 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 364
 Authors : Ajit Kadam, Prof. S. V. Khobragade, Dr. S. L. Nalbalwar
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS070234
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 07 (July 2014)
 Published (First Online): 11072014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Review of Image Reconstruction by Interpolation Techniques
Ajit Kadam
Department of Electronics and Tele Communication Engineering
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere.
Lonere, India
Prof. S. V. Khobragade Department of Electronics and Tele Communication Engineering
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere.
Lonere, India
Dr. S. L. Nalbalwar
Department of Electronics and Tele Communication Engineering
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere.
Lonere, India
Abstract image interpolation is very interesting areaof research in image processing which consists of various processing tasks such as compression, restoration, denoising, enhancement. Reconstruction quality of any image interpolation algorithm depends on its ability to adapt changing pixel structures across image. Interpolation is method of creating new data points from set of available or known data points which helps in analyzing exact details of images which is required in many applications such as medical imaging. By interpolation methods many artifacts in low resolution image such as blurring, ringing can be removed.

INTRODUCTION
Image interpolation is very important task in medical imaging,remote sensing, digital photographs and satellite

INTERPOLATION TECHNIQUES
A.BICubic Interpolation
This interpolation technique is extension of cubic interpolation used for obtaining high resolution (HR) image from low resolution (LR) counterpart or resampling of discrete data .This can be accomplished by using Lagranges polynomial or cubic splines or cubic interpolation algorithm.
Interpolation function meet sampled data at sample points
i.e. if A is sampled function and B is interpolation function,, we can write B(sk)=A (sk) where sk is sample points.If the sample points are equally apart from each other, we can write interpolation function as
imaging where analysis require conversion from LR image to HR image to study minute details. So many image
B(s)=
C u
k
interpolation techniques were developed. In this work, we are going to review five image interpolation methods such as Bicubic interpolation,New edge directed interpolation(NEDI), interpolation via directional filtering and data fusion(DSDF, soft decision and adaptive 2d autoregressive model(SAI), nonlocal autoregressive model(NARM). Bicubic interpolation method is simplest is having lower complexity among all but
cannot reconstruct edge hence produces artifacts. NEDI improves visual quality of image by reconstructing edges however in case of multiple intersect it produces speckle interpolation noise. DSDF method reduces this speckle interpolation noise using minimum mean square error method when edge direction learned from LR image is not reliable. SAI method reduces most of visual defects associated with above methods. NARM method efficiently uses nonlocal neighboring pixels to construct HR image from LR counterpart.
Where h is increment in samples equally apart from each other and sk are sample points, u kernel for bicubic interpolation, Ck are coefficients which depends on sampled data. u helps in converting discrete data into continuous. This cubic interpolation is achieved by constraining kernel.
Lets consider u is contains piecewise polynomials defined in interval (2,2).we can divide this interval into subintervals as (2,1),(1,0),(0,1),(1,2). So we can write kernel u as follows
u(x)= P1 x3 + Q1 x2 + R1 x + S1 0<x<1
= P2x3 + Q2 x2 +R2x + S21<x<2
= 0x<2
This kernel must assume values u(0)=1,u(n)=0 i.e. u(1)=u(2)=0 this gives us following equations for coeff.1=u(0)= S1
0=u(1)=P1 + Q1+ R1+ S1
0=u(1+)=P2 + Q2+ R2+ S2
0=u(2)=8P2 +4 Q2+ 2R2+ S2
If we select P2, the interpolation function B matches with the original function A. Let P2 =p and determine remaining coeff. In terms of p using Taylors series expansion.
So the interpolation kernel in terms of p becomes as follows
u(x)= (p+2) x3 (p+3) x2 + 10<x<1
=px3 5 p x2 + 8p x – 4p1<x<2
=0 x<2
This interpolation technique can reconstruct any second degree polynomial; however this method of interpolation fails catch varying statistics around edges so produce blurred HR images. Computational complexity of bicubic algorithm is low.

New Edge Directed Interpolation(NEDI)
For an ideal step edge, image intensity evolves faster across the edge orientation than along the edge orientation. As edges are important in images, reconstructing the geometry of edges is paramount in image processing. In this method first covariance coefficients of LR image are obtained. Then HR covariance coefficientsare obtained from LR covariance coefficients using geometrical similarity among them. By considering image as stationary Gaussian process, we can obtain interpolation by minimum mean square error method (MMSE). This improves visual quality of pixel around edges but this also increases computational complexity to high extent as compared to linear methods of interpolation.so mixed approach was proposed to tackle above problem. Covariance based method was employed for pixels around edges only and for other parts linear interpolation methods were used.
Consider Xi,jbe the LR image and Y2i,2j be the HR image such that Xi,j= Y2i,2j. If we want to obtain
Y2i+1,2j+1 , we will have to interpolate Xi,j i.e. in turn we will have to interpolate Y2i,2j. The interpolation function is given as follows which contains four nearest neighbor in diagonal direction.
reconstructed image is improved. Since this method requires big window to calculate covariance coefficients for each missing pixel, this may introduce artifacts in local structure which causes faulty calculation of covariance

EdgeGuided Image Interpolation via Directional Filtering and Data Fusion (DSDF)
In this method, missing pixel is interpolated in two mutually orthogonal directions. These two different observations of missing pixels are combined using local window. Finally the pixel is interpolated by fusing two directional observations using linear minimum mean square error estimation.
Lets assume Ih and Ilare the HR and LR images respectively. We are considering that LR image is directly down sampled from HR image. Hence we can write
Il(n,m)= Ih(2n1,2m1) ,1nN,1mM
Where N= no. of pixel rows in LR image, M=no. of pixel columns in LR image
Fig.(a)
Black dots represent available pixels of LR image and white dots represents missing pixels in HR image.
As human eye is sensitive to edges, it is important to decrease effect of artifacts while maintaining edge sharpness. Direction of edge is important information in interpolation; to use this we partition neighboring pixels of each missing pixel into two directional (observational) subsets which are orthogonal to each other. In this method we reconstruct HR image in two steps. In first,we reconstruct center pixels like Ih(2n,2m) surrounded by four known and four unknown pixels. In fig.(b),there are two orthogonal directions ,one along 450 and other along 1350.
Y2i+1,2j+1= 1 1
2+ 2 + ,2( +)
If we want to reconstruct missing pixel Ih(2n,2m), consider
=0 =0
two directional observations as (2n,2m) and (2n,2m)
45 135
Where represents interpolation coefficients and given by
= R1
Where R and represents high resolution covariance
Important applications of this algorithm are resolution enhancement of gray scale image and reconstruction of color images from CCD samples in which visual quality ofby linear interpolation methods. Let the observations are as follows
45(2n, 2m) =Ih(2n,2m) + v45(2n,2m)
135(2n, 2m)=Ih(2n,2m) + v135(2n,2m)
Fig.(b)
Where v45 and v135 represents noise along two mutually orthogonal directions. We can combine above two observations in matrix form as follows:
Y=1.Ih +V
Where Y,1,V all are 2Ã—1 matrices as follows.
Where , is random perturbation independent of location of samples. Effectiveness of PAR model depends on how model parameters (m, n) matches with local pixel structures.
Fig.(a)
Y= 45
, 1=1, V= 45
135
1 135
Now we have to calculate value of Ih from observation Y. this can be achieved by use of linear minimum mean square estimation as follows
Ih = + cov(Ih,Y)(Var(Y))1 (YE[Y])
Where is mean, cov stands for covariance, Var stands for variance, E stands for mean or expectation.

Image Interpolation by Adaptive 2D Autoregressive Modeling and SoftDecision Estimation (SAI)
In this method, value of missing pixels is calculated in group instead of one at a time like in NEDI, DSDF. Interpolation means to increase inborn resolution of thee image.
The reconstruction capacity of any image interpolation algorithm depends on ability to adapt nonstationarypixel across image.In this method, natural image is taken as piecewise 2D autoregressive process. Model parameters are measured for each sample using sample statistics of local window. Sample set should be causal for estimation of current sample.
In this method first step is define piecewise autoregressive model (PAR). Then apply PAR model to softdecision estimation technique for adaptive interpolation (SAI).
According to PAR model, image can be represented as X(i,j) = , (m,n) X(i+m,j+n) + ,
Fig.(b)
Fig.(c)
Fig. (a) shows solid black spots which represents LR image pixels, missing circles represents HR image pixels which are to be calculated
Let Ihand Ilbe the HR, LR image respectively. From Fig.(a)
, we can say that LR image is obtained by down sampling HR image by factor of two. Let xi ,yi belongs to LR,HR image respectively.
By using Fig.(b) we can write yi= 14 at (8) +
Images
Bi cubic
NEDI
DSDF
SAI
NARM
Lena
33.91
33.76
33.89
34.68
35.01
0.914
0.9134
0.9122
0.9184
0.9238
0.9872
0.9868
0.9867
0.9882
0.9893
house
32.15
31.67
32.57
32.84
33.52
0.8772
0.8743
0.8775
0.8778
0.8841
0.9404
0.9434
0.9478
0.9496
0.9567
leaves
26.85
26.23
27.22
28.72
29.76
0.9365
0.9403
0.9433
0.9575
0.9661
0.9259
0.9429
0.9478
0.9591
0.9674
camera
man
25.36
25.42
25.67
25.88
25.94
0.8639
0.8626
0.867
0.8709
0.8781
0.9041
0.9059
0.9143
0.9177
0.9231
girl
33.83
33.85
33.79
34.13
34.46
0.8533
0.857
0.852
0.8588
0.8658
0.9416
0.9412
0.9395
0.9444
0.9434
starfish
30.22
29.36
30.07
30.76
31.72
0.9169
0.8987
0.9118
0.9207
0.9299
0.9522
0.9458
0.9541
0.9577
0.9648
With above model we can interpolate n missing pixels in given window by least squares block estimation with parameters at. similarly PAR model can be written by using parameters bt as follows
yi= 14 bt(4) +
while model parameters at equation
and bt
are using following
=argminb 14 (4) 2
Similarly for model parameters of at.
This algorithm gives better results in terms of PSNR as compared to previous methods such ass bi cubic,NEDI,DSDF.

Sparse Representation Based Image Interpolation with Nonlocal Autoregressive Modeling (NARM)
In this method, low resolution image (LR) is considered as downsampled version of high resolution image (HR) after blurring. If we consider blurring kernel ass Dirac delta function, this method becomes less effective as it fails to constrain local image structure. Soin this method we are adding nonlocal similarity of image into conventional sparse representation models(SRM). According to compressive sensing theory, dictionary should be less
=arg
(yDS 2 +
" +
coherent with sampling matrix. So this newly proposed
2
2
=1
1
algorithm (NARM) produces best result so far in terms of
PSNR as well as SSIM, FSIM.
General superresolution algorithm can be modeled as y = DHx + v ,where y is observed(LR) image after blurring in original(HR) image x, v is additive noise, D is down sampling factor, H is Diracdelta function i.e. identity matrix. For reconstructing image x from observed image y can be through iterative back projection algorithm but it produces noisy image so regularization terms were added in that. Sparse representation model assumes that image x is sparse in some domain spanned by dictionary i.e. x . Here most of coefficients in are zero. Using 1 minimization model, SRM based model can be written as follows
=1 ( ) 2 )
By using variable splitting method, above problem can be solved by dividing it into smaller problems.


COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT INTERPOLATION TECHNIQUES
So far we have discussed five interpolation techniques such as bicubic,NEDI, DSDF, SAI and NARM.
Among all above, NARM gives best results in terms of PSNR,SSIM,FSIM as compared to others when applied on test images. Test images are Lena , house, girl, leaves, camera man, starfish as follows
2
=arg (yDH 2 + 1 ).
Once coding vector is obtained, x can be calculated with help of dictionary. In autoregressive modeling, given pixel is represented as linear combination of its local neighbors. While in NARM , nonlocal neighbors are taken into consideration and missing pixel is assumed to be equal to weighted sum off its nonlocal neighbors, hence equation for coding coefficients written as
Lena Girl
Starfish house
Leaves camera man
When BIcubic, NEDI,DSDF,SAI,NARM methodsare applied to the above test images,we get results as shown in table.
REFERENCES

R. G. Keys, Cubic convolution interpolation for digital image processing, IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. , vol. 29, no. 6,pp. 11531160, Dec. 1981.

X. Li and M. T. Orchard, New edgedirected interpolation, IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 15211527, Oct. 2001.

L. Zhang and X. Wu, An edge guided image interpolation algorithm via directional filtering and data fusion, IEEE Trans. Image Process. , vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 22262238, Aug. 2006.

X. Zhang and X. Wu, Image interpolation by adaptive 2D autoregressive modeling and softdecision estimation, IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 887896, Jun. 2008

E. J. Candes and M. B. Wakin, An introduction to compressive sampling, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. , vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 2130,
Mar. 2008

W. Dong, L. Zhang, R. Lukac and G. Shi , Sparse Representation Based Image Interpolation With Nonlocal Autoregressive Modeling,IEEE Trans. Image processing, vol. 22, no. 4, april 2013.


CONCLUSION
In this paper we have seen five different interpolation methods .Bicubic interpolation is having relatively lower complexity than others but it cannot reconstruct edges which creates artifacts such as ringing. Hence new method such as NEDI was developed which can reconstruct edges so that visual quality is good . SAI method eliminates most of visual defects associated with other methods.In SAI, estimation of model parameters assume that spatial co relation between HR,LR pixels is same but if this assumption is wrong, this method produces some false edges or textures. NARM method uses nonlocal self similarity between image patches or pixels to develop reconstruction algorithm which gives better results than other method.