Performance of High Density Concrete with Iron Ores and Alumino Thermit Portion, As A Radioactive Barrier

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Performance of High Density Concrete with Iron Ores and Alumino Thermit Portion, As A Radioactive Barrier

Prem Singh Rathore M.Tech. (Structure) Integral University Lucknow, India

Dr. Sabih Ahmad

(Associate Professor) Department of Civil Engineering Integral University

Lucknow, India.

S.M.A Husain

(Assistant Professor) Department of Civil Engineering Integral University

Lucknow, India.

Prof. Syed Aqeel Ahmad

H.O.D

Department of Civil Engineering Integral University Lucknow, India.

Abstract High density concrete is widely used in railway, crane counter weight, radiation shielding in nuclear plants or other radiation related application and medical establishment. The aim of this study is to increase the density of concrete and accomplish it by using iron ores, obtain form iron queries as aggregates and thermite portion. The traditional concrete ag- gregates were replaced by iron ores aggregates in amount of 100% . Physical and mechanical properties (densities C.S., T.S., Freeze- Thaw resistance were determined).

The aggregates of concrete plays an essential role in modi- fying concrete properties and physical-mechanical properties of concrete. On its shielding properties; the attenuation meas- urement will perform by using GAMMA SPECTOMETER SCINTILLATION DETECTOR (of Nal) and finds shielding factors (HVL-half value layer, TVL-tenth value layer) as well as attenuation coefficient (µ).

KeywordsIron ores, radioactive barrier, concrete shielding, tomography, structurix D.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    High density concrete consist of concrete with den- sity higher than normal (i.e. 2300 kg/m3 to 2550 kg/m3). HDC is used for special purposes such as radiation shielding, counter weights, safe walls safe, roofs and trading cost for space saving.

    Concrete is most widely used material for reactor shielding due to its cheapness and satisfactory mechanical properties. The aggregates components of concrete that con- tains mixture of many heavy metal (like free iron) plays an important role in improving concrete shielding properties. The density of heavy weight concrete is based on the proper- ties of component and the S.G. of aggregates.

    High density concrete is a concrete having density in the range of 6000 to 6400 kg/m3 is also known as heavy weight concrete. Due to better shielding it protect from harm- ful radiation like X-Rays, – Rays, Neutrons.

    Concrete with respect to specific gravity higher than 2600 kg/m3 are called heavy weight concrete and high densi- ty aggregates with respect to S.G. higher than 3000 kg/m3 are called heavy weight aggregates. S.G. is the ratio of the densi-

    ty of substance to the density of reference substance or it is the ratio of mass of substance to the mass of reference sub- stance for the same given volume.

    Local Hematite Stone were used as aggregates to produce HDC for application in X and gamma Shielding concrete cubes sample (150*150*150) containing Hematite as a coarse aggregate Prepared by changing mix ratio, w/c ratio and types of fine aggregate The concrete specimen of size

    100*100*100 also will form to pass max. radiation through own self with reference to distance( Inverse Square Law).

  2. METHODOLOGY

  1. Material Used-

    1. Aggregates:- High density Concrete (HDC), is achieved by using high-density aggregates usually iron oxides. The most important part of HDC aggre- gates is that the grading should be constant and that a workable grading limit be agreed on with the sup- plier. The chemical properties of all high-density aggregates should be evaluated before use in high alkaline environments as found in cement pastes, long term durability such as alkali-aggregate reac- tivity, Sulphate and Chloride attack and other impu- rities. The cost of HDC increases with density but not necessary in direct proportion. Aggregates should be selected for their shape free of flat or elongated, maximum density, workability, and cast. The grading of the coarse aggregate should be uni- formly graded between 10 mm and 20 mm. as grade 1 and 4.75 mm &10 mm as grade 2.

    2. Natural Aggregate:- Different parts of natural high-density aggregates which can be used for high density concrete (HDC) as Iron ores.

    3. Man-made Aggregate :- To achieve concrete densi- ties above 6000 Kg/M3 man-made of synthetic mate- rial such as ferrosilin slag, steel or lead shot can be used. Overall HDC are used Barite, Ferrophospho-

    rus, Limonite, Hematite, Ilmenite, Magnetite, Geo- thite, Steel punching, Steel shots.

    1. Cements:- if alkali-reactive constituents are present in the aggregates cements with low alkali contents or a suitable not having more that 0.6 & Na20 may be used with a potentially alkali-reactive aggregate such as lead shot. When lad shot is used high alumi- na cement (HAC) must be used as it reduces the chemical reactivity of lead in high alkaline condi- tion. Deleterious expansion can be prevented by us- ing alkali-reactive aggregate (Lead shot) and High alkali cements with adding extenders.

      1. Chemical Composition :-

        Compounds % (by weight)

        CaO 60.720

        Si02 18.680

        A1203 4.990

        MgO 4.560

        Lime 4.400

        Fe203 3.020

        S03 2.860

        Loss of ignition 2.450

        K20 1.680

        Na2Oekv 1.220

        Na20 0.110

        Cr 0.004

      2. Properties :

      Compressive strength (MPa):

      days 14

      days 27

      28 days 51

      Setting time (min) 200

      Fineness (m2/kg) 330

      Bulk density(kg/m3) 1200

    2. Admixtures:-Super plasticizers are beneficial in re- ducing water to minimize bleeding and maintain a cohesive mix that has minimum segregation. Water- reducing admixtures as it will increase concrete density by reducing the amount of water. Water is the material used in HDC with the lowest density. Shrinkage- reducing admixtures as it ensure dense, crack-free concrete used for radiation- shielding concrete. One of the widely used super plasticizers has a Na20 of about 5% and if added at 1% of ce- ment to the concrete. Lithium based compounds can be used with lead shot to control the alkali reactivi- ty.

    Property of Concrete/Aggregate

    1. Neutrons shielding property:- Example-Radiation Shielding Concrete.

      The shielding properties of this concrete against is being used to build bunkers, mazes and doors in medical accelerator. The objective was to character- ize the material behavior against neutrons, as test al- ternative mixings including born compounds in an effort to improve neutron shielding efficiency. The original mix which includes a high fraction magnet- ite, was then modified by adding different propor-

      tion of anhydrous borax (Na2B4O7).

      Properties of High Density Aggregates and Con- crete.

      Ferrophosphorus- density (kg/m3)-4080-5290

      Steel punchings or shot- density (kg/m3) – 4650- 6090

  2. SAMPLE CASTING:-

    Mixing, Curing, testing of specimen

    The material were placed in the mixer with capacity of

    56

    dm3 in the following sequence:-

      1. Material were initially dry mixed for 2 min.

      2. Approximately, 80% of the mixing water was added and there the mixer was started.

      3. After 1.5 min of mixing, the rest of the mixing. wa- ter was added to the running mixer in a gradual manner.

      4. All batches were mixed for a total time of 5 min.

      5. In order to prevent fresh concrete from segregation, the mixing duration was kept as low as possible.

      6. All concrete 3 specimens were cast in three layers into 150x150x150 mm cubic steel moulds: each lay- er consolidated using a vibrating table.

      7. After casting, concrete specimens were covered with plastic membrane to avoid water evaporation and thereafter kept in the laboratory for 24 hrs at ambient temperature.

      8. After demoulding, concrete specimens were sub- merged into water tank until the time of testing.

    Quality Control

    Production, Placing, Compaction:- Standard batching procedures can be used for naturally occurring ag- gregates such as Barytes and Magnetite to allow for the in- crease in aggregates relative density. It is sometimes neces- sary to use smaller drum mixers approximately 0.5m3 and smaller, for lead shot. Normal batching and handling equip- ment can be used but great care should be taken not to over- load the equipment as HDC is much denser. Batching times will take longer per cubic metre. But individual batch mixing times should be similar to those for standards aggregates.

    The slump for high-density aggregates mixtures should normally be between 40 and 75 mm. it is far more susceptible to variations in quality due to improper handling. Concrete should be placed in layers not more that 30 mm thick.

    The concrete should be free of segregation and voids. Higher frequencies vibration causes segregation of high-density aggregates by settlement i.e large aggregate migrate to the bottom to the element. The area radius of ac- tion of vibrators used in HDC is less effective.

  3. SAMPLE TESTING :

Radiographic Evaluation of Concrete

  1. Radiations (-rays) characteristic –

    Gamma Rays –

    1. Wave length (Short) – 0.005 A0 (Angstroms) to 05 A0

    2. Frequency-more than 1019 Hz.

    3. Velocity- V. of light- (3.108 m/s)

    4. Penetration – can even pass through 30 cm thick

    5. Deflection – Iron no affect electric and magnetic field because of no charge or mass.

    6. Energy – high energy EM radiation, energy greater than 100 Kev.

  2. Principle of radiographic testing –

    It is based on the principle that radiation is observed and scattered as it passed through an object. If there are variations in thickness or density in an object more are less radiation passes through and affects the film exposure flaws shows up on the film.

  3. Shielding Property

Radiations (, , ), particles can be blocked by sheet of aluminum, – rays requires several inches of lead, concrete or steel to be stop.

  • Lead Shielding –

It reduces the intensity of radiation depending on the thickness. This is an experimental reaction with gradually diminishing effect as equal slices of shielding material are added. A quantity knows as halving thickness is used to calculate this, halving thickness of lead is 1 cm. which means the intensity of gamma radiation will reduce by 50% by passing through 1 cm. of lead.

  1. 2.0 cm. thick reduces rays to 1/4 of their original intensity (1/2) multiplied by itself 2 times)

  2. 3.0 cm. of lead reduces rays to 1/8 of their original intensity (1/2) multiplied by itself 3 times)

Halving thickness (cm) Density (g/cm3) mass (g/cm2)

Lead 1.0

11.3

12

Steel 2.5

7.86

20

Concrete 6.1

3.33

20

  • Concrete Shielding –

It can be used to shield against both neutrons rays. It is composed of a mixture of cement (13%), water (7%), aggregates (80%). OPC is referred to as light & has density of about 2.2-2.4 g/cm3. Heavy concerts have densities ranging from about 3 to 6 g/cm3. Ferro phosphorus ore aggregate and limonite mixture have been used because of their greater den- sities and higher water content. The barium sulphate ore aggregate (barite) is also use to form heavy con- crete. These concrete contain boron for neutron ab- sorption and hydrogen for neutron attenuation. The barite ore is also a good gamma attenuator.

The thermal neutron absorption properties of con- crete can be greatly enhanced by the addition of bo- ron compound. Hydrogen in fixed water (hydrated) from and free water (in the pores) in concrete serves has a good neutron shield. Initially the free water content is about 3% by wt. The water may be lost at ambient temperature by evaporation. To minimize evaporative loss, design criteria limit of ambient

temp, is 149°( for photons shield) 71°C (for neutron shield), max internal temperature for photons shield is 171°C and 88°C for neutron shield.

    1. RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION &

      MEASUREMENT :-

      • Examination with projector & substance:-

        1. Projector Used:- SENTINEL 880 Delta (other Elite, omega) the patented device body consist of a titanium 'S' tube and cast depleted uranium (DU) shield contained within 300 series stainless steel tube with stainless steel discs welded at each end forming a cylinder shape housing. The discs are re- cessed to provide protection for the rear mounted outlet part. It radiographic -rays) inspect to mate- rials and structure in the density range of about 2.71 g/cm3 to 8.53 g/cm3

        2. Specification of projector:- 880 Delta

          • Dimension :-

            L = 33.8 cm

            W = 19.1 cm

            H = 22.9 cm

            Wt = 23.6 kg

          • Activity of Depleted uranium Shield :- Delta: 5.4 mci (200 mbg)

            Isotope

            Ir192

            Co60

            Energy Range

            206-612kev

            1.17-1.33 Mev

            Half-life

            74 days

            (0.2301 year)

            5.27 years.

            Steel work thick

            12.63 mm

            50-150 mm.

            Device source max.

            150 ci

            65 mci

            Capacity

            (5.55 TBg)

            (2.40 GBg)

            Operating temp.

            40 0C to 149 0C

            Isotope

            Ir192

            Co60

            Energy Range

            206-612kev

            1.17-1.33 Mev

            Half-life

            74 days

            (0.2301 year)

            5.27 years.

            Steel work thick

            12.63 mm

            50-150 mm.

            Device source max.

            150 ci

            65 mci

            Capacity

            (5.55 TBg)

            (2.40 GBg)

            Operating temp.

            40 0C to 149 0C

        3. Specification of Radioactive Substance:-

      • Specimen Tomography:-It is Application of gam- ma rays transmission in studies of water vertical as- cending infiltration sample of concrete. N.D.T. i.e. ultrasonic pulse velocity, pulse echo, radioactive tests, radar test, acoustic emission but are used to de- termine the defects of concrete.

        In tomography after a number of profile of narrow beam transmission are obtained at different orientations around a sample such measurement total linear attenuation coefficient of – rays along the path of the ray. Let if-

        Ni Number of -ray photons incident up- on sample within specified time interval

        N-Corresponding number of photons exist- ing the sample then exp. for. mono energetic -ray bean.

        linear attenuation coefficient. ds- Element distance along the ray.

        The linear attenuation. coefficient is directly related to the mass attenuation. coefficient (cm2/g) through the density (g/cm3) at material. The attenuation equation for a gamma ray beam passing through the concrete, givs the relation between mass attenua- tion.

        Coefficients-

      • Measurements of radiations mainly can done by two ways.

      1. Inverse Square Law:- In radiographic inspection, the radiation spreads out as it travels away from the gamma source. Therefore the intensity of radiation follows Newton's Inverse square Law.

        This law accounts for the facts that the in- tensity of radiation becomes weaker as it spreads out from the source since the same about of radia- tion becomes spread over a large area. The intensi- ty is inversely proportional to the distance from the source.

        1. Film density Exposure Calculation:-

          At E1 10 mm steel plate ( for 't' time) pass- get FD1

          At E2 10 mm steel plate (for '2t' time) pass+ Spec- imenget FD2

          where E1- Exposure 1 E2- Exposure 2

          FD1- Film density at exposure 1 FD2- Film density at exposure 2

        2. Incident Radiation & time :-

          Reciprocity Law- where C1- Current 1

          C2- Current 2

          T1- Time 1 at C1 T2- Time 2 at C2

        3. Indication depth:-

        Where, D = Defect depth from the film side of the part

        i.e. The energy twice as for from the source is spread over four times the area; hence one-fourth the inten-

        sity.

        I1 Intensity 1 at D1 I2 Intensity 2 at D2

        D1 Dis. 1 from source

        D2 Dis. 2 from source

      2. Radioactive Exposure of Film:-In examination to measure exposure of film irradiated, lower energy photons are attenuated preferentially by differing ab- sorber material (black & white emulsion) This prop- erty is used in film dosimetry to identify the energy of radiation to which the dosimeter was exposed. The film bodge dosimeter is used for monitoring cumulative radiation dose due to ionizing radiation.

      t = Thickness of material

      SD = Shift of defect image on the film. SM = Shift of source marker on the film.

    2. Safer, Recommended limits of radiations

      The exposures of individuals should not exceed the limits recommended for the appropriate cir- cumstances.

      1. Public exposure

        ICRP (International Commission on Radiologi- cal Protection) recommends that the maximum permissible dose for occupational exposure should be 20mSv per year averaged over five years (i.e. 100 mSv in 5 year) with a maximum of 50 mSv in any one year. For public exposure

        1 mSv per year averaged over five year is the limit (excluded medical exposure).

      2. Medical exposure-

      w.r.t.

      1. Aggregate Analysis ( for Iron Ore Aggregate)

        Specimen No. 3 & 4 ( 150x 150×150) and Specimen No. 5 & 6 (100 x100 x100) 16.103 Kg

        20 mm – 25 mm 2.44 Kg

        10 mm – 20 mm 5.915 Kg

        4.75 mm – 10 mm 7.748 Kg

        0.150 mm-4.75 mm 1.979 Kg

      2. Proportion of Ingredient for M25 w.r.t. specimen No. 3 & 4.

      C.A. 16.103 Kg ( I.O.A.)

      F.A. 8 Kg

      [1.979 Kg ( IOA) + 2.254

      Kg ( 7% Portion) +3.766 Kg ( coarse Sand)] C 8 Kg

      W/C Ratio 0.42

      (a)

      Abdominal Region

      10 mSv

      for 3 year

      (CT-Abdomen & Pelvis)

      (b)

      Bone

      1.5mSv

      for 6 months

      (spine x-ray)

      (c)

      Central Nervous system

      2.0mSv

      for 8 month

      (CT-Head)

      6mSv

      for 2 year

      (CT-Spine)

      (d)

      Chest

      7mSv

      for 2 year

      (CT-Chest)

      1.5mSv

      for 6 months

      (CT-Lungs)

      0.1mSv

      for 10 days

      (Chest x-ray)

      (e)

      Dental

      0.005mSv

      for 1 day

      (Dental x-ray)

      (f)

      Heart

      12mSv

      for 4 year

      (CT angi- ography)

      3 mSv

      for 1 year

      (CT Cardiac)

      (g)

      Imagine (M/F)

      .001mSv

      for 3 hours

      (Bone Densi- tometry) DEXA

      0.4mSv

      for 7 weeks

      (Memography)

      (a)

      Abdominal Region

      10 mSv

      for 3 year

      (CT-Abdomen & Pelvis)

      (b)

      Bone

      1.5mSv

      for 6 months

      (spine x-ray)

      (c)

      Central Nervous system

      2.0mSv

      for 8 month

      (CT-Head)

      6mSv

      for 2 year

      (CT-Spine)

      (d)

      Chest

      7mSv

      for 2 year

      (CT-Chest)

      1.5mSv

      for 6 months

      (CT-Lungs)

      0.1mSv

      for 10 days

      (Chest x-ray)

      (e)

      Dental

      0.005mSv

      for 1 day

      (Dental x-ray)

      (f)

      Heart

      12mSv

      for 4 year

      (CT angi- ography)

      3 mSv

      for 1 year

      (CT Cardiac)

      (g)

      Imagine (M/F)

      .001mSv

      for 3 hours

      (Bone Densi- tometry) DEXA

      0.4mSv

      for 7 weeks

      (Memography)

      After demoulding all cube specimen No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6 are putted into water tank for water curing up to 28 days for spec- imen No. 1 2 and 15 days for specimen No. 3, 4, 5 & 6.

      ii. Density Performance :-

      We have achieved weight of all cube specimen

      Specimen detail

      Sp.

      No.

      Weight (Kg)

      Density (Kg/m3)

      Specimen cube of size 150x150x150m

      1

      11.1055

      3290.52

      2

      10.625

      3148.12

      3

      10.35

      3066.67

      4

      9.98

      2957.04

      Specimen cube (size (100mmx100 mmx100mm)

      5

      2.95 Kg

      2950

      6

      3.05 Kg

      3050

      Specimen detail

      Sp.

      No.

      Weight (Kg)

      Density (Kg/m3)

      Specimen cube of size 150x150x150m

      1

      11.1055

      3290.52

      2

      10.625

      3148.12

      3

      10.35

      3066.67

      4

      9.98

      2957.04

      Specimen cube (size (100mmx100 mmx100mm)

      5

      2.95 Kg

      2950

      6

      3.05 Kg

      3050

      w.r.t. completion period of curing 28 days ( for specimen No. 1 & 2 and 15 days (for specimen No. 3,4,5 & 6) are as under :-

    3. EXPERIMENT TO HIGH DENSITY :-

      1. Casting of Specimen Cubes :- Four concrete Cubes of grade M25 ( 150x150x150) are casted to check radioactive gamma ray attenuating property for different job thickness (100mm, 150 mm, 300 mm, 600 mm w.r.t. following siew analysis and proportion of ingrediants.

        1. Aggregate siew analysis ( for Iron ores)

          w.r.t. Specimen block No. 1 & 2.

          10 mm – 20 mm 11.183 Kg.

          4.75 mm – 10 mm 1.892 Kg

          0.150 mm – 4.75 mm 1.833 Kg

        2. Proportion of ingredients ( for M25)

      w.r.t. specimen block No. 1 & 2

      C.A. 13.075 Kg

      F.A. 6.54 Kg

      [1.833 Kg ( (I.O.A) + 1.569

      Kg ( 6% Portion) + 3.138 Kg (Coarse Sand)]

      C 6.54 Kg

      W/C Ratio 0.40

      As we know that density reaches beyond 2425 Kg/m3(area) into Higher density of concrete. So all cube specimen ex- presses higher density of concrete.

    4. EXPERIMENT TO CONCRETE AS RADIOACTIVE

      BARRIER

      1. Optimum Image D-Family Quality

      2. Technal Specification

        1. Technological Axis of STRUCTURIX D fami-

          ly

        2. Characteristics w.r.t. Class of film used

        3. Sensitometric Curve & Relative Exposure Factor

      3. Exposure Theory

        1. Data used in the application :-

          S.

          No.

          Radio isotope

          Half Life (Days)

          RHM

          HVT material (cm)

          Lead

          Steel

          Concrete

          1

          Ir, 192

          74

          0.518

          0.24

          0.92

          2.98

          2

          Co-60

          5.3×35

          = 1934.5

          1.332

          1

          1.66

          5.2

        2. Current Activity :- It is an exponential function and time and is calculated by expression in equa- tion

        3. Exposure Time for Radioactive Shot :- Exposure time for radiography shot is commonly evaluated by expression –

          t time ( in minutes)

          F.F. Film Factor

          SFD Source to film distance (cm) x Specimen Thickness

          RHM Roentgen per hour per curi

          at 1 m from given radio- isotope source.

          A Current activity

        4. Exposure Diagram (Ir 192, Co-60)

          For Ir 192

          Linear attenuation coefficient HVL =

          or B2 )

          NX

          (By one block B1

          two block B1 or B2 ) three block B1 or B2 )

          four block B1 or B2 )

          (By

          (By

          (By

          For Co-60

    5. CONCLUSIVE RESULT OF % ATTENUATION.

      1. By Testing Report

        1. B1 or B2(15cm) attenuates 54.33%

        2. B1 + B2(30cm) attenuates 67.64%

        3. B1 x 3 or B2 x3 (45cm) attenuates 67.64+13.31=

          80.95%

        4. B1 x 4 or B2 x 4 (60 cm) attenuates 80.95+13.31

          =94.26%

      2. By Beer Lambort Law

        1. HVL-

          Thickness of block which attenuats 100%

          Thickness of block which attenuates 50% HVL= 31.83 cm (for I.O Concrete)

        2. NX

          Fractional radiation intensity passing through differ-

          ent

          Job thickness

        3. Graph between fractional Intensity & Thickness of Job

    6. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE

      Retention in mass of concrete at elevated concrete Temperature is highly influenced by the type of ag- gregate Such as mass loss is minimal for both car- bonate & siliceous aggregate up to 6000C. and type of aggregate has significant influence on mass loss in concrete beyond 6000C.

      As per thermal diffusivity theory thermal. Conduc- tivity (k) of material will be directly proportional to thermal capacity (.Cp)

      Thermal diffusivity

      Thermal conductivity

      Thermal capacity.

      Density of material

      Specific heat of materi- al

      As we are using thermit portion (6-7%) in concrete preparation, which is a pyrotechnic composition of metal oxides (FeO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4) and rich iron ore in form of aggregate and formation of free ferum parts during thermal reaction in thermit portion in- creases metallic property of concrete blocks. So thermal conductivity going to increase, therefore keeping under 1000C to the block 1 and 3 up to 1

      hour gains, slightly increase in their weight. Block 1 gains 11.1065 Kg and Block 3 gains 10.3505 Kg.

      We achieved 0.008% density by block 1 and 0.004% by block 3 more.

    7. CONCLUSIONS-

Based on the present experimental investigation, the following conclusions are drawn.

  1. Concrete cube specimen (of M25) B1 and B2 of size. 150mmX150mmX150mm. casted with analysis of ingredients. As shown below

    Iron ore Agg 10mm-20mm 42.76%

    4.75mm-10mm 7.24%

    0.150 mm-4.75 7.00%

    A.T Portion 6%

    Coarse Sand 12%

    Cement 25%

    W/C Ratio 0.40

    Achieved own density by B1 is 3290.52 Kg/M3 and by B2 is 3148.12 Kg/m3 (highly dense concrete).

  2. Concrete cube specimen (of M25) B3, B4 and B5, B6 of size (150mmX150mmX150mm) and

    100mmX100mmX100mm. respectively casted with ingredients analysis as per shown as-

    Iron ore Agg 20mm-25mm 7.6%

    10mm-20mm 18.43%

    4.75mm-10mm 24.13%

    0.150 mm-4.75 6.16%

    A.T Portion 7.02%

    Coarse Sand 11.73%

    Cement 24.91%

    W/C Ratio 0.42

    Achieved own density by B3=3066.67 Kg/M3, B4= 2957.04 Kg/M3, B5=2950 Kg/M3 and B6=3050

    Kg/M3 (highly dense concrete).

  3. As per radiography testing report, for comparative assessment of % attenuation w.r.t normal concrete of grade M25 is higher as per following.

    For Block 1 or 2 54.33% (Job thickness

    150 mm)

    Block 3 or 4 35.48% (Job thickness

    150mm) Block 5 or 6 43.82% (Job thickness

    100mm) (w.r.t normal concrete block of job thickness 150 mm)

  4. With reference to Sensitometric Curve, double block of B1 or B2 (i.e. cube thickness 300 mm) attenuates rays 67.64% more than normal concrete block of same grade which is 13.31% more than single blocks. Similarly triple blocks of B1 or B2 (i.e. Job thickness 450mm) attenuates (67.64+13.31)

    =80.95% more and Job thickness 60cm (4 nor block of B1 or B2 ) attenuates (80.90+13.31)= 94.26% more.

  5. Under comparative study by Beer Lambert Law dif- ferent job thickness attenuates original intensity of radioactive substance (Co-60 of 23 curi) as per fol- lowing.

    Job thickness % attenuates ray.

    150 mm 27.91%

    300mm 48.00%

    450mm 62.52%

    600mm 72.96%

  6. Cube specimen no 1 and 3 in coil test (thermal test) of 1000C up to 1 hour, slightly increases own density similarly 0.008% and 0.004%.

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