fbpx

ROLE OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


Call for Papers Engineering Journal, May 2019

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

ROLE OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Rakshit Parihar, B.Tech., Istyear(EE),

(ksp.rakshit@gmail.com)

Dr. Akleshwar Mathur, Assistant Professor

(Department of Applied Sciences),

JIET-Coed,Jodhpur

(akleshwar.mathur@jietjodhpur.com)

ABSTRACt-India is a country of biodiversity. It is a well known finding that variety of plants as well as animals play important role to our life, including health also. The importance of plants with special reference to herbs with medicinal value has been studied and their role in chemical engineering has been analyzed.It was found that due to increasing global market as 20 billion for phytochemicals,scope is very vast. By the use of analytical methods and co-relating them with newer engineering techniques, growth would be achieved for country. This growth can contribute to both process and product development based on rich biological heritage of India.

Key Words- Phytochemicals,Chemical Engineering, Global market.

INTRODUCTION

What are Phytochemicals?

The word phytochemical ,is derived from phyto or plant. The study of phytochemicals involves understanding the chemical composition of plants used in medicines. The secondary metabolites are produced by plant and also responsible for defense purpose. Medicinally used and deadly poisons are the starting and end point effects of phytochemicals.A number of phytochemicals isolated from plant material are used in the pharmaceutical drug industry today.

Historical Importance: Traditional systems of medicines

The traditional systems of medicines are Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Western Herbal Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Homeopathy.

In the early days physicians were not aware of the chemical constituents in the plants however they did have knowledge of active principle responsible for therapeutic activity .In Charaka-Samitha, the word, vira¸ is similar to word ,potency. Drug have been classified according to the pharmochemical activities, but comprehensive account of mechanism of action is missing

Ayurveda is the ancient healing system of India is flourished in the Vedic era in India

The classical texts of Ayurveda, CharakaSamhita and SushrutaSamhita were written around 100 B.C. The AyurvedicMateriaMedica includes 600 medicinal plants along with therapy.

Phytochemicals in Ayurveda

In the Vedicera, the ancient healing system of India Ayurveda was flourished, around 1000B.C.The AyurvedicMateriaMedica includes 600 medicinal plants along

withtherapeutics.Tulsi,Turmeric,fenugreek,ginger,gar lic are an integral part of Ayurvedicformulations, which may be single or multi component.

Traditional Forms of Drugs

Before the availability of synthetic drugs, humans were completely dependent on medicinal herbs for treatment and curing diseases. The drugs were used

in the form of expressed juice,powder,decoction or infusion.

Details of some Herbs used commonly in Ayurveda-

S

r.

Name ofher

b

Botanical Name

Uses

1

Tulsi

Ocimum sanctum

Skin

diseases,snakebites, helminthiasis

2

Haldi

Curcuma longa

Cardiovascular diseases,alzheimers disease,skin

treatments

3

Ginge r

Zinziberofficinal e

Stimulate digestion,antipyretic for fevers and common

cold,prevent nausea and vomiting

4

Fenug reek

Trigonellafoenu mgraecum

As spice,blood cholesterol

control,cure of constipation

5

Garlic

Allium sativum

Treatment of high blood pressure,skin and fungal

infections

FormsofDrugsandComposition

Before the availability of synthetic drugs, humans were completely dependent on medicinal herbs for prevention and treatment of disease. The drugs wereused in the form of juice, powder, decoction of infusion etc. Although formulations mentioned in ancient texts are difficult ot understand in terms of scientific parameters, some of them are still reputed for their curative values. Ancient healers who developed formulations based on medicinal herbs were probably not aware of the chemical composition of these herbs. The work on Terminaliachebula (myrobalan) mentioned in CharakaSamhita is quiet authentic and modern studies have ravealed that the puragative activity mentioned in Ayurveda is justified by the isolation of chebullic acid, the active constituent of myrobalar.

Herbs vs Extracts

Sterneur first isolated morphine from Papaversomniferum (opium poppy) showed the medical profession that certain phytochemicals produced in plant cells are responsible for pharmacological activity other alkaloids isolated from opium poppy were investigated for their pharmacological activities. Codeine showed anti jussive activity and papaverineantispasmodic activity. The opium based extracts have been utilized forvarious pharmacological activities, and a number ofalkaloidsdistributed in the plant have different pharmacological activities.

Validation of Herbal Drugs

Scientific validation of herbal drugs always has been questioned, but with recent advance and publications of clinical trials, the researchers and the public are viewing herbal products with more respect. In the commercial market medicinal herbs are used as raw drugs, extracts or tinctures. There has been a dramatic rise in the sale of herbal products like Allium sativaum, Hypericumperforatum, Spirulina, Echinacea angustifolia, Ginkgo biloba and Silybummarianum. Before any herbal medicine is screened for testing, phytochemical investigations are essential. Today standardized extracts are used in herbal drug industry their standard is based on marker compounds which may or which may not have pharmacological activity.

Type of Phytochemicals

A brief account of type of the phoytochemicals distributed in plant flora is given below-

  1. Alkaloids

  2. Bitter principles

  3. Phenolic compounds

  4. Diarylheptanoids

  5. Flavonoids

  6. Furanocoumarins

  7. Furochoromones

  8. Glycoside

  9. Resins

  10. Saponins

  11. tannins Scope:

According to one estimate only 20% of the plant flora has been screened for drugs .keeping in view the vast treasure of medical herbs one can expect phytochemical to play a significant role as modern science has limited option for diseases like diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimers disease . The identification and isolation of physiochemical is an ongoingprocess, herbal medicine is expected to play critical role in the future healthcare system .The it is not only related wit medical chemistry, but also bright future for chemical engineering also.

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to all the organizers of conference to give a chance to present paper and deans, Department of Applied sciences, JIET COED, Jodhpur for motivation.

Tulsi(Ocimum sanctum)

Garlic(Allium sativum)

Ginger(Zinziberofficinale)

Fenugreek(Trigonellafoenumgraecum)

References

  • CSIR-NSCAIR oct-2009, Traditional Wisdom and Value Addition Prospect of Arid food of Desert Region of North West India.

  • The Wealth of India Raw Material and Industrial Product, volume2,CSIR(1950)

  • www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com

  • Flora of the Indian Desert, M.M.Bhandari, PS Reports(1990)

  • Local Communications.

  • The Medicinal and poisonous Composites of India(302)J.F.CAIUS,F.L.S.Journal Bombay Natural Hist. Society vol.XLI

  • Handbook of Medicinal Plants, S.K.Bhattacharyee, Pointer Publisher, Jaipur.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *