 Open Access
 Authors : Michael Rotimi Adu, Adegoke Oladipupo Melodi
 Paper ID : IJERTV12IS060056
 Volume & Issue : Volume 12, Issue 06 (June 2023)
 Published (First Online): 05012019
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Reducing Power Losses and Improving The Voltage Profiles of Akure Distribution Network using Compensators
Michael Rotimi Adu
Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Federal University of Technology,
Akure, Nigeria
Adegoke Oladipupo Melodi
Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Federal University of Technology,
Akure, Nigeria
Abstract The power distribution losses of Nigeria power systems are very high, due to this, the distribution power network of Akure Township in Ondo state of Nigeria was considered in this work to see how the high losses can be mitigated and at the same time improve the voltage profiles. With the aid of NEPLAN (Power System Analysis Software), the entire network was simulated and analysed before and after introduction of compensators. The voltage profiles of all the feeders as well as power losses on the existing system and when compensators were introduced were evaluated, the size and location of the compensators were also determined for all the feeders considered. The results show that the power losses on the existing network to be 24.89 MW. With the Installation of compensators and new substations the power losses reduced to 18.3 MW. It was also observed that the voltage profile of all the feeders of the existing network fall out of acceptable limit but this was corrected with the aid of installed compensators and new substations. (Abstract)
Keywords Compensators; Distribution Power Losses; New Substations; Voltage Profile (key words)

INTRODUCTION
Akure Distribution Network in Ondo State of Nigeria is situated at Longitude 5Âº 12 East and Latitude 7 Âº 18 North. The Akure township distribution network contains all the components and facilities that distribute electrical energy being supplied to about 75,000 consumers in the Akure community from the National Control Centre, Oshogbo. Benin Electricity Distribution Company (BEDC) is the Distribution Company (DISCO) in charge of Akure network. Fig. 2 shows that the 132/33/11 kV, the main power supply to Akure Township originated from 132 kV bus at Osogbo. Akure has two groups of 33/11 kV distribution substations namely; Oba Ile and Ilesha road 33/11 kV substations. Seven numbers of feeders exist according to specific areas. The network as at 2022 consists of a total of 470 distribution transformers. The power distribution network is being confronted with high power losses [13] as well as high deviation from acceptable voltage profiles according to [4]. The acceptable regulatory limit of voltage drop on the 11 kV distribution lines should fall
within 11 kVÂ±10% according to [5]. Voltage drop outside this range will have serious consequence on the electrical equipment connected. Electrical equipment utilizes electric power at specified voltages. A deviation from this voltage level adversely affects the efficiency, life span and performance of the equipment.
The most efficient losses reduction techniques in distribution systems are: feeder reconfiguration, distributed generation (DG), VAR compensation, and installation of smart metering for nontechnical losses [6]. The use of capacitor for adequate compensation is considered in this work.

MEHODOLOGY
In order to determine the power loss reduction technique (scheme) for Akure distribution network, heuristic simulation approach was considered. According to [7], heuristic methods are faster and lead to a solution that is near to the optimal solution.
In the search for the optimal loss reduction technique, power flow and the application of the following possible solutions were simulated and tested using NEPLAN (Power System Analysis Software) to obtain losses as well as the voltage profiles of all the feeders. The tested possible hth solutions are: application of reactive power compensators; feeders interconnection only; feeders interconnection with application of compensators; and feeders interconnection and installation of new lines.
A: Evaluating the Application of Reactive Power Compensators to Existing Radial Network
The existing radial network was reinforced with the introduction of compensators at the 33 kV substations as well as on the 11 kV feeders. The load flow of the entire system under this condition was also carried out, the losses of the feeders and the voltage profiles were obtained. In order to identify possible location of compensator, consideration was given to unilateral injection of reactive power into the network to obtain the voltage profile. In addition, the spot where the
voltage level crosses the minimum permissible voltage is considered as appropriate secondary location for a compensator or a voltage booster (Fig.1). This heuristic search method for appropriate location is termed, in this study, as method of successive voltage horizons; this is with the consideration that the network is radial under maximum loading scenario.
B: Evaluating the Network in an Interconnected Mode without Compensators
This test scenario evaluates the steady state operation of the Akure network when all the existing open points between feeders were closed without the introduction of compensation. This is depicted in Fig. 2. The total network losses and busvoltage profiles were obtained by carrying out a load flow simulation on the interconnected network.
100% voltage
90 km
90% voltage
OSO_132 132 kV
TA_132 132 kV
Load points
TA_33 33 kV
0.005 km
T2B_33 33 kV
T2B_11 11 kV

km
0.005 km
Voltage boost
Fig. 1: Location of capacitor to even out voltage profile
(1)
where i is the location for the proposed Compensator, Qi is capacity of installed capacitor in ith location and Qc is total capacity of installed capacitors
The existing distribution network for the seen feeders under consideration was simulated using Neplan software to obtain voltage profiles of the different feeders.
The solution conditions are;

Obtaining normal voltage profile in the entire network whereas weak nodes are identified by obtained voltage levels.

Obtaining normal loading of all connecting elements
(i.e. it does not exceed normal thermal ratings).
RAC_11 11 kV
Akure_bus2 11 kV
0.001 km
32
27
18
56
5
RAC_33 33 kV
Akure_ bus1A 11 kV
0.005 km
16
6
28
T2C_33 33 kV
T2C_11 11 kV
4
0.001 km
2
9
Akure_bus1B 11 kV
21
25
26
7
35
3
42
31 21
Alabaka Feeder
Ijapo Feeder
Ondo Feeder
Isikan Feeder Ilesa Rd. Feeder OkeEda Feeder
Oyemekun Feeder

Carrying out economic analysis of scenarios that

meet these solution conditions in order to identify optimal techniques or scheme
The summary of this approach is generalized as in equation
(2)
Where Z represent the objective, is network losses, which is product of power flow simulation for given test scenario, is the cost of lost energy and this is derived from obtained
(3)
(4)
Where, Vnom is nominal feeders voltage, Vi is voltage at ith node, Iij is current between node i and j, and Ith is thermal capacity of feeder and conductor
Hence,
(5)
where h is the scenario of reinforcement, h is going to be optimal when power loss and cost of lost energy is minimum
Fig. 2: Single Line diagram of Akure Distribution Network
C: Evaluating the Network in an Interconnectd Mode with Compensators
This test scenario is similar to the one described in Section B but with the introduction of compensation. The total network losses and busvoltage profiles were obtained by carrying out a load flow simulation on the interconnected network. Optimal solutions were obtained considering the size and location of the connected compensators. The optimum location was determined heuristically to give minimum power loss.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Shown in Table 1 is the range of total active losses and voltage deviation from k mode computation of all the feeders in Akure Network.
a n 
5 
092 
23 
092 

M a x 
11 .5 5 
– 526. 179 
14. 31 81 
– 19.0 35 
2.90 94 

Oke Eda 
M i n 
11 .5 5 
– 791. 655 
8.2 17 
– 57.7 447 
– 1.08 99 
M e a n 
11 .5 5 
– 700. 519 
9.5 95 4 
– 55.7 87 
– 0.88 93 

M a x 
11 .5 5 
– 599. 251 
10. 99 57 
– 53.7 71 
0.7 

Oye mek un 
M i n 
11 .5 5 
– 171. 279 
2.5 34 6 
– 15.7 56 
2.58 97 
M e a n 
11 .5 5 
– 138. 133 
3.2 39 1 
– 14.7 966 
2.70 15 

M a x 
11 .5 5 
– 107. 676 
4.0 35 5 
– 14.0 858 
2.77 43 
Table 1: Range Statistics of Total Active Losses and Voltage Deviation from k mode computation on all Feeder Networks
Feed er 
Ur ef, kV 
loss, kW 
%l oss 
min Ude v% 
Max Ude v% 

Ijapo 
M i n 
11 .5 5 
– 375. 539 
6.4 50 8 
– 40.9 799 
1.22 9 
M e a n 
11 .5 5 
– 340. 03 
7.4 57 
– 39.9 173 
1.31 85 

M a x 
11 .5 5 
– 297. 701 
8.2 5 
– 38.7 392 
1.40 55 

Alag baka 
M i n 
11 .5 5 
– 169 4.1 
12. 0 
– 90.6 
3.7 
M e a n 
11 .5 5 
– 149 0.1 
14. 2 
– 87.3 
3.5 

M a x 
11 .5 5 
– 126 3 
15. 9 
– 85.5 
3.3 

Ilesa RD 
M i n 
11 .5 5 
– 320 9.1 
33. 4 
– 72.9 
0.9 
M e a n 
11 .5 5 
– 292 6.2 
37. 6 
71 
0.8 

M a x 
11 .5 5 
– 265 6.1 
41. 7 
– 69.1 
0.7 

Ondo Rd 
M i n 
11 .5 5 
– 461. 176 
5.8 74 9 
– 45.8 409 
– 0.20 65 
M e a n 
11 .5 5 
– 397. 036 
7.9 77 4 
– 43.8 677 
– 0.02 65 

M a x 
11 .5 5 
– 307. 553 
9.5 03 4 
– 41.7 955 
0.17 32 

Isink an 
M i n 
11 .5 5 
– 679. 031 
11. 03 61 
– 20.8 354 
2.75 69 
M e 
11 .5 
– 593. 
12. 45 
– 19.8 
2.83 13 
A: Obtained Mode Profile of Existing Radial Network After Reinforcement with Capacitors and Substations
Before any reinforcements, the obtained load flow of the entire township network shows that the active and reactive losses are 24.89 MW and 36.21 Mvar respectively. The
enormous power loss could be traceable to the cascaded
voltage failure at specific 11 kV buses. The load flow did not converge and the voltage profiles of all the different feeders did not fall within the regulatory limit of 11 kV Â±10%. This indicates that the network feeders could not be operating without significant load shedding in order to supply at useable quality of voltage to the end users.
Figures 3 to 9 present network diagrams of Alagbaka, Ijapo, Ilesha Road, Isikan, OkeEda, Ondo Road, and Oyemekun feeders respectively, showing the locations of proposed capacitors and substations. Figures 10 to 16 show obtainable voltage profiles of the respective feeders before and after reinforcement with capacitors and new substations, when the township network is on load. Fig. 10 shows that Alagbaka feeder, before reinforcement, does not operate within the acceptable voltage limits. The on load voltage level starts to drop below permissible level immediately after node 1. After reinforcement with 15 Mvar capacitors and one new 33/11 kV substation, the feeders permissible voltage profile of 90% to
33/11kV Section 
Akure_bus2 
1 
20 
Akure_bus1A 
1 
20 

Alagbaka 
57al 
1 
10 
41al 
1 
10 

Ijapo 
14ij 
1 
20 
Ilesha 
17il 
1 
10 
36il 
1 
10 

Isikan 
14is 
1 
10 
OkeEda 
27ok 
1 
10 
Ondo Rd. 
10on 
1 
10 
24on 
1 
20 

Oyemekun 
18oy 
1 
15 
110% was obtained. The 15 Mvar capacitor is installed at node 51 and the substation at node 29.
Fig. 11 shows that Ijapo subnetwork requires installation of a total 35 Mvar capacitors to provide normal operating voltage profile, out of which 5 Mvar, 25 Mvar and 5 Mvar are installed at load nodes 6, 13 and 28 respectively. Installation ofnew substation is not necessary for this network.
For Ilesha subnetwork, Fig. 12 shows that before reinforcement, the voltage profile falls outside minimum limit immediately after the first node. Normal voltage profile required installation of 20 Mvar capacitors and 33/11 kV substation.10 Mvar and another 10 Mvar are installed in nodes 13 and 27 respectively, while the new substation is installed in
node 42.
Fig. 13 shows that the Isikan subnetwork requires installation of a total 10 Mvar capacitors to provide normal operating voltage profile. No new substation is required for this network. The 10 Mvar capacitors is installed in node 14. For OkeEda subnetwork, Fig. 14 shows that before reinforcement, the voltage profile falls outside minimum limit immediately after the first node. Normal voltage profile required installation of 5 Mvar capacitors and 33/11 kV substation. The 5 Mvar capacitors is installed in node14 while the new substation is installed in node 28.
Fig. 15 shows that the Ondo road subnetwork requires installation of a total 22 Mvar capacitors to provide normal operating voltage profile, out of which 6 Mvar, 10 Mvar and 6Mvar are installed at load nodes 5, 10 and 23 respectively. No new substation is required for this network.
For Oyemekun subnetwork, Fig. 16 shows that before reinforcement, the voltage profiles falls outside minimum limit immediately after the second node. Normal voltage profiles required installation of 10 Mvar capacitors, which is installed at node 18. No new substation is required for the network.
Table 2 shows that a unit Compensator was required
at Ilesha and ObaIle 33/11 kV buses each. In total, four units of 20 Mvar, seven units of 10 Mvar and a unit of 15 Mvar Compensators were required at the specified and optimum locations on the Akure 11 kV distribution network.
The total network power loss before and after reinforcements is presented in Fig. 17.
From the analyses above, it is established that the township distribution network is inadequate by normal mode requirement and needed to be reinforced using capacitors, and new substations.
Consequent to the unacceptable power loss and sagging voltage profile values obtained on the network, alternative power loss reduction schemes were proposed by considering the addition of compensators into this interconnected configuration. The number, location and size of the added compensators are presented in Table 2.
Table 2: The Number, Location and Size of Compensators Added
Partial NW 
Node Names 
No. of Compensator 
Size (Mvar) 
19al
18al
0.6 km
0.8 km
17al
16al

km
0.6 km
13al
14al
1.2 km
0.8 km
11al

km

km

km
10al
8al
5al
3al
1.2 km
2al
1al
56al
1 km
20al
15al
1.1 km
0.5 km
12al
1.2 km
9al

km
7al
0.18 km
1 km
0.6 km

km

km
57al
0

km
.6 km
0.1 km
55al
54al
43al
44al
27al
22al
21al


km 0.4 km
28al
0.6 km
0.8 km
0.6 km
23al
6al
4al
60al
0.6 km
0.6 km
0.6 km
0.6 km
58al
0.6 5km3al
52al
1 km
0.6 km
0.6 km
45al
29al
31al
0.6 km
0.9 km

km

km
30al
32al

km 0.14 km
24al 25al
26al
59al
61al
51al
50al
0.4 km
0.6 km
46al
0.6 km
39al 38al
0.6 km
0.8 km
33al
0.4 km
0.6 km
0.9 km
34al
0.6 km
0.6 km
41al
42al

km

km
63al
49al 62al
0.6 km
0.6 k4m8al
0.6 km
47al
0.6 km37al
0.6 km
0.6 km
0.6 km
36al
0.6 km
35al
40al
Fig. 3: Existing Alagbaka Network showing new capacitor and substation.
28ij
26ij
16ij
17ij u=95.55 %
18ij u=94.34 %
21ij u=92.69 %
23ij u=91.40 %
u=100.00 %
u=97.50 %
u=95.75 %
1.3 km 0.8 km 1.2 km 1 km 1.5 km 1.3 km
1.2 km
1.1 km
27ij
1.4 km

km
25ij

km
13ij
0.5 km
19ij u=93.93 %
20ij u=93.13 %
22ij
1.1 km
24ij
29ij u=99.73 %
12ij
u=98.95 %
u=96.63 %
1.7 km
u=100.00 %
0.5 km
u=91.87 %
u=91.30 %
1.3 km
30ij

km
u=98.60 %

km
14ij u=97.72 %
1.8 km
15ij u=95.86 %
3ij
u=99.55 %
11ij u=97.96 %
1 km
10ij u=97.66 %
9ij

km
u=97.33 %
1.1 km
8ij
7ij u=97.83 %


km

km
4ij u=98.67 %
1.2 km
u=98.36 %
2.2 km
1ij u=100.42 %
2ij u=99.36 %
u=97.40 %
5ij u=99.37 %
0.9 km
6ij
0.8 km
1.2 km
u=100.00 %
Fig. 4: Existing Ijapo network showing newly installed capacitors.
1il u=100.42 %
3il
4il u=99.18 %

km
14il u=97.65 %
1.2 km
13il u=98.51 %
19il
23il u=96.01 %
22il
1.1 km

km
24il u=96.62 %
0.9 km
u=99.24 %
1.2 km
12il
0.7 km 1.3 km
u=94.81 %
u=95.55 %
1.2 km
0.9 km
2il
u=99.20 %
1.1 km
21il u=95.07 %
26il
1.1 km
u=99.68 %
5il u=99.12 %
6il
0.7 km
11il u=100.00 %
0.9 km
17il
u=95.60 %
1 km
0.9 km
1.2 km
20il
u=94.80 %
1.2 km
27il
1.4 km
u=98.25 %
1.2 km
25il
u=97.33 %
8il u=98.91 %
u=98.95 %
0.9 km
0.7 km
7il u=98.88 %
1 km
10il
15il
u=96.73 %
0.7 km
18il
u=95.01 %
16il u=96.11 %
u=100.00 % 0.8 km
28il u=98.99 %
0.7 km
29il
1.5 km 1.1 km
u=99.54 %
u=98.31 %
42il u=100.00 %
9il u=99.07 %
37il
35il
33il
30il u=97.54 %

km

km
41il u=98.75 %

km
38il
u=95.81 %

km
u=95.42 %

km
36il
u=95.29 %
1.2 km
1.1 km
34il
u=95.98 %
1.3 km
1 km
32il
0.8 km
31il
1.2 km
u=95.21 %
u=95.57 %
u=96.41 %
u=96.73 %
1.4 km
1.6 km
40il u=97.49 %
39il u=96.53 %
Fig. 5: Existing Ilesha network showing new capacitors and substation.
1is u=100.42 %
23is u=95.51 %
0.6 km
19is u=96.58 %

km
20is
0.6 km u=96.21 %
0.8 km
0.61 km
21is u=95.81 %

km
22is u=95.62 %
4is u=98.84 %
1 km

km
5is
3is u=99.50 %

km
2is u=99.88 %
18is u=96.98 %
17is u=97.51 %

km

km

km
16is
15is u=98.56 %
1 km
13is u=99.31 %
0.8 km
14is

km
12is
u=98.66 %

km
7is
6is u=98.43 %
0.5 km
u=97.93 %
u=100.00 %
u=98.95 %
0.5 km
u=98.30 %
0.7 km

km
8is u=98.27 %
11is u=98.70 %
10is u=98.52 %

km
0.8 km
9is u=98.36 %
Fig.6: Existing Isikan network showing newly installed capacitor.
1ok u=100.42 %
34ok u=92.49 %

km
35ok u=92.30 %
0.5 km
36ok u=92.22 %
37ok u=92.10 %
Isikan Fdr.
30ok u=95.98 %

km
1.6 km
33ok u=94.02 %
1.2 km
1 km
1.4 km
29ok

km
31ok
28ok

km
u=98.14 %
u=95.35 %
2ok u=99.40 %
u=100.00 %
25ok u=97.75 %
1.2 km
26ok u=98.42 %
27ok

km

km
24ok
1.1 km 0.7 km
20ok
19ok
u=98.75 %
18ok
3ok u=99.02 %
u=97.39 %
u=96.67 % u=96.82 %u=96.98 %
11ok
u=98.26 %
1 km
0.8 km 1.3 km 1.5 km
1.1 km
0.9 km
23ok
22ok u=96.88 %
21ok u=96.67 %
0.7 km
14ok
13ok
1.4 km
1.3 km
0.6 km
u=97.03 %
u=100.00 % u=99.61 %
10ok
u=97.67 %
17ok u=97.18 %
1.1 km
16ok
1.5 km
15ok
1 km
0.8 km
1.1 km
12ok
0.9 km
0.8 km
9ok
8ok
1 km
7ok
1.3 km
1.1 km
6ok
1.4 km
5ok
4ok u=98.87 %
u=97.89 %
u=99.32 %
u=98.97 %
u=97.52 %u=97.53 % u=97.61 % u=97.78 %u=98.14 %
Fig.7: Existing OkeEda network showing new capacitor and substation.
18on

km
1on u=100.42 %
26on
u=97.48 %
1.6 km
17on
u=92.26 %

km
u=92.67 %
16on
27on u=97.15 %
1.7 km
25on u=97.96 %
1.6 km
15on u=92.45 %
1.6 km

km
14on
u=92.09 %
6on u=99.03 %

km
1.7 km
22on u=98.08 %
20on u=95.04 %
13on
u=93.20 %

km
11on u=98.31 %
7on u=98.92 %
1.8 km
24on
u=99.05 %

km
23on

km

km
21on
1.4 km
1.8 km
19on
u=94.58 %
1.7 km

km
0.9 km

km
1.2 km
2on
u=98.90 %
u=100.00 %
u=96.19 %
u=93.53 %
12on u=96.62 %
1.2 km
8on u=99.07 %
1.4 km
3on u=98.46 %
9on u=99.63 %
10on
0.8 km
5on u=100.00 %
1.6 km
4on u=98.63 %
u=100.00 %
1.3 km
Fig. 8: Existing Ondo road network showing new capacitors.
P=0.320 MW PF=0.640
P=0.064 MW PF=0.639
P=0.320 MW PF=0.640
P=0.064 MW PF=0.639
P=0.128 MW PF=0.639
P=0.064 MW PF=0.639
23oy u=98.87 %
P=0.192 MW PF=0.639
7oy u=98.46 %
0.6 km
6oy u=98.66 %
0.5 km
5oy u=98.81 %
0.6 km
4oy u=99.09 %
0.7 km
3oy u=99.49 %
0.5 km 0.8 km
2oy u=99.74 %
1oy u=100.42 %
P=0.192 MW PF=0.639
1.2 km
P=0.320 MW PF=0.640
0.8 km
P=0.192 MW PF=0.639
P=0.192 MW PF=0.639
8oy
P=0.320 MW11oy
P=0.128 MW PF=0.639
12oy
22oy
u=99.03 %
u=98.17 %
0.5 km
PF=0.64u0=98.08 %
u=98.12 %
0.5 km
9oy
u=98.09 %
0.6 km
0.9 km 0.5 km 0.4 km
10oy u=98.04 %
13oy u=98.16 %
P=0.192 MW PF=0.639
21oy u=99.11 %
0.6 km
P=0.192 MW PF=0.639
20oy u=99.25 %
P=0.320 MW PF=0.640
P=0.128 MW PF=0.639
P=0.320 MW PF=0.640
1 km
19oy u=99.77 %
P=0.320 MW PF=0.640
18oy u=100.00 %
P=0.128 MW PF=0.639
0.6 km
0.5 km
0.8 km
17oy u=99.76 %
16oy
u=99.20 %
15oy
u=99.03 %
0.5 km
0.8 km
14oy u=98.72 %
1.2 km
P=0.192 MW PF=0.639
P=0.000 MW PF=0.000
P=0.192 MW PF=0.639
Fig.9: Existing Oyemekun network showing new capacitor.
Fig. 10: Alagbaka network voltage profile before and after reinforcements.
Fig. 11: Ijapo network voltage profile before and after reinforcements.
Fig. 12: Ilesha network voltage profile before and after reinforcements.
Fig. 13: Isikan network voltage profile before and after reinforcements.
Fig. 14: OkeEda network voltage profile before and after reinforcements.
Fig. 15: Ondo road network voltage profile before and after reinforcements.
drops causing huge power losses at all the subnetworks. This interconnection scenario is inadequate to provide normal operating mode of the township network without additional reinforcement measures
CONCLUSIONS
The total active power loss on the existing radial Akure 11 kV network amounted to 24.89 MW after carrying out the load flow operation using NEPLAN software. The load flow operation on the existing system did not converge; the network voltage did not fall within the acceptable operating limits of 90% and 110% nominal voltage of 11 kV.
Fig. 16: Oyemekun network voltage profile before and after reinforcements.
Fig. 17: Total network power loss before and after reinforcements of Radial network.
It could be seen from Fig.10 to 16 that there was significant improvement in the voltage profile on all the feeders. The voltage profiles fall within the acceptable range in all the feeders.
Fig. 17 shows that the existing Akure Township incurred 24.89 MW loss when all the partial network are on load before reinforcement and reduced to 18.3 MW power loss after reinforcement with compensator.
It can be seen from these analyses that installation of capacitors and new substations can effectively reinforce the network to achieve normal operating profile and Technical loss reduction of 26.5%.
In summary, for the interconnected feeder networks scenario, there are no instances of voltage values exceeding 100% of the normal operating value of 11 kV. The power loss in the township network is 18.3 MW. The existing township network would collapse if permitted to operate under the given peak loads due to critical voltage
On reinforcement of the existing radial network with the addition of compensators, the active power loss reduced to 18.3MW per day; there was a daily saving of
6.59 MW of power with this arrangement, the load flow converged and the voltage profiles fell within the acceptable operating limits of 90% and 110% nominal voltage of 11 kV.
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