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on Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water Sources of Peenya Industrial Area, Bengaluru, India


Call for Papers Engineering Journal, May 2019

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on Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water Sources of Peenya Industrial Area, Bengaluru, India

      1. agaraja Gupta 1 Dr C.Sadashivaiah 2 Dr.G Ranganna 3 Dr. Inayathulla4 H.Chandrashekar5

        1. Asst. Professor Dept. of Civil Engineering,East West Institute of Technology, Bengaluru, India

        2. Principal, Karavali Institute of Technology, Mangaluru, India

        3. Visiting Professor UGC-CAS in F.M, Bangalore University, Bengaluru, India.

        4. Professor, Faculty of Civil Engg,. Bangalore University, Bengaluru, India.

        5. Selection Grade Lecturer, MEI Polytechnic, Bengaluru, India.

Abstract:- Rapid industrialization and urbanization have recently become the need of the hour, for the countries like India. Levels of pollution are increasing beyond the prescribed limits as huge inputs of pollutants from the industries are entering the groundwater sources. The industries that induce the pollutants into the surface and groundwater sources from their activities do not strictly regulate their pollutant to safe limits. Many industries discharge their effluents without any treatment into nearby low lying areas or pass them through unlined drains, which move towards the depressions on land, resulting in the contamination of surface and groundwater sources. The industrial effluents, if not treated to remove or bring pollutant concentration level below standards specified, can pollute and cause serious damage to the water resources. The present study aims at assessing the heavy metal concentrations in water of Peenya industrial area, Bengaluru city. Water samples from 34 subsurface sources(bore wells and hand pumps) and 6 surface sources (tanks) in and around the industrial area were collected in Marcp013 and December 2013. Analytical procedures as described in the Standards were implemented for heavy metal analysis of these water samples and the results were compared with the permissible limits of heavy metals prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards for drinking water(IS 10500), in order to evaluate the possibility of health hazards in the study area. The results reveal that most of the study area is highly polluted, because of the excessive concentration of one or more heavy metals like Nickel, Cadmium, Arsenic and Chromium, iron and copper. It is evident that water samples are non potable as per Bureau of Indian standards (IS 10500).

Keywords: Industrial area, Pollutants, heavy metals, BIS standards, Potability.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    Industrialization has become essential for the economic development of the developing country like India. The major source of water pollution is release the effluents from industries. These effluents percolate into ground or flows into surface sources through damaged effluent storage tanks, damaged chemical storage tanks, damaged pipe lines, channels and damaged lining of drains. Some industries which are not having effluent treatment plants are disposing off their effluents into public sewers or open land in their premises itself. This activity of the industries results in increasing the water pollution. Some industries dump their solid wastes in open fields, which on decomposition releases the lechate which percolates into ground causing ground water pollution or flows into nearby surface sources. The study area considered is one of the

    largest industrial areas of Asia which houses nearly 2100 industries of different types. In the study area considered, people are using contaminated water for various purposes and are facing different types of health problems. Hence, the present study aims in the assessment of water quality and suggesting mitigative measures for the problems related to water pollution.

  2. DETAILS OF STUDY AREA

    2.1 LOCATION

    Bengaluru lies between North Latitude 12°5221 to 13°60 and East Longitude 77°045 to 77°3225 covering an area of approximately 800 sq.km. The study area is Peenya Industrial area, covering about 40 sq.km and lies to the North of Bengaluru on the national highway-

    4 and houses more than2100 industries dominated by chemical, leather, pharmaceutical, plating, polymer engineering and allied industries. This industrial area was established in late 1970s. The area is surrounded by residential houses and private industrial areas.

        1. CLIMATE

          The mean annual rainfall over Bengaluru City is 860mm. Most of it is received during the southwest monsoon between June and September and during northeast monsoon. Statistically September is the wettest and January the driest month of the year. Air temperature varies between a minimum of 14°C and maximum of 34°C. The lowest temperature ever recorded was 7.8°C and the highest 38.9°C. April is the hottest month of the year while December to January marks the coldest period. The lowest relative humidity of 30% is noticed during the month of March and the highest between June and October, reaching up to 85%. Surface winds have seasonal character with westerly components predominating in July and easterly components in October. High-wind-speed averages of about 17 km/h during July under westerly winds and low- wind-speed averages to 8 to 9 km/h between April and October.

        2. Soil, Geology and Drainage

          Geologically, Peenya Industrial Area belongs to Achaean era. Gneiss, granite and dykes are the major rock types, the former two being found in varying depths. The area is nearly evenly flat with only gentle slopes and valleys. Predominantly red soil is found in the area overlaying granite and gneiss from which it is derived. The

          soil is moderately to severely eroded and excessively drained. It varies from gravelly to sandy with some clay here and there.

          The drainage pattern is governed by granitic ridge, running north-northeast to south-southeast almost through the middle of the taluk. The eastern side of the drainage is made up of a network of nallas, flowing generally from west to east with storage tanks along the th, ultimately feeding the South Pinakini river on the western side. The western nallas generally flow from east to west, draining off into Arkavati river.

        3. Topography

          Topography of Bangalore is a ridge trending NNWSSE. The Western part of the area is characterized by a dissected topography with ridges and valleys exposing hard rock, due to occurrence of rapid head-ward erosion of the Arkavathi River and its tributaries. The eastern part of the city is a level plain. The western part of the drainage of this ridge flows and joins the Arkavathi while the Eastern plains drain towards the South Pinakini. The highest point in the city is 924 m above Mean Sea Level near Triveni Engineering Works (Peenya Industrial Area) and the lowest around 800 m near Jevarana Doddi (Bangalore University).

        4. Water bodies

    Prominent water bodies in the vicinity of Peenya Industrial Area comprise of three tanks:Shivapura, Karihobanahalli and Dasarahalli. All the three tanks are lying downstream and are fed by a number of streams running through Peenya Industrial Area.

    Fig.1 shows the location map of the study area

    2.2. Details of Sampling Points

    based on the hazardous ambient environment condition and the activities taking place around it.

    collected, 34 samples are from sub- surface sources (Bore wells and hand pumps, ) and samples from No. 35 to 40 i.e., 6 samples are from surface sources (Tanks in and around the study area).

    -ordinates of each of the forty sampling points are as shown in Table.1

    .

  3. METHODOLOGY

    The samples collectd from the study area are subjected to heavy metal analysis as per the standard methods. The heavy metals analysed include Iron, Copper, Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Cadmium, Arsenic and Chromium. The results obtained are compared with Standard values of permissible limits of heavy metals for drinking water prescribed in IS10500-1991.

  4. RESULTS OF ANALYSES

    The samples collected from both surface and sub- surface sources are analyzed by using standard procedure for water and wastewater (APHA 2002).The results obtained were evaluated in accordance with the norms prescribed under Indian Standard Drinking Water Specification IS 10500. (1991) of Bureau of Indian Standards. The obtained results are tabulated in Tables 2 and 3. The results are graphically represented as shown in Fig.3 to Fig.10

    Fig.1. Location of study area

    Table.1 Locations of water sampling sites

    Sample station

    Latitude

    Longitude

    Sample station

    Latitude

    Longitude

    1

    1302'40.12"N

    77 31' 30.62"E

    21

    13º 01' 23.43"N

    77º 29' 54.29"E

    2

    1302'21.07"N

    77 31' 36.24"E

    22

    13º 01' 63.31"N

    77º 29' 53.75"E

    3

    1302'17.31"N

    77 31' 50.09"E

    23

    13º 01' 00.27"N

    77º 29' 54.49"E

    4

    1301'25.55"N

    77 31' 20.48"E

    24

    13º 01' 11.38"N

    77º 30' 03.09"E

    5

    1302'07.11"N

    77 30'30.56 "E

    25

    13º 06' 58.70"N

    77º 30' 26.73"E

    6

    1302'11.73"N

    77 30'35.64 "E

    26

    13º 02' 25.10"N

    77º 30' 44.40"E

    7

    1259'19.31"N

    77 29' 39.12"E

    27

    13º 02' 20.65"N

    77º 30' 46.40"E

    8

    1259'23.24"N

    77 29'38.03"E

    28

    13º 00' 42.33"N

    77º 30' 30.51"E

    9

    1300'38.78"N

    77 30'24.23"E

    29

    13º 01' 20.14"N

    77º 30' 40.92"E

    10

    1300'30.29"N

    77 30'19.99"E

    30

    13º 00' 48.08"N

    77º 30' 52.52"E

    11

    1300'30.03"N

    77 30'13.78"E

    31

    13º 01' 11.76"N

    77º 31' 28.01"E

    12

    1300'55.45"N

    77 30'17.34"E

    32

    13º 02' 33.79"N

    77º 31' 52.78"E

    13

    1300'50.25"N

    77 30'21.80"E

    33

    13º 02' 14.20"N

    77º 31' 42.01"E

    14

    1300'33.65"N

    77 30'14.86"E

    34

    13º 02' 19.19"N

    77º 31' 39.72"E

    15

    1301'30.49"N

    77 31'05.46"E

    35

    13º 02' 19.33"N

    77º 32' 03.53"E

    16

    1301'25.79"N

    77 31'05.28"E

    36

    13º 02' 25.89"N

    77º 31' 18.24"E

    17

    1302'16.39"N

    77 31'15.33"E

    37

    13º 02' 41.27"N

    77º 31' 16.39"E

    18

    1302'03.43"N

    77 30'44.29"E

    38

    13º 00' 46.51"N

    77º 29' 05.12"E

    19

    1301'39.08"N

    77 31'20.01"E

    39

    12º 59' 20.78"N

    77º 29' 21.11"E

    20

    1300'34.43"N

    77 31'29.93"E

    40

    12º 59' 27.43"N

    77º 29' 35.91"E

    Table. 2 Results of presence of heavy metals in water samples (pre monsoon)

    Sample No.

    Nickel mg/l

    Lead mg/l

    Zinc mg/l

    Cadmium mg/l

    Arsenic mg/l

    Chromium mg/l

    Iron mg/l

    Copper mg/l

    1

    0.02

    ND

    3.335

    0.003

    0.005

    ND

    0.17

    0.006

    2

    0.032

    ND

    7.4

    0.004

    ND

    ND

    0.172

    0.009

    3

    0.001

    ND

    1.335

    0.002

    ND

    ND

    0.09

    0

    4

    0.002

    ND

    1.66

    0.013

    ND

    ND

    0.06

    0.022

    5

    0.019

    ND

    3.85

    0.004

    ND

    ND

    0.164

    0.003

    6

    0.2

    0.05

    9.42

    0.244

    0.13

    150

    3.87

    0.745

    7

    0.02

    ND

    11.4

    0.009

    ND

    ND

    0.4

    0.013

    8

    0.026

    ND

    4.44

    0.001

    ND

    ND

    0.175

    0.006

    9

    0.024

    ND

    4.64

    0.007

    ND

    ND

    0.55

    0.005

    10

    1.678

    ND

    56.09

    0.223

    ND

    ND

    0.313

    0.63

    11

    0.04

    ND

    4.06

    0.001

    ND

    ND

    0.35

    0.005

    12

    0.08

    ND

    1.265

    0.003

    ND

    ND

    0.17

    0.006

    13

    0.075

    ND

    1.123

    0.013

    0.051

    1.9

    3.9

    0.005

    14

    0.07

    ND

    3.3

    0.012

    ND

    ND

    0.244

    0.013

    15

    0.05

    ND

    9.178

    0.014

    ND

    ND

    0.3

    0.02

    16

    0.108

    ND

    10.065

    0.02

    ND

    ND

    0.08

    0.01

    17

    0.04

    ND

    0.905

    0.001

    ND

    ND

    0.075

    0.004

    18

    0.042

    ND

    1.64

    0.009

    ND

    ND

    0.175

    0.007

    19

    0.04

    ND

    11.65

    0.01

    ND

    ND

    0.1

    0.006

    20

    0.06

    ND

    8.24

    0.014

    ND

    ND

    0.27

    0.009

    21

    0.04

    ND

    0.72

    0.02

    ND

    ND

    0.215

    0.009

    22

    0.042

    ND

    1.723

    0.014

    ND

    ND

    0.124

    0.01

    23

    0.09

    ND

    4.55

    0.001

    ND

    ND

    0.289

    0.01

    24

    0.045

    ND

    0.91

    0.04

    ND

    ND

    0.25

    0.011

    25

    0.044

    ND

    1.305

    0.02

    ND

    ND

    0.65

    0.013

    26

    0.05

    ND

    1.8

    0.029

    0.11

    3.4

    3

    0.024

    27

    0.1

    ND

    1.76

    0.02

    0.02

    2

    4.2

    0.03

    28

    0.04

    ND

    0.915

    0.013

    ND

    ND

    0.5

    0.015

    29

    0.05

    ND

    0.86

    0.02

    ND

    ND

    0.601

    0.03

    30

    0.034

    ND

    1.345

    0.016

    ND

    ND

    0.35

    0.029

    31

    0.05

    ND

    1.295

    0.025

    ND

    ND

    0.572

    0.01

    32

    0.04

    ND

    0.82

    0.04

    ND

    ND

    0.605

    0.03

    33

    0.043

    ND

    0.19

    0.002

    ND

    ND

    0.397

    0.009

    34

    0.045

    ND

    1.115

    0.001

    ND

    ND

    0

    0.004

    35

    0.05

    ND

    4.445

    0.006

    0.005

    3

    6

    0.014

    36

    0.053

    ND

    1.3

    0.012

    0.032

    1.4

    4

    0.006

    37

    2.4

    0.03

    24

    0.093

    0.1

    90

    1.08

    0.5

    38

    0.085

    ND

    1.855

    0.1

    0.11

    24.5

    3.7

    0.155

    39

    0.06

    ND

    0.145

    0.025

    0.053

    6.15

    5

    0.023

    40

    0.05

    ND

    0.4

    0.006

    0.23

    4.45

    7

    0.002

    (ND: Not Detected)

    Table. 3 Results of presence of heavy metals in water samples (post monsoon)

    Sample no

    Nickel mg/l

    Lead mg/l

    Zinc mg/l

    Cadmium mg/l

    Arsenic mg/l

    Chromium mg/l

    Iron mg/l

    Copper mg/l

    1

    0

    0.17

    0.098

    0

    0

    0

    0.03

    0.1

    2

    0

    0.16

    0.16

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.01

    3

    0

    0.16

    0.141

    0

    0

    0

    0.11

    0.02

    4

    0

    0.14

    0.092

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.04

    5

    0

    0.15

    0.148

    0

    0

    0.8275

    0.05

    0.19

    6

    0

    0.15

    0.139

    0

    0

    0

    0.31

    0.09

    7

    0

    0.11

    0.206

    0

    0

    0.0068

    0

    0.52

    8

    0

    0.11

    1.878

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.06

    9

    0.109

    0.11

    0.092

    0.026

    0

    0

    0.16

    0.36

    10

    0

    0.12

    0.115

    0

    0

    0

    0.01

    0.17

    11

    0

    0.12

    0.111

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.6

    12

    0

    0.12

    0.098

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.73

    13

    0

    0.13

    0.103

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.58

    14

    0

    0.11

    0.089

    0

    0

    0

    0.3

    0.69

    15

    0

    0.08

    0.094

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.44

    16

    0

    0.1

    0.102

    0

    0

    1.4481

    0.28

    0.78

    17

    0

    0.12

    0.211

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.72

    18

    0

    0.11

    0.971

    0

    0

    0

    0.09

    1.32

    19

    0

    0.11

    0.159

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.78

    20

    0

    0.12

    0.106

    0

    0

    0

    0.34

    1.2

    21

    0

    0.12

    0.106

    0

    0

    0

    0.18

    0.78

    22

    0

    0.1

    0.098

    0

    0

    0

    0.28

    0

    23

    0

    0.1

    0.094

    0

    0

    0

    0.12

    0.35

    24

    0

    0.09

    0.121

    0

    0

    0.0393

    0.06

    0.89

    25

    0.008

    0.14

    0.125

    0

    0

    0.2156

    0

    0.64

    26

    0

    0.13

    0.181

    0

    0

    0

    0.16

    0.84

    27

    0

    0.12

    0.098

    0

    0

    4.7925

    0.18

    0.65

    28

    0

    0.12

    0.09

    0

    0

    0.2782

    0.34

    0.81

    29

    0

    0.11

    0.131

    0

    0

    0.2337

    0

    0.51

    30

    0

    0.12

    0.656

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.72

    31

    0

    0.12

    0.137

    0

    0

    0.0007

    0

    0.16

    32

    0

    0.12

    0.121

    0

    0

    0.7193

    0.26

    0.83

    33

    0

    0.13

    0.098

    0

    0

    0

    0.79

    0.61

    34

    0

    0.09

    0.387

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0.83

    35

    0

    0.09

    0.649

    0

    0

    0.0013

    0.66

    0.33

    36

    0

    0.07

    0.125

    0

    0

    0

    0.83

    0.84

    37

    0.092

    0.1

    0.176

    0

    0

    0.0212

    0.69

    0.55

    38

    0

    0.1

    0.102

    0

    0

    0

    0.79

    0

    39

    0

    0.08

    0.09

    0

    0

    0

    0.54

    0

    40

    0

    0.11

    0.252

    0

    0

    0.0486

    0.37

    0

    Iron

    Iron

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    Pre-mansoon values

    Post mansoon values Desirable limit-0.3 mg/l Permissible limit- 1.0 mg/l

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    Pre-mansoon values

    Post mansoon values Desirable limit-0.3 mg/l Permissible limit- 1.0 mg/l

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

    Sample Number

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

    Sample Number

    Iron in mg/l

    Iron in mg/l

    Copper in mg/l

    Copper in mg/l

    Fig.3 Seasonal variation of Iron in water samples

    Copper

    Copper

    2

    1.5

    1

    0.5

    0

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

    Sample Numbers

    Pre-Mon soon Values

    Post-Monsoon Values

    Desirable Limit-0.05mg/l Permissible Limit-1.5mg/l

    2

    1.5

    1

    0.5

    0

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

    Sample Numbers

    Pre-Mon soon Values

    Post-Monsoon Values

    Desirable Limit-0.05mg/l Permissible Limit-1.5mg/l

    Fig.4 Seasonal variation of Copper in water samples

    Nickel

    Nickel

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

    Sample Numbers

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

    Sample Numbers

    3

    2.5

    2

    1.5

    1

    0.5

    0

    3

    2.5

    2

    1.5

    1

    0.5

    0

    Pre-monsoon Values

    Pre-monsoon Values

    Post-monsoon Values

    Desirable/Permissible Limit- 0.02mg/l

    Post-monsoon Values

    Desirable/Permissible Limit- 0.02mg/l

    Nickel in mg/l

    Nickel in mg/l

    Lead in mg/l

    Lead in mg/l

    Fig.5 Seasonal variation of Nickel in water samples

    Lead

    Lead

    0.2

    0.15

    Pre-Monsoon Values

    0.2

    0.15

    Pre-Monsoon Values

    0.1

    0.1

    Post Monsoon Values

    Post Monsoon Values

    0.05

    0

    1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739

    Sample Numbers

    Desirable/Permissible Limit-

    0.05mg/l

    0.05

    0

    1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739

    Sample Numbers

    Desirable/Permissible Limit-

    0.05mg/l

    Zinc in mg/l

    Zinc in mg/l

    Fig.6 Seasonal variation of Lead in water samples

    Zinc

    Zinc

    60

    50

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

    Sample Numbers

    Pre-monsoon values

    Post-monsoon Values Desirable Limit-5mg/l PermissibleLimit-15mg/l

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

    Sample Numbers

    Pre-monsoon values

    Post-monsoon Values Desirable Limit-5mg/l PermissibleLimit-15mg/l

    Fig.7 Seasonal variation of Zinc in water samples

    Cadmium

    Cadmium

    0.3

    0.25

    0.2

    0.15

    0.1

    0.05

    0

    0.3

    0.25

    0.2

    0.15

    0.1

    0.05

    0

    Pre-monsoon values

    Pre-monsoon values

    Post-monsoon values

    Post-monsoon values

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

    Sample Numbers

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

    Sample Numbers

    Desirable/Permissible limit-

    0.001 mg/l

    Desirable/Permissible limit-

    0.001 mg/l

    0.25

    0.2

    0.25

    0.2

    Pre-monsoon Values

    Pre-monsoon Values

    0.15

    0.1

    0.15

    0.1

    Cadmium in mg/l

    Cadmium in mg/l

    Arsenic in mg/l

    Arsenic in mg/l

    Fig.8 Seasonal variation of Cadmium in water samples

    Arsenic

    Arsenic

    1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739

    Samle Numbers

    1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739

    Samle Numbers

    Post-monsoon Values

    Post-monsoon Values

    0.05

    0

    0.05

    0

    Desirable/Permissible limit-

    0.05mg/l

    Desirable/Permissible limit-

    0.05mg/l

    100

    80

    60

    40

    20

    0

    100

    80

    60

    40

    20

    0

    Pre-monsoon Values

    Pre-monsoon Values

    Chromium in mg/l

    Chromium in mg/l

    Fig.9 Seasonal variation of Arsenic in water samples

    Chromium

    Chromium

    Post-monsoon Values

    Post-monsoon Values

    1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739

    Sample Numbers

    1 3 5 7 9 111315171921232527293133353739

    Sample Numbers

    Desirable/Permissible limit-

    0.05mg/l

    Desirable/Permissible limit-

    0.05mg/l

    Fig.10 Seasonal variation of Chromium in water samples

  5. DISSCUSSIONS OF RESULTS

    Thirty four groundwater samples (1 to 34) were collected from the bore-wells and hand pumps and six other samples were collected from tanks in and around the study area (35 to 40).The results of chemical analyses are presented in Tables. 2 and 3. Table . 4 show the critical parameters along with the permissible limits for these parameters. Out

    of the 40 samples analyzed for heavy metals, all 40samples (100%) were found to be non-potable. The main heavy metals constituting for the non -potability of the samples are iron ,Nickel, lead Cadmium and Chromium which accounted for 25%, 95%, 100% , 87.5% and 25% of unsafe samples respectively.

    Table 4: Critical parameters of water as per IS: 10500(1991)

    SL.

    No

    Parameter (mg/l)

    Desirable limit

    Permissible limit

    Number of samples exceeding Permissible limits

    Percentage of samples Exceeding the Permissible limits.

    Pre monsoon

    Post monsoon

    Pre monsoon

    Post monsoon

    1

    Iron

    0.3

    1

    10

    0

    25

    0

    2

    Nickel

    0.02

    No relaxation

    38

    2

    95

    5

    3

    Lead

    0.05

    No relaxation

    0

    40

    0

    100

    4

    Zinc

    5

    15

    2

    0

    5

    0

    5

    Copper

    0.05

    1.5

    0

    0

    0

    0

    6

    Cadmium

    0.001

    No relaxation

    35

    1

    87.5

    2.5

    7

    Arsenic

    0.05

    No relaxation

    4

    0

    10

    0

    8

    Chromium

    0.05

    No relaxation

    10

    6

    25

    15

    1. Iron : Iron has adverse effect on domestic uses of water and water supply structures, and promotes iron bacteria which forns brown slimy layer in pipes. In most of the surface water samples Iron value is very high, hence use of water with high iron will cause adverse effects like unpleasant metallic taste ,warding of fatigue and anemia.

    2. Copper : Beyond the desirable limit Copper causes a stringent taste, discoloration of water and corrosion of pipes, fittings and utensils. Too much copper can cause adverse ill effects, including vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps and nausea. It is also be en associated with liver damage and kidney disease.

    3. Nickel :. Beyond the permissible limit Nickel may cause allergic reaction. Exposure to skin can cause dermatitis upon contact.

    4. Lead : Beyond the permissible limit , Lead makes water toxic. Lead is associated with a wide range of effects, including various neuro developmental effects, mortality (mainly due to cardiovascular diseases), impaired renal function, hypertension, impaired fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Impaired neurodevelopment in children is generally associated with lower blood lead

      concentrations than the other effects,

    5. Zinc : Beyond the permissible limit Zinc can cause a stringent taste and an opalescence in water. The effects of zinc toxicity are upset stomach, vomiting and diarrhea .

    6. Cadmium : Beyond the permissible limit , Cadmium makes water toxic. With chronic oral exposure it effects the kidney .

    7. Arsenic : Beyond the permissible limit , Arsenic makes the water toxic. Long term exposure to arsenic in drinking water can cause cancer in the skin , lungs, bladder and kidney. It can also cause skin changes such as thickening and pigmentation.

    8. Chromium :Beyond the permissible limit Chromium makes water toxic. Too much exposure can be hazardous causing nose irritation that results in runny nose, nose bleeds, ulcers, open sores around the stomach lining and nasal symptoms.

  6. CONCLUSIONS

    The analyses of groundwater and the surface water samples from the Peenya industrial area has shown that almost 90% of the samples are unfit for drinking purpose. The analyzed data clearly indicates that the Pb is generally present in GW samples due to plumbing accessories and industrial waste. At few locations, Cu, Cr, Fe and Cd concentrations could be high due to disposal of electroplating and dye industrial waste. Groundwater is getting polluted at an alarming rate due to rapid industrialization. The investigations and oral discussions held with the health centre officials and general public of the area, clearly points out that the serious contamination of the groundwater and surface water in the vicinity of the industries and ill-health faced by the localities. From the perspective of improving the quality of groundwater and surface water in the area and protecting the people from the troubles of groundwater and surface water contamination, it is absolutely essential to initiate measures to check the pollution of industrial effluents through strict enforcement of legislation for industries, setting up of effluent treatment plants. Replacing of the damaged pipelines and repairing lining of sewers is necessary to prevent the leakage of sewage in pipes and seepage through unlined channels and to prevent the mixing or leaking of sewage with groundwater. Water treatment facility shall be designed in order to provide potable water to the residents of the area. This study is carried out during pre monsoon season. Further this study can also carried out during monsoon also.

  7. REFERENCES

[1]. APHA (2002).Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water(20th ed.). Washington D.C.American Public and Health Association.

[2]. IS:10500 (1991), Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhavan, New Delhi, India.

[3].Charmaine Jerome and Anitha Pius(2010) Evaluation of water quality index and its impact on the quality of life in an industrial area in Bangalore, South India, Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res., , 1(3): 595-603

[4].Central Groundwater Board (1999).Hydro geological report on Bangalore Metropolitan area, Karnataka,

[5]. Mishra et al., (2005) Contamination of water due to major industries and open refuse dumping in the steel city of Orissa. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 47(2), 141151, April.

[6]. Vandana Parth et al.,( 2011),Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil around hazardous waste disposal sites in Hyderabad city (India): natural and anthropogenic implicationsE3

Journal of Environmental Research and Managment Vol.2(2). pp. 027-034, August,.

[7].Purandara, B. K., & Varadarajan, N. (2003). Impacts on Groundwater Quality by Urbanization. Journal of Indian Water Resources Society, 23, 107115.

[8].Ramasesha, C. S. (2005). Proceedings, Water quality and health, National Conference on Groundwater pollution sources and mitigation, Bangalore.

[9]. Ramesh et al,. (2012), Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Designated Peenya Industrial Area and Estate, Bangalore, India A Case StudyIJEP Vol. 2 Iss. 6 PP. 21-25

[10]. Shankar, B.S (2008), Impact of industrialization on groundwater quality–a case study of Peenya industrial area, Bangalore, India, ,. Environ Monit Assess. Jul;142(1-3):263-8. Epub 2007 Sep 25. [11].Shiva Kumar and Srikantaswamy(2012), seasonal variation of heavy metal in industrial zone soil of mysore city, karnataka, india, International Journal of Basic and Applied Chemical Sciences ISSN: 2277-2073 (Online).

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