Performance Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms in the Information Security

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Performance Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms in the Information Security

  1. Thirupalu1

    Research Scholar Dept. of Computer Science S V U CM&CS-Tirupati

    India-517502

    Dr. E. Kesavulu Reddy2 Ph. D, FCSRC (USA) Assistant Professor

    Dept. of Computer Science S V U CM&CS-Tirupati-A.P

    India-517502

    Abstract: Information security is the process of protecting information. It protects its availability, privacy and integrity. The two main characteristics that identify and differentiate one encryption algorithm from another are its ability to secure the protected data against attacks, speed and efficiency. security is the most challenging issue in the world and the various security threats in the cyber security has to be avoided and to give more confidentiality to the users and to enable high integrity and availability of the data. The encryption of the data by using the various data encryption algorithms will provide the additional security to the data being transmitted. This paper mainly focuses on comparative analysis of (AES, DES, 3DES, BLOWFISH, RC4),

    Asymmetric (RSA, DSA, Diffie-Hellman, EI-Gamal, Pailier), Hashing (MD5, MD6, SHA, SHA256) algorithms.

    Keywords: Encryption. Decryption, Data Security, Key size, information security, Symmetric algorithms, Asymmetric Algorithms.

    DES is first block symmetric encryption algorithm published by NIST designed by IBM on 1974. The same key is used for both encryption and decryption; DES uses 64-bit key in terms of 8-bits for error correction and 56-bits as a key but in every byte 1 bit in has been selected as a 'parity' bit, and is not used for encryption mechanism. The 56 bit is permuted into 16 sub- keys each of 48- bit length. It also contains 8 S- boxes and same algorithm is used in reversed for decryption [1]. The implementations of the DES (data encryption standard) algorithm based on hardware are low cost, flexible and efficient encryption solutions.

    Algorithm:

    DES_ Encrypt (X, Y) where E = (L, R) X IP (M)

    1. INTRODUCTION

      The cryptosystems are processing with different types of cryptographic algorithms. These cryptographic algorithms are used for encryption of data and decryption of data using of shared keys or single key.These are fall into two categories i.e. 1. Public key cryptosystem or Asymmetric key cryptosystem.2. Secret key cryptosystem or Symmetric key cryptosystem.

      \For round 1 to 16 do Yi SY (Y, round)

      L L xor F(R, Ki)

      swap (L, R)

    2. LITERATURE SURVEY

      Encryption algorithm plays a vital role, to provide secure communication over the network. Encryption is the fundamental tool for protecting the data. Encryption algorithm converts the data into scrambled form by using the key and only user have the key to decrypt the data The techniques in Security algorithms are Symmetric Algorithms and asymmetric Algorithms.

      1. Symmetric Algorithms

        • D E S

        • 3 D E S

        • BLOWFISH

        • RC5

        • RC6

        • A E S

        • IDEA

        • Homomorphic Encryption

        • DES

      End

      swap (L, R)

      XIP-1(X)

      return X.

      End

      • Triple-DES

        TDES is an enhanced version of DES is based on Feistel structure. The CPU power consumed by TDES is three times more than DES. The 3DES uses a 64 bit plain text with 48 rounds and a Key Length of 168-bits permuted into 16 sub- keys each of 48- bit length. It also contains 8 S- boxes and same algorithm is used in reversed for decryption [2]. Triple DES the algorithm is considered to be practically secure, in spite of having theoretical attacks.

        Algorithm

        For j = 1 to 3

        {

        Cj,0 = IVj

        For i = 1 to nj

        {

        Cj,i = EK3 (DK2 (EK1 (Pj,i Cj,i-1)))

        Output Cj,i

        }

        }

      • Blowfish

        Blowfish algorithm was first introduced in 1993.The Blowfish is highly rated secure variable length key encryption algorithm with different structure and functionality than all other algorithms. Blowfish is a block cipher that uses a 64 bit plain text with 16 rounds, allowing a variable key length, up to 448 bits, permuted into 18 sub- keys each of 32- bit length and can be implemented on 32- or 64-bit processors. It also contains 4 S- boxes and same algorithm is used in reversed for decryption [3].

        Algorithm

        Divide x into two 32-bit lengths : xL, xM For i = 1to 16:

        XL= XL XOR Pi

        xM = F (XL) XOR xM

        Swap XL and xM Next i

        Swap XL and xM (Undo the last swap.) xM = xM XOR P17

        xL = xL XOR P18 then

        Combine XL and xM.

      • RC5

        RC5 was developed in 1994. The key length if RC5 is MAX2040 bit with a block size of 32, 64 or 128. The use of this algorithm shows that it is Secure. The speed of this algorithm is slow. [3]

        Algorithm

        A = A + S[0];

        B = B + S[1];

        for i = 1 to r do

        A = ((A Xor B) <<< B) + S[ 2 * i ]

        B = ((B Xor A) <<< A) + S[ 2 * i + 1]

        Next

      • AES

        AES is a block cipher that uses a 128 bit plain text with variable 10, 12, or 14 rounds and a variable Key Length of 128, 192, 256 bit permuted into 10 sub- keys each of 128, 192, 256 bit length respectively[5].. It only contains a single S- box and same algorithm is used in reversed for decryption. Rijndael's default number of Rounds is dependent on key size i.e. Rounds = key length/32 + 6. Rijndael AES provides great flexibility for implementing based on parallel structure with effective resistance against attacks [3] [4].

        Algorithm

        Cipher (byte [] input, byte [] output)

        {

        byte[4,4] State;

        copy input[] into State[] Add Round Key for (round = 1; round < Nr-1; ++round)

        {

        SubBytes ShiftRowsMixColumns AddRoundKey

        }

        SubBytes ShiftRows AddRoundKey

        copy State[] to output []

        }

        B .Asymmetric Key cryptographic Algorithms

      • RSA

      • DSA

      • Diffie-Hellman

      • ELGAMMAL

      • RSA algorithm

        Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) is a special type of public key cryptography which over the years has reigned supreme as the most widely accepted and implemented general-purpose approach public-key encryption techniques [2]. The RSA algorithm follows a block cipher encryption technique, in which the plaintext and the cipher are integers between 0 and n 1 for some n. A typical size for n is 1024 bits, or 309 decimal digits. That is, n is less than to1024.RSA algorithm has three major steps.

        1. Key generation

        2. Encryption

        3. Decryption Algorithm

        1. Key Generation; KeyGen (p,q)

          Input : Select two prime integers p ,q.

        2. Compute n = p q , (n ) = (p-1)(q-1)

        3. Choose e as exponent then gcd (e, p-1) = 1 4. gcd (e, q-1) = 1

        5. gcd (e, (p-1) (q-1)) = 1

        1. Compute d such that ed =1(mod (n))

        2. Compute d = e-1 (mod (n)) Find a unique value d such that

          (n) divides 5d-1 value —- pi Key Public Key = (n, e).

          Private Key = (n, d). Encryption

          C M E (mod N)

        3. Encrypt the message M C M E (mod N) Decryption

        4. To decrypt the cipher text we have M = Cd (mod n)

        M = Plain Text.

        MD5 (Message Digest5)

        The Message Digest5 (MD5) was developed by Ronald Rivest in 1992 by taking the block sizes as 512 bit and the digest size as 128 bit. The hash function producing the

        128 bit hash value. The MD5 can be used as the best solution to impos the brute force attack to act against the extensive vulnerabilities and to provide excessive security. SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm)

        The Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) is the most prominent hash algorithm used in the cryptographic systems. It uses 160- bit which is also a resemblance of the MD5 algorithm. The SHA-1 was originally developed by the National Security Agency (NSA) to be part of the Digital Signature Algorithm.

      • DSA

        The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) was proposed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in August 1991. DSA, the entropy, secrecy, and uniqueness of the random signature value k is critical [6]. It is so critical that violating any one of those three requirements can reveal the entire private key to an attacker. Using the same value twice (even while keeping k secret), using a predictable value, or leaking even a few bits of k in each of several signatures, is enough to break DSA. [5]

      • Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (D-H)

        DiffieHellman key exchange is a specific method of exchanging cryptographic keys. It is one of the earliest practical examples of key exchange implemented within the field of cryptography. The DiffieHellman key exchange method allows two parties that have no prior knowledge of each other to jointly establish a shared secret key over an insecure communications channel. This key can then be used to encrypt subsequent communications using a symmetric key cipher.

      • EIGamel

        In cryptography, the EI Gammel encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which is based on the DiffieHellman key exchange. It was described by Taher EI Gammel in 1984. EI Gammel encryption is used in the free GNU Privacy Guard software, recent versions of PGP, and other cryptosystems. The Digital Signature Algorithm is a variant of the EIGamel signature scheme, which should not be confused with EI Gammel encryption. EIGamel encryption can be defined over any cyclic group .Its security depends upon the difficulty of a certain problem in related to computing discrete logarithms.

      • TWOFISH

        Bruce Schneier is the person who composed Blowfish and its successor Twofish. The Keys used in this algorithm may be up to 256 bits in length .Twofish is regarded as one of the fastest of its kind, and ideal for use in both hardware and software environments. Twofish is also freely available to anyone who wants to use it. As a result, well find it bundled in encryption programs such as Photo Encrypt, GPG, and the popular open source software [6].

      • IDEA

        IDEA stands for International Data Encryption Algorithm which was proposed by James Massey and Xuejia Lai in 1991. IDEA is considered as best symmetric key algorithm. It accepts 64 bits plain text. The key size is 128 bits. IDEA consists of 8.5 rounds. In IDEA the 64 bits of data is divided into 4 blocks each having size 16 bits. The basic operations are modular, addition, multiplication, and bitwise exclusive OR (XOR) are applied on sub blocks. There are eight and half rounds in IDEA each round consist of different sub keys. Maximum number of keys used for performing different rounds is 52 [7].

      • Homomorphic Encryption

      Homomorphic encryption was a one of encryption technique which allows specific types of computations to be carried out on cipher text. It gives an encrypted result which when decrypted matches the result of operations performed on the plaintext. When the data is transferred to the cloud we use standard encryption methods to secure this data, but when we want to do the calculations on data located on a remote server, it is necessary that the cloud provider has access to the raw data, and then it will decrypt them [8].

    3. RELATIVE WORK

      Comparison of symmetric and asymmetric cryptography with existing vulnerabilities and countermeasures gives us theoretical comparison of symmetric and asymmetric cryptography algorithms [9].compares symmetric and asymmetric cryptography algorithms using parameters key length ,speed , encryption ratio and security attacks[10]. Comparisons DES,3DES and AES algorithms with nine factors key length , cipher type, block size, developed year

      ,cryptanalytic resistance , possible keys, possible Ascii keys and time required to check all possible keys[11] . Comparative study of symmetric and asymmetric cryptography techniques using throughput, key length, tunability, speed, encryption ratio and security attacks [12]. Evaluation of blowfish algorithm based on avalanche effect gives a new performance measuring metric avalanche effect [13].

    4. COMPARISON OF SYMMETRIC AND ASYMMETRIC

      ALGORITHMS

      S.NO

      CHARAC TERISTIC S ALGORIT HM

      BSI ZE BIT S

      KEY LENG TH

      SECUR ITY

      SPEE D

      1

      DES

      64

      56

      Inadequa te

      Very slow

      2

      Blow Fish

      64

      448

      Secure

      Fast

      3

      RC2

      64

      128

      High secure

      Very fast

      4

      RC5

      32,6

      4 or 128

      2040

      Secure

      Slow

      5

      RC6

      128

      128 or 256

      Secure

      Fast

      6

      3DES

      64

      112,16

      8

      InSecure

      Slow

      7

      AES

      128,

      192

      or 256

      128,19

      2 or

      256

      High secure

      Very fast

      8

      RSA

      128

      1024-

      4096

      Secure

      Very slow

      9

      DSA

      256

      192

      Secure

      Fast

      10

      DIffe- Hellman

      In secure

      Slow

      11

      Two Fish

      128

      128,19

      2or 56

      Secure

      Very Fast

      12

      IDEA

      64

      128

      Inadequa te

      Slow

      13

      Elgammel

      Not secure

      Fast

      14

      Homomorp hic Encryption

      Secure

      Fast

      15

      SHA

      512

      160

      Secure

      Slow

      16

      MD5

      512

      128

      Secure

      Slow

      17

      RC4

      40-

      124

      Secure

      Very fast

      Table. I.. Comparison of Symmetric key and asymmetric key Cryptographic Algorithms

      Blowfish is the better than other algorithms in throughput and power consumption [14]. Blowfish encryption algorithm is leading with the security level that they provide and faster encryption speed. Blowfish was replaced by Two fish.RC6 might be observed as interweaving two parallel RC5 encryption Techniques. The RC6 can use an extra multiplication operation but not present in RC5 in order to make the rotation dependent on each bit, and not the least significant few bits [15]. Triple DES has slow performance in terms of power consumption and

      throughput when compared with DES [14] [16]. AES encryption is fast and flexible, it can be implemented on various platforms especially in small devices. AES has been carefully tesed for many security applications [16][17].

      RSA is an asymmetric cryptographic algorithm. Asymmetric means that there are two different keys are used in encryption and decryption process [16]. The RSA algorithm can be used for both public key encryption and digital signatures. Its security is based on the difficulty of factorization of large integers. The main disadvantage of RSA is that it consumes more time to encrypt data. Actually this is disadvantage of asymmetric key algorithms because the use of two asymmetric keys. It provides good level of security but it is slow for encrypting files. The strength of the each encryption algorithm depends upon the key management, type of cryptography, number of keys, number of bits used in a key. Longer the key length and data length more will be the power consumption that will lead to more heat dissipation. So, it is not advisable to use short data sequence and key lengths.

      The DSA is a variant of the EIGamal signature scheme, which should not be confused with EIGamal encryption.

      Table. 2.Experimental results using Crypto ++

      S.NO

      Algorithm

      Megabytes(2^20 bytes) Processed

      Time Taken

      MB/Second

      1

      Blowfish

      256

      3.976

      64.386

      2

      Rijndael (128-bit key)

      256

      4.196

      61.010

      3

      Rijndael (192-bit key)

      256

      4.817

      53.145

      4

      Rijndael (256-bit key)

      256

      5.308

      48.229

      5

      Rijndael

      (128) CTR

      256

      4.436

      57.710

      6

      Rijndael

      (128) OFB

      256

      4.837

      52.925

      7

      Rijndael

      (128) CFB

      256

      5.378

      47.601

      8

      Rijndael

      (128) CBC

      256

      4.617

      55.447

      9

      DES

      128

      5.998

      21.340

      10

      (3DES)DES- XEX3

      128

      6.159

      20.783

      11

      (3DES)DES- EDE3

      64

      6.499

      9.848

      The security of EIGamal depends on the difficulty of a particular problem in related to computing discrete logarithms [18]. Homomorphic encryption was a one of encryption technique which allows specific types of computations to be carried out on cipher text.

      AES algorithm is most efficient in terms of speed, time, and throughput. DES algorithm consumes least encryption time and AES algorithm has least memory usage while

      encryption time difference is very minor in case of AES and DES algorithm. RSA encryption time and memory usage is also very high but output byte is least in case of RSA algorithm.

      The experiment result shows that the memory required for implementation is smallest in blowfish whereas it is largest in RSA. DES and AES require medium size of memory. So the Blowfish is best option smaller size of memory. AES is the more confident, integrity and highest priority for any application. Blowfish consumes the least time amongst all. Blowfish is efficient in software, at least on some software platforms. AES is the best suitable for better cryptographic strength. DES is the best suitable for network bandwidth.

    5. V.EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

      1. Experimental results using Crypto ++

        The experiment are conducted on commonly used cryptographic algorithms based on system parameters Pentium 4 and 2.1 GHZ processor on windows XP compiled C++ code with Microsoft Visual C++.NET 2003to evaluate the execution time for encryption and speed benchmarks [19].

        The result shows that Blowfish and AES have the best performance among others. Compare to both AES the best secure and efficient algorithm with limited key size among the all above algorithms. Finally AES performs highly secure encryption algorithm and accepted with higher key size. The popular secret key algorithms including DES, 3DES, AES (Rijndael), Blowfish, were implemented, and their performance was compared by encrypting input files of varying contents and sizes. The algorithms were implemented in a uniform language (Java), using their standard specifications, and were tested on two different hardware platforms, to compare their performance.

        The performance of the Secret key or Symmetric key algorithms comparing by the encrypting input files with various contents and sizes using Java as common language in two different platforms. The first experiment on P-II 266 MHZ and P-4 2.4 GHZ

        File Size Bytes

        DES

        3DES

        AES

        BF

        20,527

        2

        7

        4

        2

        36,002

        4

        13

        6

        3

        45,911

        5

        17

        8

        4

        59,852

        7

        23

        11

        6

        69,545

        9

        26

        13

        7

        137,325

        17

        51

        26

        14

        158,959

        20

        60

        30

        16

        166,364

        21

        62

        31

        17

        191,383

        24

        72

        36

        19

        232,398

        30

        87

        44

        24

        Average Time

        14

        42

        21

        11

        B/Sec

        7,988

        2,663

        5,320

        10,167

        Table.4.Performance comparison on Symmetric key algorithms

        The observations based on the results shows that Blowfish has a very good performance compared to other algorithms. AES has better performance than 3DES and DES. AES is considered among best secure and efficient algorithm in the above all algorithms [20].

    6. CONCLUSION

We discuss the weakness and strength of asymmetric key algorithms and symmetric key algorithms. Based on survey RC5 and RC4 security is questionable but RC4 faster than RC5. These encryption algorithms AES is more secure, efficient and faster than to all algorithms with allowing 256-bit key sizes and protect against future attacks. Blowfish was replaced by Twofish.

RSA is best Asymmetric key algorithm but it consumes more time for encryption and factorization problem for large Integers in the decryption process.

AUTHORS INFORMATION

I am U.Thirupalu joined as a Research Scholar (PT) in the department of computer science ,S V U CM&CS , Tirupati. I am pursuing PhD under the guidance of Dr.E.kesavulu Reddy in the Dept. of Computer Science, S v u CM&CS, Tirupati.

  1. Show the results of their experiments conducted on P-II 266 MHz with Java.

File Size KB

DES

3DES

AES

BF

20,527

24

72

39

19

36,002

48

123

74

35

45,911

57

158

94

46

59,852

74

202

125

58

69,545

83

243

143

67

137,325

160

461

285

136

158,959

190

543

324

158

166,364

198

569

355

162

191,383

227

655

378

176

232,398

276

799

460

219

Average Time

134

383

228

108

B/Sec

835

292

491

1,036

Table 3. The experiment shows the Comparative execution times (in seconds) of encryption algorithms in ECB mode on a P-II 266 MHz machine.

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  18. AnnapoornaShetty , ShravyaShetty K , Krithika K A Review on Asymmetric Cryptography RSA and ElGamal Algorithm International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering Vol.2, Special Issue 5, October 2014

  19. RFC2828],"Internet Security http://www.faqs.org/ rfcs/rfc2828.html.

  20. Aamer Nadeem et al, "A rformance Comparison of Data Encryption Algorithms", IEEE 2005.

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