Power and Delay Optimization of 8-Bit ALU using Various Techniques

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV11IS060226

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Power and Delay Optimization of 8-Bit ALU using Various Techniques

Ch. Shivaji*

Asst. Professor,

Department of ECE, N S RAJU Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam, A.P, India.

G. Harsha Priya


Department of ECE, N S RAJU Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam, A.P, India.

G.V.V. Vamsi


Department of ECE, N S RAJU Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam, A.P, India.

K. Gayathri Devi


Department of ECE, N S RAJU Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam, A.P, India.

J. Roja Ramani

U.G.Scholor ,

Department of ECE, N S RAJU Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam, A.P, India.

Abstract: The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is used in many applications such as Digital image processing, microprocessors and Digital Signal Processing. In this paper we designed the 8- bit ALU by using various Techniques like CMOS, TG (Transmission Gate), GDI (Gate Diffusion Input), M-GDI (Modified Gate Diffusion Input), FS- GDI (Full Swing Gate Diffusion Input) Techniques and compare the power, delay and power delay product of 8-bit ALU by using the mentor graphics tool with 90nm CMOS technology with the minimum supply voltage of 1.2V and frequency of 125Mhz.

Keywords: CMOS, Transmission gates (TG), Gate Diffusion Input (GDI), Modified Gate Diffusion Input (M-GDI), Full Swing Gate Diffusion Input (FS-GDI).


An Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is brain of the Central Processing Unit (CPU), which accomplish Arithmetic functions like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and logical functions like AND, OR, XOR etc. To design an ALU full adder plays an important role which performs arithmetic operations. If there is any change in full adder then there is automatic improvement in the ALU. Power consumption and Delay are the major issues in electronics industry which triggered research efforts to reduce the Power consumption and Delay of the VLSI circuits, there is only a limited amount of power available for portable electronic devices widely used on daily basis, these electronic devices are high speed low power VLSI circuits works simultaneously. Gate Diffusion Input Techniques (GDI, M-GDI, and FS-GDI) was introduced a promising alternative to static CMOS logic and Transmission Gate logic. GDI Techniques reduces transistors count, Power and Delay issues of VLSI circuits.


    A large body of investigation has been performed to expand and advance conventional Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) techniques for the fabrication

    of ULTRA low power integrated circuits (ICs). The purpose of this study is to expand a faster, lower power, and reduced area substitute to standard CMOS logic circuits. M-GDI technique is one such new technique for minimization of powerconsumption in the digital circuit design field.

    Power dissipation becomes most important restriction in high performance applications. Optimizations for basic logic gates are fundamental constraint in order to get better the performance of a variety of low power and high-performance devices. Morgenshtein et al. investigated a high-speed and multipurpose logic style for low power electronics design, known as Gate Diffusion Input (GDI), with reduced area and power necessities, and proficient of implementing a broad variety of logic functions.

    The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is the core of a CPU in a computer. The adder cell is the elementary unit of an ALU. The constraints the adder has to satisfy are area, power and speed requirements. Some of the conventional types of adders are ripple- carry adder, carry-look ahead adder, carry-skip adder and Manchester carry chain adder.


      1. CMOS Logic

        CMOS or Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor is a combination of NMOS and PMOS transistors that operates under the applied electrical field. The structure of CMOS was initially developed for high density and low power logic gates. The NMOS and PMOS are the types of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET). The CMOS transistors are used in various applications, such as amplifiers, switching circuits, logic circuits, Integrated circuit chips, microprocessors, etc. The importance of CMOS in semiconductor technology is its low power dissipation and low operating currents. Its manufacturing requires fewer steps as compared to the Bipolar Junction transistors.

        Fig. 1: CMOS Cell

        when the substrate is attached to source, body effect is destroyed.

      2. Transmission Gate Logic

    Transmission gate (TG) is a complementary switch

    1.4 M-GDI Logic

    Fig. 4: GDI Cell

    constructed by CMOS pair. CMOS pair serves as a switch in

    case of transmission gates. There are two types of transistors in TG. They are NMOS transistor and PMOS transistor connected back-to-back. Both the PMOS as well as the NMOS transistors becomes switched on or off concurrently. The N- type MOS transistor gives a terrific active low signal 0 but a poor active high signal 1. Similarly, the P- type MOS transistor provides an excessive active high 1 but a bad active low signal 0 (Priyadharshini Shanmuga Sundaram et al. 2011 and Michael H. Schulz et al. 1989).

    Fig. 2: Schematic representation of a Transmission Gate

    Fig. 3: Circuit Symbol of a transmission gate

      1. GDI Logic

        Gate diffusion input is a new Technique of reducing power dissipation, area and delay and achieving high speed and high performance. The combinational circuits also implemented by using this technique. So that, the total circuit area reduction and power reduction is achieved. GDI Technique is a two- transistor designing technique, using which the complex logic and arithmetic functions can be determined. In first look GDI cell similar to CMOS inverter but GDI cell consists of 3 inputs

        G (common gate input of PMOS and NMOS), P (input to drain/source of PMOS) and N (input to drain/source of NMOS). Bulks of both PMOS and NMOS are attached to their diffusion P, N to reduce bulk effect [8]. GDI cell decreases both gate leakage current and subthreshold leakage current as compared to traditional CMOS but its performance depreciates when used in and below 90nm technology. Fabrication of basic GDI cell is not possible in traditional p well progression. When substrate attached to drain, threshold voltage is increased and

        MGDI is a new technique for designing low power digital circuits. This technique is adopted from GDI technique. MGDI technique is used to reduce power dissipation, transistor count and area of digital circuits. MGDI also consists of three input terminals – G, (input of both PMOS and NMOS) P, (input to drain/source of PMOS) and N (input to drain /source of NMOS) except the bulks of PMOS (SP) and NMOS (SN) are constantly coupled to VDD and GND, MGDI overcomes the drawbacks of GDI cell [9]. With technology scaling, the influence of source body voltage on transistor threshold voltage gets exceeding a bridged i.e., the linearized body coefficient. On varying the values of G, P, N, SP and SN in MGDI cell, SP and SN will remain constantly coupled to VDD and GND CMOS it requires 6 transistors.

        The main advantage of MGDI technique is that it reduces transistor counts and area on chip thats cause of low power consumptions. So, it is easy to design complex circuits using MGDI technique. The basic primitive of GDI cell consists of NMOS and PMOS containing four terminals G (common gate input of NMOS and PMOS transistors), P (the outer diffusion node of PMOS transistor), N (he outer diffusion node of MOS transistor), and D (common diffusion node of both transistors).In this work a modified primitive GDI logic gates have been implemented in 0.250m technology and it is compared with existing GDI and CMOS logic. Fig 1 shows the construction of modified GDI basic gates of AND, OR, NOR, NAND, XOR, XNOR and MUX The modified GDI primitive cells are constructed and its significant variation between CMOS and conventional GDI are compared..

        Fig. 5: Basic M-GDI cell


    Full swing GDI (FS-GDI) technique is utilized to reduce power consumption and delay. Full swing GDI technique gives better speed of operation as compared to CMOS technique.

    While keeping these parameters at best GDI maintains low complexity of design [10]. Full-swing GDI cells proposed to improve the output swing of GDI gates as an alternative for swing restoration buffers, a swing restoration transistor used to improve the output swing of F1 and F2 gates. F1 and F2 are universal gates similar to NAND and NOR gates as shown in Fig. 3. Using this technique full swing output can be achieved at the expense of increasing transistor count compared tomodified- GDI gates, but when compared to CMOS and PTL implementations FS gates uses fewer transistors hence power consumption and area of VLSI circuits are reduced.

    Fig. 6: Basic FS-GDI cell


    In this the Full-Swing GDI technique is used to realize the circuits required todesign the ALU as follows:

        1. 2×1 Multiplexer

          A multiplexer is a digital switch chooses the output form several inputs basedon a select signal, shown in figure. 2×1 multiplexer consists of 6 transistors.

          Fig. 7: FS-GDI Based 2X1 MUX

        2. 4×1 Multiplexer

          Using the previously discussed 2×1 multiplexer a 4×1 multiplexer realized as shown in Fig. consists only of 16 transistors.

          Fig. 8: FS-GDI Based 4X1 MUX

        3. Full Adder

          A full adder is a combinational circuit that performs the arithmetic sum of three input bits. It consists of three inputs and two outputs. The adder cell used in this design realized using full-swing AND, OR, and XOR gates. This design was chosen among 3 designs to maintain low power operation, it has the lowest delay among the three designs, and with some modifications it performs the logic operations as well, these modifications will save large area of the ALU design.

          Fig. 9: FS-GDI Based Full Adder

        4. Arithmetic Logic Unit

    An ALU is a key component in the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of any computer; even the simplest microprocessors contain one. It performs arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, increment, decrement and logic operations such as AND, OR, XOR and XNOR. The proposed design of the 4-Bit ALU consists of 4 stages, each stage is an 1-Bit ALU realized using the previously discussed circuitsas follows. Each 1-Bit ALU stage consists of two 2×1 multiplexers, two 4×1 multiplexers and one full adder cell, this design requires 48 transistors as depicted in Fig. Any desired operation can be performed based on the selection line S0, S1, S2 code; Table II summarizes the truth table of the proposed ALU.

    Fig. 10: FS-GDI Based 1-Bit ALU


    Fig. 11: Schematic for FS-GDI based FULL ADDER

    Fig. 12: FS-GDI based FULL ADDER Output Waveform

    Fig. 13: Schematic for FS-GDI based LOGIC BLOCKS

    Fig. 14: FS-GDI based LOGIC BLOCKS Output Waveform

    Fig. 15: Schematic for FS-GDI based 2X1 MULTIPLEXER

    Fig. 16: FS-GDI based 2X1 MULTIPLEXER Output Waveform

    Fig. 17: Schematic for FS-GDI based 4X1 MULTIPLEXER

    Fig. 18: FS-GDI based 4X1 MULTIPLEXER Output Waveform

    Fig. 19: Schematic for FS-GDI based 1 BIT ALU

    Fig. 20:FS-GDI based 1 BIT ALU Output Waveform

    Fig. 21: Schematic for FS-GDI based 8 BIT ALU

    Fig. 22: FS-GDI based 8 BIT ALU Output Waveform

    Fig. 23: Layout for FS-GDI based 2X1 MULTIPLEXER

    Fig. 24: Layout for FS-GDI based 4X1 MULTIPLEXER

    Fig. 25: Layout for FS-GDI based FULL ADDER

    Fig. 26: Layout for FS-GDI based LOGIC BLOCKS

    Table 1: Comparison of Different Techniques 250nm Technology


    Number of transistors

    Power consumption


    Power delay product

























    0.04638 x10-12






    0.03383 x10-12



    Table 2: Comparison of Different Techniques for 90nm Technology


    Number of transistors

    Power consumption


    Power delay product


















    110.58 x10-12


















This work presents an 8-Bit ALU designed in TSMC 90nm CMOS process using the GDI, Modified GDI, Full-Swing GDI technique, Transmission Gate technique and simulated using the Tanner EDA tool. Simulation results showed an advantage of the proposed ALU design in terms of power consumption and transistor count, while maintaining Full-Swing Operation and as well as Transmission Gate. The proposed FS-GDI provide better results compare to existing techniques. It consists of 448 transistors and operates under 5V supply voltage.


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Ch. Shivaji, M. Tech (NITJ) working as Assistant Professor in ECE department of N S Raju Institute of Technology having 3 years of Teaching experience with knowledge of Micro wave, Optical Communication and Wireless Sensor Network

Gunnabathula Harsha Priya, Studying B. Tech in Electronics

& Communication Engineering at N S Raju Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam.

Gelli Veera Venkata Vamsi, Studying B. Tech in Electronics

& Communication Engineering at N S Raju Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam.

Kodukula Gayathri Devi,

Studying B. Tech in Electronics

& Communication Engineering at N S Raju Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam.

Jeeru Roja Ramani, Studying

B. Tech in Electronics & Communication Engineering at N S Raju Institute of Technology, Visakhapatnam.

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