 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 251
 Authors : Mr. S. P. Salgar, Mr. Sachidanand B. N. , Mr. Veeresh M. Metigoudar, Mr. Prashant P Zirmite
 Paper ID : IJERTV3IS061388
 Volume & Issue : Volume 03, Issue 06 (June 2014)
 Published (First Online): 28062014
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Range based Localization Scheme for 3D Wireless Sensor Network using Joint Distance and Angle Information:A Brief Review
Mr. Santosh P. Salgar Electronics Engineering Dept DKTEs TEI, Ichalkaranji
Prof. B N Sachidanand Electronics Engineering Dept DKTEs TEI, Ichalkaranji
Prof. Veeresh M Metigoudar Electronics Engineering Dept DKTEs TEI, Ichalkaranji
Mr. Prashant P Zirmite Electronics Engineering Dept DKTEs TEI, Ichalkaranji
Abstract – This review paper describes range based 3D localization algorithm for wireless sensor network to satisfy the practical needs. The mentioned algorithm is anchor free, scalable and provides accurate physical position. To estimate ranges between neighbors both distance and direction measurement technique is used. Based on this information a global network with wide coordinate system is developed using local coordinate system leads to absolute position of nodes. Simulation results have shown that proposed algorithm achieves good tradeoff between localization percentage and precision when node degree equals 12 or around.
Keywords – Localization, Wireless Sensor Network, adjacency transformation matrix

INTRODUCTION
Many localization schemes have been proposed for more precise localization of senor node in wireless sensor network. While working with these schemes a little attention is given towards their application to the practical 3D environment. The existing 2D schemes not even found any deterministic algorithm to verify that uniquely localizable in 3D [1].
Among the existing rangebased 3D localization mechanisms [2] tried to reduce the complexity and transform the 3D localization process into its 2D counterpart by employing sensor depth information and additional hardwareupgradable modules. Many 3D localization schemes use trilateration method to calculate the desired position [35]. The basic idea is to use at least four anchor nodes to implement the trilateration. This approach normally experiences accelerated error accumulation as more nodes are positioned iteratively, making it difficult to scale. Also assumption is made that the sensor node density to be high in order to attain good localization coverage [6].
This review paper proposes the Three Dimensional Anchor free Localization (3DAFL) algorithm that tries to achieve accurate physical node positions for largescale WSN in a3D scenario. This algorithm makes use of both distance and angle of arrival (AOA)
information [7]. There are two phases in this algorithms. Initially, local coordinate system (LCS) is constructed at each individual node and relative neighbor positions can be calculated accordingly. Later, the LCSs efficiently converge to form a global coordinate system by means of homogeneous coordinate transformation. This algorithm provides high accuracy, low communication overhead, and is robust to node failure.

THREE DIMENTIONAL ANCHOR FREE LOCALIZATION(3DAFL)
The sensor nodes are randomly deployed in 3D scenarios rather than on pure 2D planes. From application (cost, power usage) point of view, minimizing the number of anchors in the network is highly desirable.

Local position computation
At the system initialization stage, every node starts exchanging beacon frames to detect its 1hop neighbors and to build the LCS. The beacon response frame of node O contains sequence number and a list of Os neighbors maintained by its neighbor list table. For a node O to build LCSO, it must have at least two non collinear neighbors A and B. See Fig. 1. For the purpose of global coordinate transformation, O needs another neighbor, Q, such that all the four nodes (O, A, B and Q) are noncollinear 1hop neighbors of each other.
Without loss of generality, we choose A and B to setup LCSO. +Xaxis is temporarily set as along with A lying on the +xaxis. Then XOY plane can be defined with
node B lying in the direction of +yaxis. For homogeneity
the positive direction of the zaxis is set to be extending out and conforms to the right handed rule.
Fig. 1 Local coordinate system and localposition computation
To avoid the flip ambiguity [8] while computing the node positions relative to LCSO, node O utilizes the bearing information OB to establish final +xaxis. If OB <
, +xaxis = . Or else, +xaxis= . This procedure guarantees that LCS at any node is always constructed such that +yaxis is /2 counterclockwise to +xaxis with +z axis pulling out when viewed from the top. Now node O can use trilateration to compute the positions of its neighbors with respect to LCSO. The local position of node B, OPB = (Bx, By, Bz), is
= . , = . , = 0 (1) Where,
coordinate reference frame, then they are repositioned into a global coordinate scene as described in the next subsection.

Global position transformation
In this part we compute the position of a node to a fixed coordinate system (FCS) which acts as a physical location reference to all the nodes in the WSN. To transform position descriptions from LCSs to the FCS, we need to develop an adjacency transformation matrix (ATM) that brings two LCSs into alignment. This process continues till all the nodes know their positions relative to the FCS.
We illustrate global position computation by considering the example in Fig. 2. Node R can convert its
Fig.2 Global position computation
local position OPR to a position relative to Os neighor Q, and thus to a position relative to the FCS, FCSPR, as:
FCSPR=FCS[T]Q .Q[T]O .OPR (3)
2 + 2 2
,
OB
=
2
OB
(0, )
This process continues until all the nodes know
As shown in Fig. 1, the local position of another node C, OPC = (Cx, Cy, Cz), can be computed if it is the neighbor of both A and B such that dOC, dCA and dCB are explicitly known by ranging techniques.
2 2 + 2
their positions relative to the FCS. Such positions, which are consentaneous within the whole network, can easily be absolute positions once the FCS knows its physical position by means such as GPS.
=
2
2 2 + 2 + 2 2
=
2
(2)
2 2 2
OC
=
2 2 2
<
OC
Since the z coordinate results from a square root calculation, it is possible to have one or two solutions for the trilateration problem. One solution predicates node C being in the same XOY plane while the two alternative solutions can be determined on the AOA basis. Once a node estimates its position it becomes a beacon and assists other unknown nodes in estimating their positions.
Similarly the local position of any node Q, OPQ, can be fixed if it is neighbors of at least three known nodes L, M and N such that they are all noncollinear neighbors of O [5]. In this way sensor nodes are described in a local
Fig.3 Adjacency transformation matrix development
So the crucial problem is to acquire the ATM at any node. We can generate the ATMO, [] , by performing the following sequence of operations. See Fig. 3.

Rotate about the axis by the positive angle 1 to bring into the plane that is parallel to XQZ plane.

Rotate about the new axis (after step 1) by 2 to bring into the plane that is parallel to XQZ plane.

Rotate (after step 2) about the new axis (after step 2) by th positive angle 3 to bring + coincide with the axis that is parallel to + axis.

Translate the rotated LCSO (after step 3), which is already aligned with LCSQ, such that O moves to Q.

Accordingly, [] can be expressed in the homogeneous coordinate form [8] as a composite transformation involving combination of the four matrix multiplications.
such that with communication range r of 10m we obtain a node degree d varying from 6 to 16. The ranging error is Gaussian with a fixed standard deviation, for both distance and bearing estimation.We assume a ranging error of 1% for all our simulations.
Fig.4 Localization percentage Vs Node degree
Figure 4 shows the ratio of deployed nodes that are able to localize themselves relative to the FCS at a
[] =1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
O O O
3 0 3 0
. 0 1 0 0 .
3 0 3 0
0 0 0 1
given node degree. We observe that with d 9 the localization percentage is low. First in a sparse WSN some nodes may not be able to find enough beaconing neighbors to calculate their positions relative to a LCS. When the
0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0
0 2 2 0
1 1 0 0
3 1 0 0
node density gets higher, this happens mostly at the network borders. Second, as mentioned in section 2.2 a
0 2 2 0
0 0 0 1
Where,
.
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
(4)
node O may not be able to develop an ATM [] due to the absence of AQ or BQ. This problem is greatly alleviated as the node degree increases to 11 and more, which provides us with a valid parameter in real WSN
1 = cos( , )
1 = Â± 1 2 1
2 = cos ,
2 = Â± 1 2 2
cos( , )
implementation.
Localization error is the offset of the estimated node position from the actual node position. We express this metric relative to the communication range r, in terms of percentage. The average localization error for different node density d is illustrated in Fig. 5. When the node
3 =
1
degree is low (d 9), the localization error is high due to
3 = Â± 1 2 3
The plus or minus sign of 1 , 2 and 3 ( (0, 2)) is determined with the aid of AOA technique, respectively. Note that D is a virtual node whose relative position = ( , , ) can be calculated by
, , and DQAQ = /2. Thus one necessary
condition of obtaining [] is that the two nodes (AQ, BQ) determining XQY plane are also Os neighbors.
Iteratively all the nodes can know their positions relative to the FCS, which acts as a physical location reference. Due to the presence of the fixed datasink in a WSN, it makes sense to select it for defining the FCS.


SIMULATION
To evaluate through simulation the performance of 3DAFL, we deploy n sensors in a cubic region R such that the node positions are generated using a random uniform distribution.The values of n and R are selected
the reason that enough neighbors are unavailable to reduce the size of the estimation region. Increasing d brings more rigid frameworks and more positive conectivity constraints to
Fig. 5 Mean errors of the x y and z component sorted by the mean
position errors = ( )2 + ( )2 + ()2 of sensor nodes.
increase the accurate iterative calculation. One observation is that the errors of the zcomponent are always higher than those of the horizontal components. This is, however, an acceptable deviation derived from the positioning formula where the zcomponent of depends more on the two
values of cos3 and sin3 .

Conclusion
In this paper we proposed a 3D distributed, distance and AOA information oriented, and anchorfree localization algorithm for practical WSN applications. Simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of our algorithm. For node degree equals 12 or around, the deployment wined good tradeoff between localization percentage and precision. One of our ongoing work is to verify 3DAFL through quantitative comparisons to other 3D rangebased localization algorithms.
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