Numerical Simulation of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System

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Numerical Simulation of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System

1Kalpesh Patil, 2Gauri Thorat

1,2 Fr CRIT, Vashi, Mumbai, Maharashtra E-mail: kalpesp3@ymail.com

3Mathewlal T

Mechanical Engineering Department

3Fr CRIT, Vashi, Mumbai, Maharashtra

Abstract Simulation analysis of vapour compression cycle is carried out. Numerical simulation model of the system is developed, coupling simulation models of compressor, in MATLAB. Result presented shows the influence of different parameters (condenser temperature, evaporator temperature and refrigerant type) on the performance of the system. Refrigerants, R22 and R134a are considered for the analysis. The objective is to analyse the system under various parameters in order to enhance it.

Keywords-Numerical Simulation, Performance Analysis, Evaporator Temperature, Condenser Temperature, Refrigerant.

  1. INTRODUCTION

    A vapour compression refrigeration system comprises of four components: compressor, evaporator, condenser and expansion device. The Vapour Compression Refrigeration System is an improved type of air refrigeration system using a liquid refrigerant as medium. Fig. 1 shows the schematic diagram of vapour compression refrigeration system.

    The refrigerant entering the compressor as saturated vapour is compressed to higher pressure and temperature. The saturated vapour then is passed through a condenser, which condenses it into liquid. Heat is rejected by the circulating refrigerant which is carried away by air. The condensed liquid refrigerant, in saturated state, is next passed through an expansion valve, which results in reduction in pressure and temperature.

    Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of vapour compression refrigeration system[1]

    A numerical simulation model of the vapour compression system is developed coupling simulation model for compressor. The model is developed for the study of performance parameters on the system and performance curves are plotted, showing the influence of different aspects.

    Refrigerants, R22 and R134a are considered for the analysis. The objective is to analyse the system under various parameters in order to enhance it.

    Systematic review of the topic have been carried out, Sharad Choudhary[2] was successful in simulating a VCR model and was able to evaluate the mass flow rate (m), refrigeration effect (RE), compressor work (Wc), volumetric efficiency () and coefficient of performance (C.O.P) of the whole refrigeration system based on specific input parameters and varying other input parameters. Baskaran et al.[3] performed an analysis on vapour compression refrigeration system with various refrigerant mixtures of R152a, R170, R600a and R290. From their results, the alternative refrigerants except R431a (which is a combination of R152a, R290 at 29% and 71% respectively) have a slightly higher performance than R134a at the condensation temperature at 50C and evaporator temperature ranging between -30C and 10C.Dhumal [4] et al. investigated the influence of various expansion devices on the performance of a refrigerator using R407C as the refrigerant. He found out that capillary tube with diameter of 0.50 shows 90% increase in compressor work with only 50% increase in refrigeration effect. Andrew Alleye[5] has successfully fabricated an experimental setup with a dual evaporator andR134a as refrigerant. Further, he mathematically modeled the system using MATLAB/Simulink Thermosys library.

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATION MODEL

    The numerical simulation model of a vapour compression refrigeration system includes many thermodynamic relations. It is simulated on the Matlab platform. The following assumptions are made for analysis of the system.

    1. Clearance ratio of the compressor is 5%

    2. Evaporator temperature ranges from 40C to 120C

    3. Condenser temperature ranges from 420C to 500C

    4. Losses are neglected in the system Following thermodynamics relations[6] are used:

    1. Refrigeration Effect

      RE = p h4 (1)

    2. Work done by the compressor,

      Wc = p p (2)

    3. Coefficient of Performance of the system

      COP = (p h4) / ( p p) (3)

    4. Volumetric efficiency of the compressor

    = 1 + k [ k * (v1/v2) ] (4)

    Where,

    p= enthalpy of refrigerant at the outlet of evaporator p= enthalpy of refrigerant at the inlet of condenser p= enthalpy of refrigerant at the outlet of condenser h4= enthalpy of refrigerant at the inlet of evaporator v1= specific volume of refrigerant at the inlet of compressor

    v2= specific volume of refrigerant at the inlet of condenser

    k= clearance ratio of the compressor

    The program is coded using MATLAB Software[7]. Based on mathematical calculations, graphs are generated in the graphical user interface. It displays the performance characteristic curves for refrigeration effect, work done by the compressor, volumetric efficiency of the compressor and coefficient of performance against evaporator temperature as shown in Fig. 2.

    Fig .2. Graphical User Interface in MATLAB

  3. SIMULATION ANALYSIS

    Based on the numerical simulation model, following graphs are plotted to observe the performance of the system by

    the template will do that for you.

    1. Varying the evaporator temperature for different fixed Condenser Temperature (42C, 44C, 46C, 48C and 50C)

    2. Varying the evaporator temperature for different refrigerants (R22 and R134a) at fixed Condenser temperature (460C)

    3. Obtaining appropriate operating temperature range of the evaporator, at fixed condenser temperature (460C) and refrigerant (R22)

      Case1: Variation in the Evaporator temperature for different fixed Condenser temperature[8].

      The influence of the evaporator temperature and different fixed condenser temperatures is numerically studied. Fig 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 show graphs obtained for Refrigeration effect (KJ/kg), compressor work (KJ/kg), volumetric efficiency of compressor and COP of the system against evaporator temperature, respectively.

      Fig. 3. Graph of refrigeration effect versus evaporator temperature

      Fig. 4. Graph of work done by compressor versus evaporator temperature

      Fig. 5. Graph of coefficient of performance versus evaporator temperature

      Fig. 6. Graph of volumetric efficiency of compressor versus evaporator temperature

      The comparative results shows that for evaporator temperature range of 4C to 12C

      1. Refrigeration effect increases with the increase in evaporator temperature and decreases with condenser temperature.

      2. Work done by compressor decreases with the increase in evaporator temperature and increases with condenser temperature.

      3. C.O.P increases with the increase in evaporator temperature and decreases with increase in condenser temperature.

      4. Volumetric efficiency of compressor increases with the increase in evaporator temperature and decreases with increase in condenser temperature

        Change in performance parameters for different fixed condenser temperature and evaporator temperature range of 40C to 120C is given in Table 1.

        TABLE 1

        146.2

        96

        Condenser temperature (C)

        42

        44

        46

        48

        50

        Refrigeration effect at evaporator temperature (KJ/Kg)

        4 C

        154.4

        41

        151.7

        51

        149.0

        37

        143.52

        9

        12 C

        157.1

        33

        154.4

        43

        151.7

        29

        148.9

        88

        146.22

        1

        Change in refrigeration effect (%)

        1.743

        1.774

        1.806

        1.84

        1.876

        Work Done at evaporator temperature (KJ/Kg)

        4 C

        25.97

        85

        27.22

        32

        28.45

        88

        29.67

        64

        30.882

        9

        12 C

        19.66

        17

        20.87

        61

        22.08

        19

        23.27

        03

        24.447

        6

        Change in Work Done (%)

        24.31

        5

        23.33

        2

        22.40

        7

        21.58

        7

        20.838

        COP at evaporator temperature

        4 C

        5.944

        9

        5.574

        3

        5.236

        9

        4.929

        7

        4.6475

        12 C

        7.991

        8

        7.398

        1

        6.871

        2

        6.402

        5

        5.981

        Change in COP (%)

        34.31

        2

        32.71

        8

        31.20

        7

        29.87

        6

        28.693

        Volumetric Efficiency at evaporator temperature (%)

        4 C

        91.25

        95

        90.55

        21

        89.80

        76

        89.02

        31

        88.199

        2

        12 C

        94.19

        45

        93.63

        82

        93.05

        27

        92.43

        58

        91.787

        9

        Change in Volumetric Efficiency (%)

        3.216

        3.408

        3.613

        3.833

        4.069

        Case 2: Variation in the Evaporator temperature for different refrigerants at fixed Condenser temperature[9].

        The influence of the evaporator temperature for different refrigerants- R22 and R134a is numerically studied. Fig. 7, Fig. 8, Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 shows graphs obtained for Refrigeration effect (KJ/kg), compressor work (KJ/kg), COP of system and volumetric efficiency of compressor(%) against evaporator temperature.

        Fig. 7. Graph of refrigeration effect versus evaporator temperature

        Fig. 8. Graph of work done versus evaporator temperature

        Fig. 9. Graph of coefficient of performance versus evaporator temperature

        Fig. 10. Graph of volumetric efficiency versus evaporator temperature

        The comparative results shows that for evaporator temperature range of 4C to 12C

        1. The work done for compressing R22is higher than R134a.

        2. The refrigeration effect produced by R22 is higher than R134a.

        3. C.O.P of the system is almost same for both R22 and R134a.

        4. Volumetric efficiency of compressor for R22 is higher than R134a.

    Change in performance parameters at fixed condenser temperature 460C, for different refrigerants and evaporator temperature range of 40C to 120C is given in Table 2.

    TABLE II

    Refrigerant used

    R-22

    R-134a

    Refrigeration effect at evaporator temperature (KJ/Kg)

    4 C

    149.037

    135.58

    12 C

    151.729

    140.09

    Change in refrigeration effect (%)

    1.806

    3.326

    Work Done at evaporator temperature (KJ/Kg)

    4 C

    28.4588

    26.2279

    12C

    22.0819

    20.5085

    Change in Work Done (%)

    22.407

    21.807

    COP at evaporator temperature

    4 C

    5.2369

    5.1693

    12 C

    6.8712

    6.8308

    Change in COP (%)

    31.207

    32.142

    Volumetric Efficiency at evaporator temperature (%)

    4 C

    89.8076

    87.3526

    12 C

    93.0527

    91.4592

    Change in Volumetric Efficiency (%)

    3.613

    4.701

    Case 3: Obtaining appropriate operating temperature range of the evaporator, at fixed condenser temperature and refrigerant.

    The influence of the evaporator temperature on performance of the system, at a particular condenser temperature is numerically studied. The condenser temperature is 460C and the refrigerant used is R22. Fig. 11 shows graph for Refrigeration effect (KJ/kg), compressor work (KJ/kg) and COP of the system against evaporator temperature. Fig. 12 shows graph for the work done and volumetric efficiency of compressor against evaporator temperature. Based on the above two graphs, appropriate operating temperature range of evaporator is obtained.

    Fig. 11. Graph of intersection of refrigeration effect, work done and coefficient of performance curves

    Fig. 12. Graph of intersection of work done and volumetric efficiency curves of compressor

  4. CONCLUSION

The analysis conducted in three different cases is discussed in the respective section. The conclusion from each case is also written. With reference to the analysis in each case it can be concluded that this simulation model can be easily adapted to different refrigerants.

The present study also shows the impact of different parameters which need to be optimized so as to increase the performance. All the observations and the readings in this simulation will be verified with actual data from the proposed experimental set up.

REFERENCES

  1. Typical single stage vapour compression refrigeration http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vapor-compression_refrigeration

  2. Sharad Choudhary, Performance Analysis of Reciprocating Refrigerant Compressor, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), June 2013.

  3. Baskaran et al., Simulation Analysis of Compression Refrigeration Cycle with Different Refrigerants, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), April 2013.

  4. Dhumal et al., Air Conditioning Principles and Systems, International Journal of AdvancedEngineering Technology E-ISSN 0976-3945, 4th edition, Pearson, New York, 2003.

  5. Andrew Alleyne, Ralph M. and Catherine V. Fisher, Modelling and Control of VapourCompression Cycles, University of Illinois, Urbana- Champaign.

  6. Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna , Lessons on Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Mechanical Engineering, IIT

    Madras, http://nptel.ac.in/courses/112106133/Module_6/6_Simple_Vap or_Compression_RS.pdf

  7. Matlab Programming Techniques, http://in.mathworks.com/

  8. W. F. Stoecker, A book on Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, 2nd edition.

  9. P.Thangavel, Dr.P.Somasundaram, T.Sivakumar, C.Selva Kumar and G.Vetriselvan,Simulation Analysis of Compression Refrigeration Cycle with Different Refrigerants, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), April 2013.

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