Performance Analysis of 5MW Solar PV Grid Connected Power Plant at Shivanasamudram using PV Watts and PV System

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Performance Analysis of 5MW Solar PV Grid Connected Power Plant at Shivanasamudram using PV Watts and PV System

Apoorva R

Dept of Electronics and instrumentation DSCE

Bengaluru,India

Abstract Solar energy in one form or other is the source of nearly all energy on the earth. Humans, like all other animals and plants, rely on the sun for warmth and food. People also harness the suns energy in many other different ways. Photovoltaic is a simple and elegant method of harnessing the suns energy. PV devices are unique in that they directly convert the incident solar radiation into electricity, with no noise, pollution or moving parts, making them robust, reliable and long lasting.The depletion of fossil fuel resource on the world wide based as necessitated and urgent search for alternative energy source to meet up the present day demands. Solar energy being a clean, inexhaustible and environment friendly potential resource among all renewable energy options. But in the demands the combinations of solar and environmental conversion units are now being implemented as grid connected energy system.

The favorable climate conditions of the place called Belakavadi of Mandya district in the state of Karnataka and the recent legislation for utilization of renewable energy sources provide a substantial incentive for installation of photovoltaic power plants. In this paper, the grid connected solar photovoltaic power plant established by Karnataka Power Corporation Limited, is presented, and its performance is evaluated. The photovoltaic power plant has a solar radiation of

    1. kWh/sq.mt/day spread over 25 Acres of land. Operating module temperature varies from 15 to 40 degree centigrade, with a tilt angle of module 15 degree and guaranteed energy generated is 8.3224MU/Annum with 19% CUF. The plant has been in operation since 2012. The power plant is suitably monitored during 7 Months, and the performance ratio and the various power losses (temperature, soiling, internal, network, power electronics, grid availability and interconnection) are calculated. The final yield (YF) ranged from 1.96 to 5.07 h/d, and the performance ratio (PR) ranged from 62to 80%, giving an annual PR of 77.36%.

      Keywords- solar energy; grid connected; SPV system; photovoltaic; solar radiation;

      1. INTRODUCTION

        Photovoltaic is the field of technology and research related to the devices which directly convert sunlight into electricity. The solar cell is the elementary building block of the photovoltaic technology. Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials, such as silicon. One of the properties of semiconductors that makes them most useful is

        that their conductivity may easily be modified by introducing impurities into their crystal lattice.

        Photovoltaics offer consumers the ability to generate electricity in a clean, quiet and reliable way. Photovoltaic systems are comprised of photovoltaic cells, devices that convert light energy directly into electricity. It is anticipated that photovoltaic systems will experience an enormous increase in the decades to come. However, a successful integration of solar energy technologies into the existing energy structure depends also on a detailed knowledge of the solar resource. But to note it is essential to state the amount of literature on solar energy, the solar energy system and PV grid connected system is enormous. Grid interconnection of photovoltaic (PV) power generation system has the advantage of more effective utilization of generated power. However, the technical requirements from both the utility power system grid side and the PV system side need to be satisfied to ensure the safety of the PV installer and the reliability of the utility grid.

        1. PV System Types and Their Components

          PV systems can be divided into two categories: Grid- connected PV Systems and Stand-alone PV Systems. Grid- connected PV Systems can further be separated into two categories: those that are Directly Connected to the utility and those that are classified as Bimodal PV Systems. Systems that are Directly Connected to the Utility are without a storage system, and systems that are classified as Bimodal PV Systems do have storage systems as shown in figure 1. Stand- alone PV Systems can be divided into three categories: Without Battery, With Battery, and Hybrid PV Systems. Without Battery systems are Direct-Coupled systems, and With Battery systems may include Self-Regulating DC Systems or AC Systems with a charge controller for the battery and load. Hybrid PV Systems may include systems with wind turbines, with hydro turbines, with diesel generators, or with fuel cells or other sources.

          Fig. 2 PV system types.

        2. Grid connected PV system

        An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high- voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centres, and distribution lines that connect individual customers are power systems energized by photovoltaic panels which are connected to the utility grid. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems consist of Photovoltaic panels, MPPT, solar inverters, power conditioning units and grid connection equipment as shown in figure 2. Unlike Stand- alone photovoltaic power systems, these systems seldom have batteries. When conditions are right, the grid-connected PV system supplies the excess power, beyond consumption by the connected load to the utility grid. However, the technical requirements from both the utility power system grid side and the PV system side need to be satisfied to ensure the safety of the PV installer and the reliability of the utility grid.

        Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of grid connected solar PV

        system

      2. OBJECTIVES

        The main objectives of this work is to estimate the performance and evolution of grid connected to 5MW solar PV PLANT using PVWATT and PVSYST software in shivanasamudra mandya district of Karnataka. Performance ratio of 5MW solar plant, rating of plant for 25 sq meters of area, annual energy generation from 5MW grid connected SPV system, some theoretical causes for the losses and suggest. some methods which can reduce the losses and improves the overall efficiency of the plant.

      3. SITE AND TECHNICAL DETAILS

        The proposed site is located at Belakavadi village in Shivansamudram project in Malavalli taluk of Mandya district (Survey Nos 369,370 and 371).

        Latitude 12.30 and Longitude 77.160

        Fig. 3 : 5MW Solar Plant Location

        25 acres of land is identified and is taken to possession of KPCL in survey nos. 369,370 and 371 at a distance of at a distance of 20 Kms from Malavalli taluk. No wild life and no archaeological monument exist at the proposed site.

        The site is well connected by rail and road. Mandya is located on Bangalore Mysore highway and nearest airport is located near Bangalore.

        TABLE 1 : Technical Details Of PV Module

        at Shivanasamudram plant.

        Sl. no

        DESCRIPTION

        DETAILS

        1

        Type of SPV module

        Poly crystalline

        2

        PV module power output

        Min 285 Watts 36V

        3

        Total no. of module used

        35840

        4

        No. of Module per MW

        3584

        5

        Array rating

        259.5 KW

        6

        etails of series/parallel combination

        20 Nos. in series 1792 parallel string

        7

        Tilt angle

        130

        8

        Temperature

        Min 15 0C Max 40 0C

      4. METHODOLOGY

        1. PVSyst Software

          PVSyst contains parameters that can be customized based on the solar module to be modeled. In this paper, we will provide details on how to alter specific parameters to deliver an accurate representation of output from sun Edison silvantis modules. Simulation input files can be created from

          measurements of production modules under various conditions of temperature and irradiance. While some manufactures create their own files. These labs measure randomly selected production modules, and then create PAN files using regression analysis techniques.

        2. PVwatts calculator

        Months

        PVSyst Energy (DC)

        MWh

        Measured Energy (DC)

        MWh

        PVSyst Energy (AC)

        MWh

        NREL

        Ener yg(A C)d MWh

        Measured Energy (AC)

        MWh

        January

        1430

        1522.570

        1407

        1,499

        1483.92

        February

        1402

        1534.22

        1380

        1,436

        1489.743

        March

        1526

        1655.36

        1503

        1,592

        1602.728

        April

        1378

        1563.15

        1356

        1,432

        1513.477

        May

        1303

        1387.62

        1281

        1,374

        1347.14

        June

        1096

        1121.92

        1077

        1,204

        1093.966

        July

        1097

        1162.94

        1077

        1,195

        1,173

        August

        1160

        1264.717

        1139

        1,226

        1233.227

        September

        1205

        1183.193

        1185

        1,235

        1153.257

        October

        1165

        1518.9

        1145

        1,253

        1477.769

        November

        1125

        1428.99

        1106

        1,274

        1390.355

        December

        1298

        1361.44

        1277

        1,415

        1327.466

        Months

        PVSyst Energy (DC)

        MWh

        Measured Energy (DC)

        MWh

        PVSyst Energy (AC)

        MWh

        NREL

        Ener yg(A C)d MWh

        Measured Energy (AC)

        MWh

        January

        1430

        1522.570

        1407

        1,499

        1483.92

        February

        1402

        1534.22

        1380

        1,436

        1489.743

        March

        1526

        1655.36

        1503

        1,592

        1602.728

        April

        1378

        1563.15

        1356

        1,432

        1513.477

        May

        1303

        1387.62

        1281

        1,374

        1347.14

        June

        1096

        1121.92

        1077

        1,204

        1093.966

        July

        1097

        1162.94

        1077

        1,195

        1,173

        August

        1160

        1264.717

        1139

        1,226

        1233.227

        September

        1205

        1183.193

        1185

        1,235

        1153.257

        October

        1165

        1518.9

        1145

        1,253

        1477.769

        November

        1125

        1428.99

        1106

        1,274

        1390.355

        December

        1298

        1361.44

        1277

        1,415

        1327.466

        NREls PVWatts calculates the energy production of grid connected PV energy systems. This service estimates the performance of hypothetical residential and small commercial PV installations. PVWatts version 5 is more updated to the algorithm that were used in previous versions of the PVWatt web services. Compared with PVWatts version 4,the new update will predict roughly7-9% greater energy output for a fixed tilt system given similar assumptions.

        PVWatts calculator provides also estimated monthly and annual irradiation and energy production in kilowatts and energy values. users can select a location and choose to use default values or their own system parameters for size, electric cost, array type, tilt angle and azimuth angle. In hourly performance data for the selected location

      5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

        Performance evaluation of Grid Connected Solar PV Plant is based on the parametersnamely;

        1. Air temperature (°C),

        2. Relative humidity (%),

        3. Daily solar radiation horizontal (kWh/m2/d) ,

        4. Atmospheric pressure (k Pa),

        5. Wind speed(m/s), Earth temperature ( 0C)

        Chart -1: Comparison of PVSyst and actual energy (DC) generation Month wise during year 2018

        Chart -2: Comparison of PVSyst, PVWatts.

        calculator and actual energy (AC) generation month wise during year 2018

        Table-2 :Monthlyoutputenergyduringyear2016and alsoPVSyst andNRELsoftwaremonthlyaverageenergy output

        Chart -3; comparison of PVSyst and actual efficiency month

        wise during year 2018

        Chart -4; comparison of PVSyst and actual CUF month wise during year 2018

      6. CONCLUSION

        Energy generation of 34460 to 53400 KWhr per day at average of 44600 KWhr whole the year is observed

        which adversely affect the growth of the country because of the following reasons

        During sunny days where the hydro fails and the fossil fuels are gaining the price solar PV plant benefits the human kind with electricity during almost all the seasons in India.

        By International standards in generation of 1KWhr of energy the amount of coal used is 1kg and wasted water is 3.3 litres. Whereas in this plant we are generating 44600 KWhr of energy per day hence 44.6 tonnes of coal is being saved and 147 metrictonnesofwatereveryday. And also in Conventional way of generation i.e. coal generation plants 1kWhr generation produces 1kg of co2 and 1kg of other GHG .this plant is helping in reducing 44 tonnes of co2 and same amount of GHG everyday these dangerous gasses into the environment.

        Payback period for solar power plant will be below 15 years while it has capacity to generate for 25 years hence for the rest of 10 years energy can be used free of cost. I.e. revenue. Every country should have abundant, affordable and reliable energy. During the past few years, renewable energy sources have received greater attention and considerable inputs have been given to develop efficient energy conversion and utilization techniques. Energy Conservation is the Best Reservation for the Future Generation. Todays clean environment is tomorrows safe environment and todays world is yesterdays creation, tomorrows world will be todays conservation. It is the esponsibility of the society to conserve energy, energy resources and protect the environment and SAVE THE MOTHERLAND.

      7. RESULTS

Its clear that the PVSyst shows the smaller energy output when compared with Actual generation. Whereas grid side output NRELshowsmoreaccuratevaluescomparedwith the PVSyst software. Actual Irradiation values are more nearer to PVSYssoftware hence it is more accurate than the

NREL software and measured temperature is greater than the PVSyst output temperature.

Efficiency of the system remains almost same during all the months. And PVSyst efficiency is lesser when compared with the actual SCADAoutput.

ACKNOWLEDGMEN

It is my pleasure to express my sincere gratitude to my guide DR. J S Rajashekar , Professor and Head of the Department in the Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering and Dr. H. Naganagouda, Director, National Training Centre for Solar Technology, KPCL, Bangalore, for his help, suggestion, co-operation and valuable guidance in preparing the industrial training report.

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Meharunnisa, professor and PG coordinator in department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering for her guidance, suggestion, moral support and encouragement.

I am grateful to Dr.C P S Prakash, Principal, Dayananda sagar college of Engineering, Bengaluru, for having supported me in my academic endeavors.

REFERENCES

  1. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Vol- 2, Issue-3 , 2016 ISSN : 2454-1362

  2. EPIA 2016 in order to achieve the governments target of generating 22 GW(20 GW on-grid;2 GWoff-grid) of solar power by 2022

  3. Ebenezer Nyarko Kumi, Abeeku Brew- Hammond. 2013. Design and Analysis of a 1MW Grid- Connected Solar PV System in Ghana. African Technology Policy Studies. Network, ATPS: ATPS WORKING PP No. 78.

  4. Mohamad.A.Eltawol and zhengming zhao.Grid connected photovolatic power plants.technical and potential problems-A review,renewable energy reviews 14,2010,112-129.

  5. Souvik Ganguli and Sunanda Sinha, A Study and Estimation of Grid Quality Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation, Potential in some districts of West Bengal Patiala, Page(s): 522-528, 29-30th Oct., 2009.

  6. A.S. Elhodeiby, H.M.B. Metwally and M.A. Farahat, Performance analysis of 3.6KW Rooftop grid connected photovoltaic system Egypt. International Conference on Energy Systems and Technologies, Cairo, Egypt (ICEST 2011) 11-14 March 2011.

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