our required bit rate) gives us a noninteger value so we converted the clock to 120 MHz using PLL as 120 MHz can be divided by 1200 to give us an integer value of 1 lakh. So we designed a counter_1lakh which counts up to 1 lakh and then rolls over. Bit address generation logic increments the address to the rom_bits every time the counter_1lakh reaches 1 lakh value. Rom_bits gives a bit out, every time address is incremented, thus giving an effect of input bit rate of 1200 bits per second. After all the 1200 input bits are fetched from the rom_bits, rom bit address generation logic roll overs the address and starts again form 0, to start fetching bit from 0th location of rom_bits. Thus our 1 bit prevails for 1 lakh counter. This has to be BPSK modulated. For one sine wave we have stored 10 thousand samples of 14 bits.
A constant value phase_acc which holds the no of sine waves required per bit for modulating it, determines the carrier frequency and no of samples per sine wave. In our design we have another counter, counter_10 which is modulo 10 counter. Whenever the counter_10 value is 10, sine wave sample address generation logic increments the address to the rom_sine_samples by constant phase_acc. Thus in 1 lakh count, rom_sine_samples outputs 10000 samples (1lakh/10 = 10000). So if phase_acc = 1 then entire 10000 samples of rom_sine_samples will be fetched and given out, so in this case one sine wave will modulate 1 bit. If phase_acc= 2 then aternate samples will be fetched twice, to generate 2 sine wave per bit and so on. If bit out from the rom_bit is 1 then FPGA output generation logic gives 1 bit output and if it is 0 then it gives 0 bit output to binary_seq.
If bit out from the rom_bit is 1 then Dac1 output generation logic gives directly the samples out from the rom_sine_samples to the 14 bits of Dac1
and if 0, then it gives samples out from the rom_sine_samples subtracted from hexadecimal 3ffe to give it a phase shift of 180 degree. Thus, we get the input bit stream from FPGA clock output while we get modulated output from dac1 output.

1. MegaFuctions Used In Design

Phase Locked Loop
The PhaseLocked Loop (PLL) is a closedloop frequencycontrol system that compares the phase difference between the input signal and the output signal of a voltagecontrolled oscillator (VCO). The negative feedback loop of the system forces the PLL to be phaselocked. The PLL can be used to generate stable frequencies, recover signals from a noisy communication channel, or distribute clock signals throughout your design. PLL is working in normal mode operation. The PLL feedback path source is a global or regional clock network, minimizing clock delay to registers for that clock type and specific PLL output. The PLL can generate a number of clock output signals depending on the PLL type and the device family that you select in the ALTPLL Mega Wizard interface. In PLL output clock frequency can be obtained by multiplying input clock frequency with ratio of multiplication factor and division factor.

ROM
TriMatrix embedded memory blocks provide three different sizes of embedded SRAM to efficiently address the needs of StratixÂ® III FPGA designs. TriMatrix memory includes 640 (in ROM mode only) or 320bit memory logic array blocks (MLABs), 9Kbit M9K blocks, and 144Kbit M144K blocks. The MLABs have been optimized to implement filter delay lines, small firstin first out (FIFO) buffers, and shift registers. we can use the M9K blocks for general purpose memory applications, and the M144K blocks are ideal for processor code storage, packet buffering, While the M9K and M144K memory blocks are dedicated resources, the MLABs are dualpurpose blocks. They can be configured as regular logic array blocks (LABs) or as memory logic array blocks (MLABs). Ten adaptive logic modules (ALMs) make up one MLAB. Each ALM in an MLAB can be configured as a 16Ã—2 block, resulting in a 16Ã—20 simple dualport SRAM block in a single MLAB. In ROM mode, each ALM in an MLAB can be configured as either a 64Ã—1 or a 32Ã—2 block, resulting in a 64Ã—10 or 32Ã—20 ROM block in a single MLAB. Depending on which TriMatrix memory block you target, the following modes may be used: Singleport, Simple dualport, True dual port, Shiftregister, ROM, FIFO. When using the memory blocks in ROM, singleport, simple dual port, or true dualport mode, you can corrupt the memory contents if you violate the setup or hold
time on any of the memory block input registers. This applies to both read and write operations. ROM Mode: All Stratix III TriMatrix memory blocks support ROM mode. A .mif file initializes the ROM content of these blocks. The address lines of the ROM are registered on M9K and M144K blocks, but can be unregistered on MLABs. The outputs can be registered or unregistered. Output registers can be asynchronously cleared. The ROM read operation is identical to the read operation in the singleport RAM configuration.


Simulation Results
Here in simulation results, carrier frequency is variable and Bit rate is fixed=1200 bits/second and in all simulation result sampling frequency is 12MHz. Figure.5 and Figure.6 shows simulation results in ModelSim Altera 6.5b at different carrier frequency 18KHz and 48KHz. In this Simulation results we get BPSK output on dac_1 signal and Binary Pattern on binary_seq signal. Figure.7 shows Binry sequence which is stored on ROM table and this patten can be user variable. In Figure.8 we allot pin assignments so that output of hardware can be observed. Figure.9. shows the compilation Report for BPSK modulation design. Figure.10 and Figure.11 shows RealTime Results on Oscilloscope at carrier frequency fc=18KHz and fc=48KHz respectively.Figure.12 and Figure.13 shows Experimental setUp for BPSK modulation on Hardware at carrier frequency fc=18KHz and fc=48KHz respectively.
Figure 5. Simulation for BPSK modulation at fc=18KHz
Figure 6. Simulation for BPSK modulation at fc=48KHz
Figure 7. Binary sequence 10110100 stored in rom_bits Mega function
Figure 8. Pin assignments on Device StratixIII EP3SL150F1152c2
Figure 9. Compilation Report
Figure 10. BPSK output on oscilloscope when fs=12MHz ,fc=18KHz with Bit Pattern 010
Figure 12. Experimental setUp of BPSK Output On Oscilloscope When fs=12MHz and fc=18KHz with Bit Pattern 010
Figure 13. Experimental setUp of BPSK Output On Oscilloscope When fs=12MHz and fc=48KHz with Bit Pattern 01
Figure 11. BPSK output on oscilloscope when fs=12MHz ,fc=48KHz with Bit Pattern 01

Conclusion
In FPGA implementation we use intellectual property. The simplicity of construction was reached using intellectual property component in a combination with the VHDL language. In this paper we implement BPSK modulation on StratixIII FPGA development Board. In our design Binary pattern and carrier frequency are variable. Here we put simulation result for BPSK modulation in Matlab shown in Fig.3. and Simulation results in ModelSim Altera shown in Fig.5 and Fig.6. While designing BPSK modulation on FPGA we use ROM and PLL Mega Fuctions provide by Altera. After that we put BPSK output
on Oscilloscope with Different carrier frequency fc=18KHz shown in Fig.10 and , fc=48KHz shown in Fig. 11and finally we put photographs of BPSK modulation on hard ware at 1200 bps Bit rate shown in Fig 12 and Fig 13. In BPSK modulator, for 0 bit, it is shown that processing data is samples of delayed carrier signal (180 degrees of phase delay), for 1 symbol, it is shown that processing data is samples of carrier signal.

References

C. Erdoan, I. Myderrizi, and S. Minaei FPGA Implementation of BASKBFSKBPSK Digital Modulators IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 54, No. 2, April 2012.

Mehmet Sonmez and Ayhan Akbal FPGABased BASK and BPSK Modulators Using VHDL: Design, Applications and Performance Comparison for Different Modulator Algorithms In March 2012, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887) Volume 42 No.13, March 2012.

] S.O.Popescu and A.S. Gontean Performance comparison of the BPSK and QPSK Modulation Techniques on FPGA 17th International Symposium for Design and Technology in Electronic Packaging (SIITME) 2011 IEEE .

S.O. Popescu, A.S.Gontean and G.Budura BPSK System on Spartan 3E FPGA SAMI 2012 10th IEEE Jubilee International Symposium on Applied Machine Intelligence and Informatics January 26 28, 2012.

Michal KovÃ¡ BPSK, QPSK MODULATOR Simulation ModelVUT Faculty of electrical engineering and communication, 2006. 82 s.

S.O. Popescu, A.S.Gontean and G.Budura Simulation and Implementation of a BPSK Modulator on FPGA 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics May 1921, 2011.

Manoj Kollam1, S.A.S.Krishna Chaithanya2, Nagaraju kommu3 Design And Implementation Of An Enhanced DDs Based Digital Modulator For Multiple Modulation Schemes International Journal of Smart Sensors and Ad Hoc Networks (IJSSAN) Volume1, Issue1, 2011.

Satish Sharma ,Sunil, Vijaykumar Pujari, Vanitha M, P.Lakshminarsimhan.FPGA Implementation of MPSK Modulators for Satellite Communication, International Conference on Advances in Recent Technologies in Communication and Computing 2010.

Philippe Dondon J.M Micouleau J. Legall P.Kadionik Design of a low cost BPSK modulator/demodulator for a practical teaching of digital modulation techniques Author manuscript, published in "Engineering Education, Agios Nicholaos : Greece 2007.

Wenmiao Song and Qiongqiong Yao esign and Implement of QPSK Modem Based on FPGA IEEE ,2010.

]http://www.altera.com/devices/fpga/stratix fpgas/stratixiii/overview/st3overview.html

http://www.altera.com/devices/fpga/stratix fpgas/stratix iii/overview/architecture/st3 dsp.html

http://www.altera.com/devices/fpga/stratixfpgas/stratix iii/overview/power/st3power.htmlvideo