Review Article Nanotechnology Applications in Interior Design of Hospitals

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Review Article Nanotechnology Applications in Interior Design of Hospitals

Reem Ahmed El-Abbasy Architecture Department Ain Shams University Cairo, Egypt

Ahmed Atef Faggal Architecture Department Ain Shams University Cairo, Egypt

Yasser Mansour Architecture Department Ain Shams University Cairo, Egypt

AbstractInterior finishes are very important aspects of the healthcare facilities environment. Floors and walls coverings are major elements that play a role to keep a healthy environment inside spaces of hospitals. Thus, it is necessary to be the priority to the criteria of selection finishing materials during the design process. Finishing materials and its properties are considered one of the most factor impacted on the interior design at hospitals. Especially, in critical areas at hospitals need specific finishes characteristics, such as surgical, Intensive Care, Emergency, and Inpatient Units. Healthcare facilities are required special specification for interior spaces and finishing materials to prevent problems as moisture penetration, water infiltration, and the growth of mildew and mold that this is considered as some of several elements responsible for occurring Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAIs).

This study aims to suggest the best building interior design co s

healthcare-associated infection (HAIs).Infections occurred during people received treatment in healthcare facilities for other diseases or any anther Health complaint. The people may be acquired infections through Inpatient of Hospitals or Ambulatory settings or Long-term care facilities or HAIs of unknown origin. Human life is surrounded by germs in the air, water, soil, and their bodies. They may be helpful at some times and make the human body staying healthy or harmful and causing infection especially the small portion of germs. Otherwise, Healthcare design is a new approach that investigates the needs of psychological and social of a human, as a new perspective on healthcare, in addition to concerning conventional biomedical and economic aspects [1].As part of

this approach, interior design considered a major vital element

nsideration for improving the comfort and the satisfaction of

healthcare patients and occupants in their working environments and to prevent the transmission of diseases in hospitals. Based on this purpose, this article set the nano-materials to evaluate it and search for its achieving that purpose.

Nano-materials play an important role in hygienic design in interior spaces. In this scope, the main inquiry is that which kinds of Nano-materials or its applications are the best choices for the interior design especially in critical areas of hospitals? The goal of this study was to determine if nano-materials can be significantly effective in enhancing the interior design of healthcare facilities, by improving the performance of the finishing materials and reduce the damages and problems occurring during their life cycle. The librarian searching and tests results from nano companies labs are used to achieve this aim.

It was concluded that nano-materials used in interior finishing materials are classified into two groups. One is used to solve the problems of traditional materials that contribute to the transmission of infection as they have characteristics that limit the occurrence of problems of different finishing materials that occur in hospitals and also reduce the existence of the bacteria, mold and fungi on the surface and prevent the existence of environment suitable for its growth, while the other is used in cleaning and disinfection and reduce the risks of chemicals hazards that emit harmful gases that affect human health. Thus, the use of nanotechnology helps to maintain a healthy environment in hospitals.

Index TermsNano-materials, Hygienic Properties, Antimicro- bial, Hospital-Acquired Infections

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Health is a very important need for human and keeps it as well, however, it is common to infect by the illness through going to the therapeutic and medical places that it is called

    in the whole life cycle of a healthcare building [2].Interior

    finishes are very important aspects of the healthcare facilities environment. Floors, walls coverings, and its accessories are major elements that play a role to keep a healthy environment inside spaces of hospitals. Thus, it is necessary to be the priority to the criteria of selection finishing materials during the design process. Nanotechnology ability in controlling materials that can change the world. Through used materials in Nano-length scale which improve the characteristics of material and developing them [3]. The researches on Nano- scaled materials reached that the novel materials are different chemical and physical properties, more efficiency, and bet- ter performance from conventional materials. Application of Nano-materials in interior design of hospitals is considered a major issues to achieve the hygienic properties and maintain healthy environment in hospitals.

  2. FINISHING MATERIALS

    Materials importance in life quality of human existence is undeniable. The urge of this concept is in the materials interaction with indoor and outdoor building environment. Thus appropriate selection of materials are major issues. The common materials used in constructions are classified as a general by Fernandez (2006):

    • Polymers: Thermoplastics/ Elastomers/Thermosets.

    • Natural Materials: Wood/ Biopolymers/Natural fibres/ Earthen materials.

    • Ceramics: Concrete/Fired clay/ Stone/ Glass.

    • Metals: Ferrous/ Nonferrous.

      Fig. 1. Scale Ladder diagram that illustrated the size of the nano scale [6]

    • Composites: GFRP/ CFRP/ Fiber glasses/ others.

      The process of selecting a suitable finish depends on many aspects thus this process needs to criteria that based on prioritized for facilities which must be investigated on a logical basis involve the following [4]:

    • Environmental Considerations : Natural resources/ Safety/Energy consumption/Durability.

    • Durability: Resistance to wear/ Adhesion of coat- ings/Weathering/ Mechanical properties.

    • Fire safety

    • Habitability: Thermal properties/ Hygiene/Acoustic prop- erties/ Water permeability/Safety/Comfort.

    • Compatibility.

    However, building finishes are usually seen as a separate and final application to the building structure (Dean, 1996).How- ever, instances of the finish are integral to the structure, and play an essential role in the healthcare environment, and contribute significantly to healthcare services delivery and the preservation for staff and patients [5]. The main requirements in the interior spaces is illustrated in Table. I.

  3. N

    TABLE I

    Category

    Space

    Finishing

    requirements

    1

    Highly sensitive areas

    requirements.

    & bacteria.

    2

    Kitchen areas

    environment.

    and bacteria.

    -Preoperative areas

    & recovery rooms

    – Hygienic

    – Sterilizing rooms

    requirements.

    – Laboratories

    – Resistant

    3

    Sensitive areas

    to bacteria.

    -Resilient to regular

    <>– Patient changing

    cleaning

    rooms

    & mechanically

    – Utility & disposal

    loadable

    area

    4

    Moist rooms

    -Protection

    against mould.

    -Be water- repellent.

    – Care rooms

    5

    Common areas

    – Reception area

    6

    Staff areas Administration Technical areas Storage areas

    for cleaning.

    • Operating theatres

    • Surgical washrooms

    • Intensive care units

    • Emergency ward

    • Trauma rooms

    • Aseptic rooms

    • Hygienic

    • Protection against the settlement of germs

    • Durability.

    • Be disinfectant proof.

    • Kitchens and food preparation

    • Catering areas

    • Cold stores and store rooms

    • Hygienic

    • Resistant to moisture as mold

    • Easy to clean.

    • Treatment rooms

    • Functional diagnostics

    • Public washrooms

    • Bathrooms

    • Laundry

    • Wards

    • Waiting rooms & recreation rooms

    • Be insensitive.

    • Washable.

    • Staff rooms

    • Corridors

    • Offices

    • Stairwells

    • Technical rooms

    • Store rooms

    • The suitability

    • Mechanical loading aspects.

    • Fireproof aspects.

    Category

    Space

    Finishing

    requirements

    1

    Highly sensitive areas

    requirements.

    & bacteria.

    2

    Kitchen areas

    environment.

    and bacteria.

    -Preoperative areas

    & recovery rooms

    – Hygienic

    – Sterilizing rooms

    requirements.

    – Laboratories

    – Resistant

    3

    Sensitive areas

    to bacteria.

    -Resilient to regular

    – Patient changing

    cleaning

    rooms

    & mechanically

    – Utility & disposal

    loadable

    area

    4

    Moist rooms

    -Protection

    against mould.

    -Be water- repellent.

    – Care rooms

    5

    Common areas

    – Reception area

    6

    Staff areas Administration Technical areas Storage areas

    for cleaning.

    • Operating theatres

    • Surgical washrooms

    • Intensive care units

    • Emergency ward

    • Trauma rooms

    • Aseptic rooms

    • Hygienic

    • Protection against the settlement of germs

    • Durability.

    • Be disinfectant proof.

    • Kitchens and food preparation

    • Catering areas

    • Cold stores and store rooms

    • Hygienic

    • Resistant to moisture as mold

    • Easy to clean.

    • Treatment rooms

    • Functional diagnostics

    • Public washrooms

    • Bathrooms

    • Laundry

    • Wards

    • Waiting rooms & recreation rooms

    • Be insensitive.

    • Washable.

    • Staff rooms

    • Corridors

    • Offices

    • Stairwells

    • Technical rooms

    • Store rooms

    • The suitability

    • Mechanical loading aspects.

    • Fireproof aspects.

    THE GENERAL CLASSIFY OF INTERIOR SPACES AT HOSPITALS AND REQUIREMENTS.

    ANOTECHNOLOGY

    Nanotechnology means the ability to create the materials and devices through changing the structure of molecules, atoms, and super-molecular which named by nano-scale to control the properties of matter [6].Nanotechnology has a lot of inclusive definitions mentioned in previous researches, however, the main concept is the changing of particles size as shown in Fig.1.In other words, the nano-meter (nm) scale dramatically impacts on the properties of materials that equal 10-9 meter(m) [7].

  4. APPLICATIONS OF NANO-MATERIALS

    1. Nano Coating

      Coatings are the thin layers which deposited on the essential material to improve the surface attributes and its appearance [8]. There are types of Nano coating layers as shown in Fig.2 which improve the surface characteristics. Nano-coating is considered the coating with Nano-structured that applied on surfaces as summarized in Table.II [9].

      These surfaces can, for example, be super-hydrophobic or super-hydrophilic. Super-hydrophobic means water-repelling surfaces and super-hydrophilic means water-attracting surfaces that lead the surfaces to be easier cleaning. The spray coatings are also created by nano-structured and applied them to micro- structured previous surfaces. Nano-coating have a several ad- vantages as:

      • A better surface appearance.

      • Good chemical resistance.

      • Easy to clean.

      • The reduction in permeability to the corrosive environ- ment consequently better corrosion properties.

      • Anti-fogging, Anti-graffiti, Anti-fouling, Anti-skid prop- erties.

      • Mechanical properties like scratch resistance.

      • Anti-reflective.

        Fig. 2. Types of Nano coating layers

        TABLE II NANO-COATING

        Nano-Coating

        Product

        Properties

        Specifications

        Usage

        Self-cleaning (Lotus-Effect)

        Hydrophobic surfaces

        -It was Microscopically rough, not smooth.

        -It is suitable for surfaces that exposed periodically to sufficient quantities of water

        It used for facades to get low maintenance

        and easy to clean that get the optimal use of facades

        Self-cleaning (Photocatalysis)

        Hydrophilic surfaces.

        -Light transmissions for glazing and translucent membranes are improved

        It gives the surfaces the ability to reduce dirt adhesion on them

        Easy-to-clean (ETC)

        Hydrophobic

        – Smooth surfaces with reduced surface attraction.

        -Surfaces have a lower force of surface attraction because of a decrease in their surface energy.

        It is common to find in interiors, however, it can be used in outdoors to get the best weather protection

        Antibacterial

        It work on

        find bacteria and destroy it.

        -The use of disinfectants can be reduced

        -Silver nanoparticles reduce the amount of cleaning time necessary

        Supports hygiene methods especially in healthcare environments

        • A water film washes the dirt away

        • UV light and water are required

      • Chromate and lead-free.

      • A best thermal and electrical conductivity.

      • The best retention of gloss.

      • Increase in modulus and thermal stability.

      • Optical clarity.

        Depending on the required function, the coatings which de- pend on the nanotechnology consist of the following mate- rials: Titanium dioxide, carbon black, silicon dioxide, zinc oxide, iron oxide, silver, and other materials as illustrated in Table.III [10]. Nano coating is an environmentally friendly and unique solution for long-lasting protection from bacteria, mould bio contamination risk or virus and sustainable surface sanitization. The features and benefits of nano coating are illustrated in Table.IV.

        The main issue in interior spaces of hospitals is the bacteria inhabiting on the various surfaces. Thus, nano-coating applied on several materials that are commonly used in interior spaces to be the advantage of its characteristics and its high perfor- mance especially against bacteria such as:

        1. Marble: Nano coating make them very liquid repellent, anti-scratches, anti-stain, and glossy.

        2. Windows & Facades: Nano coating protects the surface from calcium build-up, hard water, sand, watermarks, and dirt. It gives a self-cleaning property for the surface.

        3. Wood: It keeps the surface from UV rays and water from damaging, and it is more durability.

        4. Stainless Steel: Nano coating gives gloss and additional protection by bound it to stainless steel.

        Fig. 3. The effect of nano coating for Bacteria-inhibiting on surfaces

        The nano-coating is considered the best solution for anti- bacteria according to the tests made by the Institute for Hospital Hygiene and Inflection control as shown in Fig.3

        The tests showed that the performance of nano-coating is significantly preferable compared to the performance of conventional paint as shown in graph Fig.4 [11].

    2. Nanomaterials in furniture

      The main properties of nanomaterials applied in finishing materials of furniture depending on the type of nanomaterials additives that illustrated in Table.V [14].

      TABLE III

      NANOMATERIALS APPLICATION IN COATINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

      Nanomaterial (Examples)

      Function

      Effect

      Industrial Applied

      Oxides:

      – Self-cleaning

      – Scratch resistance

      – Enhanced scratch resistance

      – Titanium dioxide (TiO2).

      -Silver (Ag).

      odorants, fungi, and pollutants.

      Titanium dioxide (TiO2).

      – Fire retardant

      – It create a layer of carbon foam which work to

      insulation the heat on the surface of the wood and followed by a layer of ceramic resist a flame.

      against fire .

      -UV protection.

      -IR absorbing.

      • Titanium dioxide (TiO2).

      • Iron (II, III) oxide (Fe3O4, Fe2O3).

      • Silicon dioxide (SiO2).

      • Chromium (III) oxide (Cr2O3).

      • Color effect.

      • Reproducible paints.

      • Prevent crack formation.

      • Enhanced resistance to fading

      • Construction.

      • Furniture.

      • Organic/inorganic hybrid polymers.

      • Colloidal /nanosilica silica embedded.

      • Silanes e.g. fluorine compounds.

      • Titanium dioxide (TiO2).

      • Dirt & water repellant.

      • Anti-graffiti protection.

      • Protection against fungi and algae.

      • Glass.

      • Construction(facades)

      • Silicon dioxide (SiO2).

      • Aluminum oxide (Al2O3).

      • Parquet flooring.

      • Furniture.

      • Photocatalytic effect.

      • Antimicrobial effect.

      • Removal of grease, algae, dirt, bacteria,

      • Transformation of ozone and NOx into harmless compounds.

      • Wood preservation

      • Glass

      • Construction(facades, tiles, noise barriers)

      • Wood production

      • Construction.

      • Titanium dioxide (TiO2).

      • Zinc oxide (ZnO).

      • Iron oxide pigments.

      • Control of indoor climate.

      • IR blocking.

      • Enhanced of UV resistance.

      • Glass.

      • Plastics.

      • Wood preservation.

      • Construction (facades).

      TABLE IV

      SELF-SANITIZING OF NANO COATING

      Self-Sanitizing of Nano Coating

      Features

      Environmental benefits

      -Powered by light

      -Works with natural, UV

      , and fluorescent light

      -Improves IAQ (indoor air quality)

      -High performance

      -Long lasting effect

      -Reduces using of toxic chemical

      -Environment friendly

      -Harmless to human beings and animals

      -Reduces the risk of surface bio-contamination

      -Decomposition of

      endotoxin and germ body

      -Reduces the time of cleaning and disinfection process

      Fig. 4. Comparison between the performance of nano coating and conven- tional paint [11]

      One of the common application of nano materials additives to furniture is nano in textiles as shown in the next section.

      1) Nano Textiles: Nano materials provide solutions to dif- ferent problems of textiles which users are faced during the use of conventional textiles. According to (Roya Dastjerdi, 2010),

      Some of the advantages of the nano textiles are:

      • To prevent unwanted and uncontrolled reproduction of microbes which can lead to dangerous health problems during using textiles.

      • No discoloration and decrease in degradation.

      • To maintain appropriate moisture and temperature.

      • Reduce the risks of potential health.

      • Avoidance of unpleasant odor production.

      • Prevent stains on textiles because of spilled liquids.

      • Prevent dirt or dust.

      • Avoid mites in textiles.

        These nano textiles materials have applications in curtains, carpets, upholstery, bedding, and medical uniforms as shown in Table.VI [12].

        Through the interviewing with maintenance managers of many hospitals found that all furniture used the leather as a finishing materials to be easy clean and washable. The testes results showed that the Nano leather solve the problems of the conventional leather related to the growth of bacteria as shown in Fig.5 & 6.

    3. Nano insulation materials

    Nanomaterials are the novel materials with very low thermal conductivities that lead to limit the thickness of the wall to achieve a satisfactory thermal resistance that prevents the formation of a suitable environment for the growth of bacteria. Some of these materials are presented in Table.VII [13].

  5. DISCUSSION

    According to information on finishing materials used in hospitals through standard Codes of Hospital Design and designers, they suffered from several problems that related to the maintenance and cleaning process in hospitals which help the growth of bacteria, fungi, and microbes and aided

    TABLE V

    TYPE OF NANOMATERIALS ADDED TO FINISHING MATERIALS OF FURNITURE

    Nano-material

    Anti-microbial

    Easy to clean

    Scratch Resistance

    Self-cleaning

    Properties

    Anti-graffiti

    UV/ light Stability

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2)

    X

    X

    X

    Cerium oxide (CeO2)

    X

    Titanium dioxid (TiO2) /

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)

    X

    X

    X

    Copper oxide (CuO)

    X

    Silver (Ag)

    X

    TABLE VI

    Nanoparticle

    Fiber

    Characteristic

    Application

    in interior design

    Nanowires Silver

    Cotton

    Nanoparticle Titanium dioxide

    Cotton Wool

    Copper

    Nanoparticles

    Nylon

    -Anti fungal.

    -Anti microbial.

    Gold Nanoparticles

    Wool

    -UV light

    resistant.

    -Stable color.

    Silver Nanoparticles

    Cotton

    Nylon Polyester Silk polyamide other synthetics

    -Anti bacterial activity.

    -Anti fungal.

    Nanoparticles of Titanium dioxide

    and silicon oxide

    Cotton Polyester

    stability surfaces

    -Low toxicity.

    -UV protection.

    -Excellent optical properties.

    Nano Aluminum oxide

    Polyester

    – Application in

    aerospace, automotive, naval, and other industries.

    Silver

    Nanoparticles chitosan

    Cotton

    -Application

    in medical scrubs

    Zinc oxide , Titanium dioxide and Silver Nanoparticles

    Cotton Wool

    – Anti-bacterial

    -Medical

    applications.

    -Textiles and clothing wear applications.

    • Anti-bacteria.

    • Super Hydrophobicity.

    • UV light resistant.

    • High electrical conductivity.

    • Curtains.

    • Upholstery.

    • Table linen.

    • Anti-bacteria.

    • Photocatalytic.

    • Self-cleaning surfaces.

    • Semi- conductor.

    • Upholstery.

    • Carpets.

    • Curtains.

    • Cushion.

    • Upholstery.

    • Carpets.

    • Bedding.

    • Curtains.

    • Bedding.

    • Carpets.

    • Thermal

    • Long life time.

    • Making furniture.

    • Curtains.

    • Carpets.

    • Water resistant.

    • Superior mechanical strength.

    • High load capacity.

    • Anti-bacterial.

    • Comfortable.

    Nanoparticle

    Fiber

    Characteristic

    Application

    in interior design

    Nanowires Silver

    Cotton

    Nanoparticle Titanium dioxide

    Cotton Wool

    Copper

    Nanoparticles

    Nylon

    -Anti fungal.

    -Anti microbial.

    Gold Nanoparticles

    Wool

    -UV light

    resistant.

    -Stable color.

    Silver Nanoparticles

    Cotton

    Nylon Polyester Silk polyamide other synthetics

    -Anti bacterial activity.

    -Anti fungal.

    Nanoparticles of Titanium dioxide

    and silicon oxide

    Cotton Polyester

    stability surfaces

    -Low toxicity.

    -UV protection.

    -Excellent optical properties.

    Nano Aluminum oxide

    Polyester

    – Application in

    aerospace, automotive, naval, and other industries.

    Silver

    Nanoparticles chitosan

    Cotton

    -Application

    in medical scrubs

    Zinc oxide , Titanium dioxide and Silver Nanoparticles

    Cotton Wool

    – Anti-bacterial

    -Medical

    applications.

    -Textiles and clothing wear applications.

    • Anti-bacteria.

    • Super Hydrophobicity.

    • UV light resistant.

    • High electrical conductivity.

    • Curtains.

    • Upholstery.

    • Table linen.

    • Anti-bacteria.

    • Photocatalytic.

    • Self-cleaning surfaces.

    • Semi- conductor.

    • Upholstery.

    • Carpets.

    • Curtains.

    • Cushion.

    • Upholstery.

    • Carpets.

    • Bedding.

    • Curtains.

    • Bedding.

    • Carpets.

    • Thermal

    • Long life time.

    • Making furniture.

    • Curtains.

    • Carpets.

    • Water resistant.

    • Superior mechanical strength.

    • High load capacity.

    • Anti-bacterial.

    • Comfortable.

    SEVERAL TYPES OF NANO PARTICLES USED IN THE TEXTILE SECTOR

    Fig. 5. The chart shows the Escherichia coli bacterial reduction on furniture leather samples which treated with various concentrations of nanosilver (nAg) solution

    Fig. 6. The chart shows the Staphylococcus aureus bacterial reduction on furniture leather samples which treated with various concentrations of nanosilver (nAg) solution

    to transmit the infectious. Nano-materials is considered the best solution because all Nano materials can be used as a solution for different problems of finishing materials in hospitals that illustrated in the matrix Fig.7 which showed the relationship between common Nano-products properties, and functionalities that are important to architects and interior designers. The Matrix illustrated that the self-cleaning, anti- microbial, anti-bacterial, anti-fungi, and self-healing are the main functions for Nano coating, Nano textiles, Nano paints,

    Fig. 7. Matrix illustrated the relationship between common Nano-products properties, and functionalities which are important to architects and interior designers [9]

    TABLE VII

    SPECIFICATIONS OF COMMON MATERIALS USED NANO THERMAL

    Nano-insulation

    Material

    Properties

    Features

    Aerogel

    Hydrophobic surfaces

    because of its transparency.

    Vaccum Insulated Panel

    Hydrophilic surfaces.

    Nansulate

    Hydrophobic

    • It used for windows

    • Lightweight.

    • Very effective insulation.

    • It has a highly slim profile.

    • Fits in narrow spaces for novel builds.

    • High performance for thermal insulation.

    • Non-toxic.

    • Composing a thin layer for insulation.

    • High resistance against microbiological attack.

    • Smooth surfaces which featured with reducing the attraction of surface.

    them to improve the characteristics of the finishing materials and enhance the quality of the interior space in hospitals which impact on the indoor quality for spaces and human health, especially, hospitals are considered the place where the infections were occurring in high percentage. The tests by using nano silver (nAg) is indicated that nano silver decrease and destroyed the growth of bacteria that meaning nano- silver is the most nano-material a preferable solution against bacteria inhabiting in various hospital spaces. Finally, it is recommended for the architects, and interior designers to be aware of the benefits of using these materials and its impact on the human health and surrounding environment for applying them.

    and Nano sealants.

    Nano-materials is considered the best solution because all nano materials can be used as a solution for different problems of finishing materials in hospitals. However, the important point is how to select the nano materials suitable for each space depending on its function. The various nano materials are illustrated in Table.II and its function.

  6. CONCLUSION

The nanotechnology is producing hygienic products without harming human health or the environment. In addition, it is considered the solution for environmental problems especially that related to building problems. This study focused on mentioning the impacts of nanotechnology on the finishing materials performance in hospitals. The interior design appear- ance and light filtering, thermal insulations, sound insulations, and healthy environment can be improved by using nano- composites, According to studies and tests on nano-materials performance in the interior spaces, it is categorized into two groups. The first one is to use the nano-materials for enhancing the properties of finishing materials and their functionality, the other one is to use these materials for maintenance purpose for finishing materials problems occurring in hospitals, both of

REFERENCES

  1. Lavy, S. and Dixit, M. K. (2012). Wall finish selection in hospital design: a survey of facility managers.HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 5(2):8098.

  2. Ulrich, R. S., Zimring, C., Zhu, X., DuBose,J., Seo, H.-B., Choi, Y.- S., Quan, X., and Joseph, A. (2008).A review of the research literature on evidence-based healthcare design. HERD: Health Environments Re- search & Design Journal, 1(3):61125.

  3. Roco, M. C. (1999). Nanoparticles and nanotechnology research. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 1(1), 1-6

  4. Trubiano, F. (2006). Material architecture: Emergent materials for inno- vative buildings and ecological construction.

  5. Salonen, H., Lahtinen, M., Lappalainen, S., Nevala, N., Knibbs, L.D., Morawska, L. and Reijula, K., 2013. Physical characteristics of the indoor environment that affect health and wellbeing in healthcare facilities: A review. Intelligent Buildings International, 5(1), pp.3-25.

  6. Marek Lichtarowicz , Nanomaterials, http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/materials-and- applications/nanomaterials.html.

  7. Ge, Z., & Gao, Z. (2008). Applications of nanotechnology and nanoma- terials in construction. First Inter. Confer. Construc. Develop. Countries, 235-240.

  8. M.C. Roco, S. Williams, and P. Alivisatos, Nanotechnology research di- rections: vision for nanotechnology in the next decade,IWGNWorkshop Report, U.S. National Science and Technology Council, Washington, DC, 1999.

  9. Leydecker, Sylvia. Nano Materials in Architecture, Interior Architecture and Design. BirkhauserVerlag AG, 2008.

  10. Deutsches Lackinstitut (2012): Brandschutz-Beschichtungen 40 Minuten knnen Leben retten. Lack im Gesprch, Informationsdienst Deutsches Lackinstitut Nr. 112, Seite 5.

  11. Silver-System-Technology, http://www.bioni.de/en/silver-system- technology.html.

  12. Melchor-Alemn, M. A., Mesta-Torres, L., & Martel-Estrada, S. A. AP- PLICATIONS OF NANOPARTICLES IN TEXTILES FOR INTERIOR DESIGN.

  13. Rostam, N. G., Mahdavinejad, M. J., & Rostam, M. G. (2015). Com- mercializing usage of nano-insulating materials in building industry and future architecture. Procedia Materials Science, 11, 644-648.

  14. EFBWW: 2011 – Nano in Furniture – state of the art 2012, http://www.efbww.org/default.asp?Issue=Nano

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *