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 Total Downloads : 790
 Authors : Manveen Kaur, Sonia
 Paper ID : IJERTV1IS5422
 Volume & Issue : Volume 01, Issue 05 (July 2012)
 Published (First Online): 03082012
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Performance Analysis of Moments of Queue Length Distribution in M/M/1 and M/Er/1 Queues
Manveen Kaur
PIET, Patiala
Sonia
BBSBEC, Fatehgarh Sahib
Abstract
Knowledge of the moments of production and queue lengths are sufficient to carry out a great number of performance evaluation, optimization, and decision support tasks. With the multiple points of view that exist in any queuing system, several measures are necessary in order to specify overall system Quality of service. In this paper, two methods of queue length moment distribution are discussed. Analysis of moments of queue length in M/M/1 and M/Er/1queue models is represented. The first order and second order moments of queue length of these two queuing models are also compared.
Introduction
Queuing theory is used to address number of questions regarding quality of service, which is a major concern of telecommunication of today. Quality is measured in variety of ways, which includes delay in gaining access to information. In various future technologies and faster internet services, based on packet transmission, where packets arrive, wait in various queues, receive service at various points, and exit after some time, packet delays in queues is considered. Performance evaluation of distributed systems and serviceoriented architectures is often based on stochastic models, such as closed queuing networks which are commonly solved by the Mean Value Analysis (MVA) algorithm. However, the MVA is unable to solve models with hundreds or thousands of users accessing services of multiple classes, a configuration that is often useful to predict the performance of real world applications Compared to the MVA algorithm, which is based on a recursive evaluation of mean
queuelengths, MoM (Method of Moments) defines a recursion on higherorder moments of queuelengths that is solved at each step by a linear system of equations. This extends the feasibility of exact methods to a much larger family of multiclass performance models than those that can be solved by the MVA algorithm[8].
Moments of the queue length distribution have an important role in quantitative description of the behaviour of many communication networks modelled in terms of queuing theory [1]. For
instance, Moments of the job size distribution can provide bounds on the mean waiting time. However, approximations based on the first two moments of the
job size distribution cannot be accurate for all types
of distributions. The third moment and other higher moments of the job size distribution have a significant impact on the mean waiting time [2]. Knowledge of the moments of production and queue lengths are sufficient to carry out a great number of performance evaluation, optimization, and decision support tasks. For example, MR models are used to help optimize networks. These models may maximize the performance of a network (as measured by waiting times or inventory levels), minimize the cost of the network (in terms of capacity and cost), and maximize the expected throughput of the network. Control policies may also be defined to reduce production and queue length fluctuations (i.e., minimize the variances) important in situations requiring output predictability such as Justintime manufacturing [3].
In this paper, importance of moments and methods to compute them are illustrated. Along with that analysis of moments of queue length of M/M/1 and M/Er/1with respect to utilization factor are also represented.
Moments of Queue Length Distribution
The moments of a distribution are a set of parameters that summarize various queuing models. Given a random variable X, its first moment about the origin, denoted , is defined to be E[X]. Its second moment about the origin, , is defined as the expected value of the random variable X2, or E[X2]. In general, the rth moment of X about the origin, , is defined as =E[Xr]. The third moment about the mean, , is used to construct a
measure of skewness, which describes whether the probability mass is more to the left or the right of the mean, compared to a normal distribution. The fourth moment about the , is used to construct a measure of peakedness, or kurtosis, which measures the width of a distribution [4].
There are two methods to find moments

The Moment Generating Function (MGF)
MGF M(t) of a random variable X is the exponential generating function of its sequence of moments. It provides the basis of an alternative route to analytical results compared with working directly with probability density functions or cumulative distribution functions. There are particularly simple results for the momentgenerating functions of distributions defined by the weighted sums of random variables. The moment – generating function of a random variable X is
Mx(t)= E[etX]
Wherever this expectation exists. Mx(0) always exists and is equal to 1.
Mx(t) = 1+ + ++ +
Where mn is the nth moment.

Recursion Method
Starting from the basic state transition equations of the queue, we get the alternative method to derive higher moments of queue length instead of taking
derivatives. Moreover, complexity to compute moments is reduced to B2, which is 2B in MGF[7] .
Using this method, the graphical representation of moments of M/M/1 and M/Er/1 with respect to utilization factor is shown.

M/M/1 queuing system
In the M/M/1 queue, the arrival process follows a Poisson process with parameter Âµ and service times are assumed to exponentially distribute with parameter and are independent of the arrival process. It is the simplest Markovian queue that has only a single server and an infinite buffer. In this queue with mean arrival rate and mean service time 1/ , when the offered load = / = < 1, the kth moment M k (k 1) of queue length satisfies [7]
=
Where
Figure1 demonstrates the variation of moments of queue length with the increase of utilization factor as it reaches at higher order.
Figure1 Moments of queue length of M/M/1

M/Er/1 queueing system

The Erlang distribution can be used to model service times with a low coefficient of variation (less than one), but it can also arise naturally. For instance, if a job has to pass, stage by stage, through a series of r independent production stages, where each stage takes a exponentially distributed time.
In an M/Er/1 queue with mean arrival rate and mean service time1/, when the offered load per server =/c< 1, then the kth moment Mk (k 1) of queue length satisfies [7]
=
–
Figure 2 Moments of queue length of M/Er/1 (r=2)
Similarly, figure2 & figure3 illustrates the variation in number of moments of queue length at higher order with respect to Utilization Factor. In addition to this, figure 4 & figure5 compare the first order and second order moments of queue length in these two queuing models.
Figure3 Moments of queue length of M/Er/1 (r=3)
Figure4 Comparing first moments of M/M/1 and M/Er/1
Figure5 Comparing second moments of M/M/1 and M/Er/1
Conclusion
The method of moment (MoM) distribution has been discussed for the performance analysis of various queuing models The basic idea of MoM is to solve queueing models by recursively computing a set of higherorder moments of the stations queue length distributions. The advantage of higherorder moments is that they can be computed efficiently in a recursive manner using a system of linear equations involving normlizing constants. The comparative analysis of moments of queue length in M/M/1 and M/Er/1queue models is represented. The first and second moment of queue length of these two queuing models are also compared with respect to utilization.
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