Replacement of Steel Reinforcement with Glass Fiber Reinforcement

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Replacement of Steel Reinforcement with Glass Fiber Reinforcement

Dr. Santosh K Patil1

1Professor Department of Civil Engineering,

KJ College of Engineering & Management Research, Pune-48, Maharashtra, India.

Akshay Manesh Sancheti2

2Post Graduate Student Department of Civil Engineering, KJ College of Engineering & Management Research, Pune-48, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract:- Concrete plays a vital role as construction material in this world. But, there are certain limitations for use of concrete material like brittleness, poor tensile strength, less resistance to impact strength, fatigue, ductility, durability. Although it has high compressive strength, and weak in tension and is due to micro cracks developed in it. If fibers are added to concrete at certain percentage, will increase strain properties like toughness, cracks resistance, flexural strength, ductility. Most research in fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) had been devoted to steel fibers. But in recent period, glass fiber also became available, which are free from corrosion problem associated with steel fibers. So the glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) started as per public satisfaction and demands. Scientific studies and tests on the GFRC showed that the physical and mechanical propertied change depending on the accuracy of production techniques and quality of materials. As the technology get developed day by day, it is expected that the infrastructure if of our country should also get advanced and complex freeform with low cost. GRFC can be used where a light, strong, fire resistance, weather resistance material is needed. For the purpose of design, casting of concrete with fiber glass is carried out. As the result is compared w.r.t. strength, ductility, economy etc.

Keywords: Crack resistance, flexural strength, compression test, split tensile test.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Concrete is one of the most commonly used concrete materials. Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is relatively a new construction material developed through extensive research and development work during the last two decades. Incorporation of fiber in concrete has found to improve several properties like tensile strength, cracking resistance, impact and wear resistance, ductility and fatigue resistance. Glass fiberreinforced concrete is (GFRC) basically a concrete composition which is composed of material like cement, sand, water, and admixtures, in which short length discrete glass fibers are dispersed. Inclusion of these fibers in these composite results in improved tensile strength and impact strength of the material. Fiber orientation and fiber length are the mechanical properties of fiber glass. There are some types of glass fiber as; A-glass i.e. alkali glass which is made up of soda lime silicate. C-glass corrosive resistance made up of calcium borosilicate. And AR-glass Alkali resistance glass made up of zir conium silicates. At the beginning age of the GFRC development, one of the most considerable problems was the durability of the glass fiber, which becomes more brittle with time, due to the alkalinity of the cement mortar. After some research, significant improvement has been made, and presently, the problem is

    practically solved with the new types of alkali-resistant (AR resistance) glass fibers and with mortar additives that prevent the processes that lead to the embrittlement of GFRC.

  2. MATERIALS AND METHOD

    1. (A). Materials

      1. Binders

        Binders or binding agent are fine, granular materials that form a paste when water is added to them. This paste hardens and encapsulates aggregates and reinforcement steel. Immediately after water is added, cement paste begins to harden through a chemical process called hydration. Hydration takes place at different rates according to the different properties of the binders and admixtures used the water-to-cement ratio, and the environmental conditions under which the concrete is placed. The ways in which binders affect concrete, mortar and similar products can vary with the chemical and physical properties of the source materials, the constituent materials, the mix design, and, to a lesser extent, the variations in the cement manufacturing process.

      2. Cement

        Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) 53grade used and is according to IS 12269:2013. The physical properties are as-

        Fineness 8%

        Specific gravity 3.16

        Normal consistency 26%

      3. Fine Aggregate or Crush Sand

        Sand, which is locally available on river are used. The physical properties are as-

        Water Absorption 0.8%

        Specific Gravity 2.4

      4. Coarse Aggregate

        These are the crushed aggregate of maximum 20mm. The physical properties are as-

        Abrasion Value 14.5%

        Specific Gravity 2.6

        Impact Value 11.2%

        Crushing Value 12.42%

      5. Water

        The quality and quantity of water has much effect on the strength of mortar and cement concrete in construction work.

        The water used for construction working should be clean and free from injuries quantity of oil, sugar, alkali, organic, acids, salt or any other substances that may be harmful to bricks, concrete or steel. Portable water is generally considered as satisfactory. The pH value of water should not be less than 6.

      6. Glass Fiber

    The glass fiber is good at thermal expansion. The have low coefficient of thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity. Glass fiber thread has high strength-to-weight ratio. These threads are two times stronger than the steel wire. Fiber glass evaporates heat more quickly than the asbestos or organic fibers. High dialectical strength and relatively low dialectical constants male GF fabrics excellent for electrical insulation purposes.

    Fig. No.1. Glass Fiber

    The physical properties are as-

    Modulus of Elasticity 72Gpa

    Specific Gravity 2.68

    Density 2780kg/m3

    Tensile Strength 2000Mpa

    Diameter 14micron

    Length 12mm

    Aspect ratio 851.2

    Elongation breaks 3.6%

    2 (B). Mix Design

    Materials

    Quantity (kg/m3)

    Proportions

    Cement

    400

    1

    Coarse Aggregate

    595

    1.5

    Fine Aggregate

    1150

    2.9

    Water

    160

    0.4

    Materials

    Quantity (kg/m3)

    Proportions

    Cement

    400

    1

    Coarse Aggregate

    595

    1.5

    Fine Aggregate

    1150

    2.9

    Water

    160

    0.4

    As per IS 1026:2009 Guideline for concrete mix design. These is the table for quantity of materials as per proportions for M40 as suggested in IS Code and the water cement ratio 0.4

    Table No. 1. Mix Proportion

  3. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

      1. Compressive Strength Test

        The compression test is carried out on specimens like cube. The cube specimen is of 15x15x15cm size. These specimens were tested for compressive strength as per IS 516-1959 using a calibrated compression testing machine of 2000KN capacity. After placing the specimen into the machine the compression load is applied, and due to load the specimen fails and the point at which it is failed is recorded. The compression est of the specimen is calculated by formula-

        Fc= N/mm2

        Where,

        P = Total compression load applied on the specimen. A = total area of the specimen

        Fc = Compression Stress in N/mm2

        Age

        Types

        Of Concrete

        7 days N/mm2

        14 days N/mm2

        28 days N/mm2

        Regular concrete

        22.3

        31

        38.3

        0.33% GF

        23.3

        30.5

        40.3

        0.67% GF

        25.3

        34.6

        40.7

        1% GF

        28.5

        34.8

        44.3

        1.33% GF

        27.3

        35.6

        43.7

        1.67% GF

        28

        35.6

        44.2

        2% GF

        29.2

        35.8

        43

        45

        40

        35

        30

        25

        20

        15

        10

        5

        0

        45

        40

        35

        30

        25

        20

        15

        10

        5

        0

        Regular

        concrete

        0.33% GF

        Regular

        concrete

        0.33% GF

        0.67% GF

        1% GF

        1.33% GF

        1.67% GF

        0.67% GF

        1% GF

        1.33% GF

        1.67% GF

        Table No. 2. Compressive Strength Test Results.

        N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2

        2% GF

        7 days 14 days 28 days

        N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2

        2% GF

        7 days 14 days 28 days

        Chart No. 1. Analysis of Compressive Strength

      2. Flexural Strength Test

        Flexural strength is used to measure the tensile strength of concrete. It is measured by loading unreinforced beam of 100x100x500mm. 24hrs. after casting, the prism is demoulded and kept for curing in a tank for 7, 14, 28 days. The test is conducted as per IS 516-1959 using a calibrated flexural machine. The flexural strength of the specimen is calculated by formula-

        Where,

        Fb =

        2

        N/mm2

        P = Load at which the specimen breaks. L = Effective span in mm.

        b = Breadth of the specimen in mm. d = Depth of the specimen in mm.

        Age

        Types

        Of Concrete

        7 days N/mm2

        14 days N/mm2

        28 days N/mm2

        Regular concrete

        5.4

        5.92

        6.27

        0.33% GF

        5.8

        6.02

        6.6

        0.67% GF

        5.8

        6.2

        6.68

        1% GF

        5.3

        5.6

        6.8

        1.33% GF

        4.7

        5.3

        5.68

        1.67% GF

        4.4

        4.8

        5.45

        2% GF

        4.1

        4.4

        4.9

        0.67% GF

        4

        3 1% GF

        0.67% GF

        4

        3 1% GF

        2

        2

        Table No. 3. Flexural Strength Test Results.

        Age

        Types

        Of Concrete

        7 days N/mm2

        14 days N/mm2

        28 days N/mm2

        Regular concrete

        4.7

        5.26

        6.36

        0.33% GF

        4.87

        5.6

        6.6

        0.67% GF

        4.92

        6.6

        7.32

        1% GF

        5.09

        6.2

        6.97

        1.33% GF

        4.8

        5.59

        6.01

        1.67% GF

        3.9

        4.7

        5.25

        2% GF

        3.1

        3.88

        4.8

        Age

        Types

        Of Concrete

        7 days N/mm2

        14 days N/mm2

        28 days N/mm2

        Regular concrete

        4.7

        5.26

        6.36

        0.33% GF

        4.87

        5.6

        6.6

        0.67% GF

        4.92

        6.6

        7.32

        1% GF

        5.09

        6.2

        6.97

        1.33% GF

        4.8

        5.59

        6.01

        1.67% GF

        3.9

        4.7

        5.25

        2% GF

        3.1

        3.88

        4.8

        Table No. 4. Split Strength Test Results.

        8

        7

        6

        Regular

        concrete

        0.33% GF

        8

        7

        6

        Regular

        concrete

        0.33% GF

        5

        5

        7

        6

        5

        4

        3

        2

        1

        0

        N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 7 days 14 days 28 days

        Regular concrete

        0.33% GF

        0.67% GF

        1% GF

        1.33% GF

        1.67% GF

        2% GF

        1.33% GF

        1

        0 1.67% GF

        N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2

        2% GF

        1.33% GF

        1

        0 1.67% GF

        N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2

        2% GF

        7 days 14 days 28 days

        7 days 14 days 28 days

        Chart No. 3. Analysis of Split Strength

  4. CONCLUSION

    As per the experiment conducted, addition of Glass fiber in plain concrete increases the strength, durability in the characteristics of the concrete.

    Chart No. 2. Analysis of Flexural Strength.

      1. Split Tensile Test

    The procedure split tensile test is almost same as of flexural test. The concrete specimen is casted in cylindrical mould as per IS 516-1959 and the test is conducted on Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The specimen is placed longitudinal in the machine, load is applied and the point, at which it is failed, is recorded. The Split tensile test on specimen is calculated as-

    Ft = 2 N/mm2

    Where,

    P = Load at which the specimen breaks. d = Length of the specimen

    l = Diameter of specimen Ft = Tensile Strength.

    Initially addition of Glass Fiber in the plain concrete the strength characteristics like compressive, flexural and split tensile strength is gradually increased. Finally certain percent addition of Glass Fiber attain that gradually decrease in strength.

    Maximum compressive, flexural and split tensile strength is attaining in 1.0% addition of Glass Fiber. So adding Glass Fiber up to 1.0% only not exceeds the limit.

    The durability characteristics gradually increased based on the addition of Glass Fiber.

  5. REFERENCES

  1. IS 8112-1989, 43 Grade Ordinary Portland cement, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

  2. IS 10262-2009, Code for Concrete Mix Proportioning, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

  3. IS 456-2000, Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code or Practice (Fourth Revision), Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

  4. IS 383-1970, Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregate from Natural Sources for Concrete (Second Revision), Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

  5. IS 516-1959, Methods of Tests for Strength of Concrete, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

  6. IS 9103-1999, Indian Standard Concrete Admixture Specification, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

  7. Shetty M. S., (2012), Concrete Technology, S. Chand & Company ltd. New Delhi.

  8. Majumdar A. J. and Nurse R. W. (1974), Glass Fiber Reinforcement Cement, Building Research Establishment current paper, CP79/84, England.

  9. Vaishali G. Ghorpade (2010) An Experimental Investigation on Glass Fiber Reinforced High Performance Concrete with Silica Fume as Admixture 35th Conference on Our World in Concrete & Structure: 25-27 August 2010, Singapore.

  10. Faisal Fouad Wafa (1990), Properties and Applications of Fiber Reinforced Concrete, JKAU, Engg. Science, Vol.2, pp. 49-56.

  11. Dr. K.M. Tajne et.al. (2014), Effect of Glass Fiber on Ordinary Concrete, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 11, pp 17632-17634.

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