Recent Studies of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in Concrete and Mortar- A Review

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Recent Studies of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in Concrete and Mortar- A Review

Divyadevi Sundaravadivel 1,

1PG Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi, TamilNadu, India

Dr. R. Mohana 2

2Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College,

Sivakasi, TamilNadu, India

Abstract In this article, the explanation and the major description of Sugarcane Bagasse ash (SCBA) have reviewed. This paper investigates the various process involved in the SCBA. This paper provides a historical point of view on the explanation and use of SCBA as a mineral admixture. This paper focuses on the mechanical and durability properties of SCBA in concrete and mortar.

Keywords Sieving, Grinding, Burning, Mechanical properties, Durability Properties

  1. INTRODUCTION

    One of the major grown crops in India is sugarcane. India is the second largest sugarcane producing country after Brazil. In sugar industries, the juice is extract from the sugarcane and the left over material is known as Bagasse. This fiber material used as a fuel in sugarcane industries and finally the ash obtained is known as Sugarcane Bagasse ash. It has prismatic, spherical and fibrous shape [1].

    26% of bagasse ash and 0.62% of residual ash are approximately produced by one tonne of sugarcane [2]. SCBA has a major content of silica and it gives a good pozzolanic material [3]. This material has a crystalline structure and amorphous in nature [4,5]. Various by products of solid wastes also used as pozzolanic materials, it reduces the cement content [6]. This solid waste material gives a disposal problem which is reducing by using recycling process. Around the world in cement industry one tone of Portland cement emits approximately one tone of CO2.

    SCBA is partially replaced in cement production reduced CO2 emission 519.3 Kilo tones per year [7]. For this purpose the solid waste materials is reduce the cost, waste emission and results in energy consumption [8]. The disposal of these material is also pollute the soils, underground water and leading to health problems [9]. The material having highly powdered of low density and high volume are characterized by any industrial process [9,10]. Bagasse ash is a mineral admixture used in concrete to attain the maximum strength, it should included by various process. It can also be used as ceramic materials like tiles, glass materials and soil blocks [11- 15]. This waste material used to improve the soft clay, it could be used in sustainable construction technologies [16].

    Nanotechnology can help to overcome major environmental challenges by reducing CO2 emissions and improve quality of cement [17]. Effect of SCBA with nano silica on mechanical and [18] and durability properties has studied [19]. It reduced

    the pores in the specimens due to bridging and filler effects in nano materials.

    The aim of this paper is to study the mechanical and durability properties of SCBA. This knowledge could be beneficial for using the waste material (SCBA) in concrete and mortar.

  2. MATERIALS

    For preparing a concrete and mortar with SCBA ordinary Portland cement is usually used. Fine aggregate used as locally available river sand as well as SCBA is also used as sand replacement [5,20,21]

    Super plasticizer or high range water reducers are chemical admixtures used where well dispersed particle suspension is required. That can be added to concrete mixtures to improve workability, reduce water-cement ratio and reduce cement content. Typical water reducers, reduce the water content by approximately 5-10%.

    Melamine Formaldehyde consedate super plasticizer used to control the slump of fresh concrete [22]. Sikament NN super plasticizer used to achieve the superior workability and water reducing admixture [2]. Deionized water used as concrete mixture [23]. Type F super plasticizer used in cementitious material [24,25]. 20HE super plasticizer used for concrete production where higher water demand exists [10]. Conplast SP500 used in concrete[26].

    Polycarboxylic ether based super plasticizer produce steric repulsion because molecular design introducing by long side chain on main chain [25]. This super plasticizer is compatibility with SCBA [4,19,23,27-30] because of the following reasons. It is a new generation of this kind of admixtures is represent by polycarboxylic ether based super plasticizer with a relatively low dosage [0.15-0.3% by cement weight] they allow a water to decrease upto 40% due to their chemical structure which enables the good particle dispersion.

  3. PROCESSING METHODS

    Raw bassage ash having unburnt particles, to give the good pozzolanic performance it included into various process. The methods are burning, sieving, grinding, chemical activation and the combination of above methods [4,6]. Adsorption and porosity increase due to low temperature of activation [31]. Carbon content affects the concrete properties [32]. Compressive strength decreased with high loss of ignition and increased with low loss of ignition [11,33]. Higher pozzolanic

    activity produced by finer SCBA [34,35]. Pozzolanic activity reduces alkalinity of cement pastes [36].

    1. Sieving

      Using sieving process increased the yield stress and viscosity of paste [25]. High carbon content would be removed by passing through 425 µm sieve [37,38]. Passing through 300

      µm sieve was also used to remove the unburnt particles [4,6,27,39].To obtain a similar fineness of cement passing through 90 µm sieve used[36,40,41].

      After grinding process, the material passed through 45 µm sieve

      used as a cementitious material [ 5, 11, 19, 22, 23, 27,

      33,38,42-45]

      because smaller size particles increases the pozzolanic activity

    2. Burning

      To remove the carbon content, burning process will used. Burnt at 7000C, SCBA gives the max pozzolanic activity[17] By using burning temperature @ 5500C for 450 min reduces the loss of ignition [33]. 1000 to 11000C gives a poor pozzolanic activity [32]. Burnt @ 8000C and 10000C @20min has a high and similar pozzolanic activity than kinetic diffusive model [11,40].

      In some experiments SCBA burnt @ 600-8000C [16,19,42,46]. Using different burning temperature [47], it

      concluded that @ 6000C for 3h gives a low-carbon content and high specific surface area because loss of ignition was reduced.

    3. Grinding

      Two different methods were use to grinding, they are electrical

      conductivity and mechanical response. In these two methods mechanical process gives the homogeneity and increase pozzolanic action [45]. Ultra finely produced SCBA produced by 42 kwh/t using ball mill gives fineness and homogeneity [28].

      Grinding by using ball mill enhanced pozzolanic activity [4- 6,9,22,24,33,39,42,46]. Ground for 120 min [27] gives 100% pozzolanic activity index [23]. SCBA gives a higher pozzolanic activity when it used as a substitute cementitious material [13,48].

  4. PROPERTIES OF CEMENT AND MORTAR

    WITH SCBA

    It could be observed from literature survey of about 60 papers that SCBA used as partial replacement method in concrete and mortar based on the different processing methods.

    TABLE -1 Comparing various research works published between 2000 and 2017

    Research Team

    Processing Methods

    Mechanical Properties

    Durability Properties

    Year of Publication

    Singh et al. [49]

    10% of SCBA increases

    the compressive strength

    10% of SCBA reduces the

    permeability

    2000

    Ganesan et al. [46]

    Burnt at 6500C for one hour

    Ground upto 5.4

    µm size

    20% of SCBA increases the compressive strength

    20% of SCBA gives the minimum value of water absorption

    Up to 20% of SCBA given a lower permeability value

    25% of SCBA decreased the chloride penetration and chloride diffusion

    2007

    Cordeiro et al. [44]

    Grinding using

    ball mill for 240min

    Sieved using 45µm sieve

    Compare to the control concrete SCBA mortar gives the higher compressive strength

    2008

    Nuntachai et al. [33]

    Ground by ball mill

    Burnt at 5500C for 45 min.

    Sieved using 45µm sieve

    10-30% of SCBA gives a higher or equal result of control concrete

    20% of SCBA gives a high sulphate resistance

    2009

    Akram et al. [2]

    20% of SCBA increases

    the compressive strength

    2009

    Nuntachai et al.

    [39]

    Ground by ball

    mill

    20% of SCBA increases

    the compressive strength

    30% of SCBA given lower

    permeability

    2009

    Sieved using

    45µm sieve

    SCBA increases, temperature

    in concrete decreases

    Almir et al. [21]

    High values of compressive strength in

    20-30% of SCBA in sand replacement

    2010

    Rukzon et al. [24]

    Ground by ball mill

    Sieved using 45µm sieve

    Compressive strength of concrete increases upto 30% of SCBA

    Porosity of concrete increasing with increase more SCBA Water absorption of 20% and 30% of SCBA was higher at 28 days

    30% of SCBA decreases the chloride penetration of

    concrete

    2012

    Rattapon et al. [43]

    Sieved using 45µm sieve

    20% of SCBA and flyash gives a higher compressive strength

    20% of SCBA gives a lower permeability, high chloride

    penetration resistance and high sulphate resistance

    2012

    Rattapon et al. [50]

    Sieved using 45µm sieve

    20% of SCBA gives a higher compressive strength and modulus of elasticity

    From 2035% of SCBA improves the water permeability

    Upto 50% of SCBA gives a chloride resistance

    2012

    Sua iam et al. [29]

    20% of SCBA and limestone gives higher

    compressive strength

    2013

    Prasnshant et al. [20]

    10% and 20% of SCBA increasing the compressive and tensile

    strength at later stages

    2013

    Kawade et al. [51]

    15% of SCBA gives a higher compressive

    strength

    2013

    Nirita et al. [52]

    Burnt at 6000C for 6h and 7000C for 3h

    Using furnace burnt at 12000C for 5h

    Ground by ball mill for 120 min.

    10% of SCBA increases the compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength

    2013

    Kawee et al. [11]

    Burnt at 800- 10000C

    Ground by ball mill

    Sieved using 45µm sieve

    Upto 20% of SCBA gives the higher compressive strength

    2013

    Abdulkadhir et al. [38]

    Burnt at 7000C Sieved using 425µm sieve Grinding upto

    45µm size

    30% of SCBA increases the compressive strength

    2014

    Nidhi et al. [26]

    Sieved using 150µm sieve

    12.5% of SCBA increases the compressive strength

    2014

    Aukkadet et al. [22]

    Ground by ball mill

    Sieved using 45µm sieve

    Compressive strength of concrete increases upto 20% of SCBA at 90 days

    10-50% of SCBA increases the chloride resistance of concrete and expansion due to Na2SO4

    attack was less

    2015

    Upto 50% of SCBA did

    not affect the modulus of elasticity

    Bahurudeen et al. [4]

    Sieved using 300µm sieve Grinding using ball mill upto cement fineness

    Compressive strength of concrete increases upto 25% of SCBA

    20% of SCBA gives less heat than control mix

    With increasing SCBA resistance of chloride and gas penetration increased

    Water penetration gives a significant reduction when the pressure applied

    SCBA concrete and control concrete has similar drying shrinkage

    2015

    Eramma et al. [18]

    10% of SCBA and 2% of nano silica increases the compressive strength,

    flexural strength and split tensile strength

    2015

    Perira et al. [53]

    Sieved using 2.38 mm sieve

    25% of SCBA with blast

    furnace slag, gives higher compressive strength

    Alkali activated mortar gives

    better performance than control concrete

    2015

    Tantaway et al. [41]

    Burnt at 7000C for 3h

    Sieved using 90µm sieve

    15-20% of SCBA attained higher compressive strength at later stages

    15-20% of SCBA decreases the porosity and alkalinity of mortar

    2015

    Chintan et al. [54]

    5% of SCBA increases the compressive strength and

    flexural strength

    5% of SCBA gives a sulphate resistance

    2016

    Juliana et al. [5]

    Sieved using 4.8 mm sieve

    Ground using mechanical mill for 3 min.

    30% of SCBA gives a higher compressive strength

    Carbonation depth of 30% SCBA was same as control concrete

    Combination of SCBA and construction waste may result in delayed ettringite

    2016

    Lakshmi et al. [55]

    10% of SCBA increases the compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength

    Highest modulus of elasticity in 10% of SCBA replacement

    2016

    Elisabeth et al. [56]

    5% of SCBA gives a higher compressive strength

    15% of SCBA increase the pozzolanic activity

    20% of SCBA improved sulphuric acid resistance

    2016

    Arenas et al. [57]

    Sieved using 75µm sieve

    15% of SCBA increase decrease compressive

    strength at early stages and increase in later stages

    20% of untreated SCBA decreased the permeability and

    increased the electrical resistivity

    2016

    Syed et al. [39]

    Sieved using 300µm sieve

    Ground by ball mill

    Compressive strength increased upto 20% of SCBA

    40% of SCBA shown the highest reduction in expansion

    leading to control alkali silica reaction distress

    2017

    Sieved using 45µm sieve

    High amount of alumina and

    low CaO/SiO2 reduced alkali silica reaction expansion

    Elisabeth et al. [10]

    Ground less than 10µm

    10% replcement of SCBA increased the compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete

    Drying shrinkage behavior improved up to 5%

    With increasing SCBA resistance of chloride penetration increased

    2017

    Kelam et al. [58]

    12.5% of SCBA increases

    the compressive strength and split tensile strength

    2017

    Cordeiro et al.[30]

    Burnt at 6000C for 3h

    Ground by 120 min using ball mill

    Coarsest SCBA present chemical shrinkage very close to portlandite content

    2017

    Latha et al. [59]

    Burnt at 6000C for

    6h and 7000C for 3h

    Sieved using 75µm sieve

    10% replacement of SCBA increased the compressive strength and

    flexural strength and split tensile strength

    7.5% of SCBA increased acid resistance

    10% of SCBA increased sulphate resistance

    2017

    Parisa et al. [53]

    10% replacement of SCBA increased the compressive strength and flexural strength

    2017

    Malikharjuna et al. [60]

    12.5% of SCBA increases

    the compressive strength and split tensile strength

    Impermeability characteristics improved in concrete

    2017

    Alireza et al. [19]

    Burnt at 8000C for 30 min

    Ground by ball mill less than 14 min

    Sieved using 75µm sieve

    20% replacement of SCBA gives higher compressive strength

    Due to filler effects of nano materials pores reduced

    SCBA and nano silica improves the resistance of chloride penetration

    At later stages it gives better electrical resistivity

    2017

    Based on the different processing methods of SCBA a strength and durability property varies shown in table 1. It observed that 20-30% of SCBA used as an optimum level when it involved into various processing methods.

  5. CONCLUSION

Various methods of processing and production of SCBA mortar and concrete could be reviewed. From this review the following points were concluded

    • 45µm sieve gives the better pozzolanic activity. Burning the material at 600-800ºC and grinding for 120 min gives the 100% pozzolanic activity

  • It could be concluded 20-30% of SCBA increases the mechanical and durability properties

  • The partial replacement of cement with SCBA reduces environmental problems, green house gases and global warming

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