 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 1545
 Authors : Shinde Sandip Chandrakant, Prof. Shinde Sunilkumar, Sr. Manager Nitin Gokhale
 Paper ID : IJERTV2IS70848
 Volume & Issue : Volume 02, Issue 07 (July 2013)
 Published (First Online): 29072013
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Numerical And Experimental Analysis Of Heat Transfer Through Various Types Of Fin Profiles By Forced Convection
Shinde Sandip Chandrakant Mechanical Engineering, VIT, Pune.
Prof. Shinde Sunilkumar
Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, VIT, Pune.
Sr. Manager Nitin Gokhale
R&D, Kirloskar oil engine ltd, Pune.
Abstract
In all engine two types of cooling systems are utilized, liquidcooling & aircooling, among the two types of engine cooling system, liquidcooling is widely used due to its capacity to reject large amount of heat and aircooling is preferred for small capacity engine in which the cooling system is much simpler in design, lighter in weight and low in cost. In aircooled engine annular fins with different fin profiles are used for heat transfer enhancement, therefore it is important for an aircooled engine to utilize fin profiles effectively to obtain heat transfer enhancement. The current work purpose is to suggest the optimum fin profile for heat transfer enhancement. A feasibility study is conducted on actual engine, conducting the experiment on actual engine is tedious and costly so, similar type of test rig is prepared. Fins are subject to constant heat source and cooled by airflow. Experiments were conducted for rectangular and triangular fin profiles for several air velocities ranging from 0 to 11 m/s. The temperature distribution in the fin was measured for several locations simultaneously to calculate the amount of heat being transferred. Experiment is repeated for both fins, Similarly CFD simulation is carried out for both fins. Finally experimental and CFD simulated result are compared. From the comparison it proves that annular fins with rectangular fin profiles are more suitable for heat transfer enhancement as compared to triangular fin profiles.

Introduction
Since from long time, there has been a progress demands for high efficiency and high power output engines. This implies that, it is necessary to study in details of engine systems and subsystems of which cooling system is also important component. Among the two types of cooling system, liquidcooling and aircooling, liquidcooling is widely used for large capacity and aircooled engine are used for small capacity. Air cooled engines are release the heat to atmosphere by forced convection. The rate of heat transfer depends up on the air velocity and geometry of the fins profiles. The extended fins profiles well known for enhancing the heat transfer in engines. There have been number of on air cooled engine fins.
Magarajan [1] observed that with increase in fin pitch heat transfer increases up certain extent. Heat release from the cylinder is analyzed at a wind velocity of 0 km/h. The trial conducted for 600 s, heat release by ethylene glycol through cylinder to fins is about 28.5 W for 10 mm pitch and 33.90 W for 20 mm pitch. Kumbhar [2] studied the rectangular fins with triangular perforations on it. It is observed that perforation size increases heat transfer increases up to certain extent & after that it start decreases. Vijay [3] optimizes the cooling system of scooter engine by modification in cowl profile and cooling fan blade angle. Observed that there is significant reduction in temperature of oil and fin surface with 3.1% reduction in fan power, while maintaining the same flow rate. Mohd Faizal [4] observed the effect of moist cooling. on engine performance. Engine is cooled by moist air instead of dry air due to moisture heat carrying capacity of air increases. Pulkit [5] in his study
experienced that heat lost at same vehicle speed increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature. Also, with temperature remaining constant, the heat transfer coefficient increases with velocity leading to increased heat transfer. An excess heat loss from the engine surface is undesirable as it results in decreased efficiency and excess fuel consumption. Alan [6] Conducted simulation on annular fin stack with specification of OD100, L40, P14. Perform the mesh independency study, only by refining the size of mesh solution accuracy not accurate. Variables in the models are Boundary surface size, Cell Growth rate, Prism layer thickness, Prism Layer growth rate, Primary prism layer cell size, Cell density. Observed that effect of different mesh size 15, 10, 5 mm on temperature is 0.5 K.
There are different fin profiles available but among all the profiles, which is the suitable for heat transfer enhancement that is analyzed in current work. The present work details the feasibility study carried out to improve aircooled systems by changing the fins profiles. The optimal cooling rate is required for efficient operation. If the cooling rate is decreases, results in overheating leading to seizure of the engine. At the same time, an increase in cooling rate affects the starting of the engine and reduces the efficiency

Methodology

Experimental setup
Since conducting an experiment on actual engine is tedious and costly process. For simplification test rig is prepared in CAD software for simulation, which save time and cost. The method provides better control on measured parameter and maintains accuracy. The
experimental setup consists of annular fins with
Figure 1: Experimental setup
Duct Gas heater nozzle Fins
Blower fan
Air outlet
Thermocouple
Temperature Display
Motor
Air inlet
different fin profiles. Annular fin liner with 13 fins fitted in PVC duct, its one end fitted with blower and other is opened. The blower is driven by electric motor with beltpulley arrangement. A 7.5 HP electric motor used to generate air velocity up to 12m/s shown in Fig
1. The fins base is heated at constant heat flux by gas heater. The thermocouples are used to measure the temperature of fin surface and air. Anemometer used to measure the air velocity.
Simulation is carried out at different air velocities on cylinder liner with two different fins profiles specifically, rectangular and triangular. Test setup remains unchanged only replacement of rectangular and triangular fins profiles to be done at the time of simulation. Fig. 2 show the schematic diagram of experimental setup.
Figure 2: Schematic diagram of experimental setup

Location of thermocouples
K Type thermocouples utilized for measurement of surface temperature and temperature of air flowing through duct. To locate the thermocouple hole of 1.5 mm diameter and 3 mm depth created on surface of the fins. The probe of the thermocouple with adoiltoit liquid penetrate in the created hole, and kept it for 24 hr for perfect bonding between thermocouples and surface of the fins. On the fins surface only 9 thermocouples are located to avoid the flow abstractions. All the thermocouples are at an angle 900 apart shown in the Fig. 3
Table 1: Position of thermocouple.
Thermocouple
Location
T0
00 Liner surface temperature
T1
00 Fin tip temperature
T2
00 Fin base temperature
T3
900 Fin tip temperature
T4
1800 Liner surface temperature
T5
1800 Fin tip temperature
T6
1800 Fin base temperature
T7
2700 Fin tip temperature
T8
Liner bottom temperature
TIn
Air inlet temperature
TOut
Air outlet temperature
Figure 3: Location of thermocouples at different location on fins surface

Modeling and design
The test rig was modeled in CATIA and simulated in CFD software Fig. 4. The annular cylinder liner with rectangular fin profiles shown in Fig. 5. By keeping other parameter constant shape of the fin profiles is changed from rectangular to triangular and modeled is simulated.
Figure 4: CAD model

Rectangular profile

Triangular profiles
Figure 5: Annular cylinder liner with different fins profiles


Computational modeling
The computational domain consists of a PVC duct and

momentum:
. u V = + + + + (2.2)
rectangular fins, PVC large dimensions containing the finned cylinder at its centre. It was focused on the fins and appropriate boundary conditions were applied at the domain ends to maintain continuity. The domain

momentum:
was made longer at outlet of the cylinder to allow for
. u V = + + + + (2.3)
wake formation.


Meshing
Figure 6: Prism layer with controlled volume mesh
From meshing model, surface remeshing, tetrahedral and polyhedral mesh type is selected for surface and volume mesh generation respectively with extruder at its outlet. Latter on specify the base size of the element and number of prism layer with absolute or relative prism layer thickness. After this initialize the meshing operation. Fig. 6 section of volume mesh

Mathematical model
The 3dimensional heat flow through cylinder liner and fins were simulated by solving the appropriate governing equations viz. conservation of mass, momentum and energy using CFD code which work by finite volume method.
Conservation of mass:
. . = 0 (1)
Xmomentum:
. u V = + + + .. (2.1)

Boundary condition
Steady state conjugate heat transfer analyses carry out for finned cylinder at different air velocity varied from 0 to 12 m/s, and air temperature at ambient condition.
In simulation the three regions are created, among this region two are solid and one is fluid. In region cylinder liner and duct is solid region, air flowing through duct around the cylinder liner that is fluid region. The entire regions are separated by interfaces. The function of interface is to exchange the thermal properties.
In cylinder liner region the fins are subjected to constant heat source. The cylinder liner surface temperature maintained at 1800C, material properties of casted liner GG25 specified.
In duct region, duct of PVC material and open to atmosphere. Due to atmospheric condition its boundary are subjected to natural convection rate of 5 W/m2K.
In fluid region, all the boundaries are subjected to adiabatic conditions. Only the inlet and outlet conditions of the entering fluid are specified as

Inlet face was given fixed mass flow condition. The mass flow rate of air and temperature of the entering air was chosen depending upon the case being solved.

Outlet face was given fixed pressure condition of 1.01325 Pa representing the atmospheric pressure.
Field function set for heat transfer coefficient and nusselt number. For heat transfer coefficient and nusselt number reference temperature is specified as average temperature of fluid from inlet to outlet. For nusselt number reference length is specified as the
hydraulic diameter, 0.032 m for rectangular and 0.033
m for triangular fin profiles.


Contour plots

Velocity distribution across fins
As the flow passing through duct at 12 m/s, before striking the fin surface flow velocity become constant but at the hanging point of fins, the gap between fins and duct is very small which accelerate the flow. At the back side of the fins there is very less velocity as indicated by blue color. Near the fins side the velocity is high due to less space in the region. The position of the thermocouples are given in the Fig. 7.
Figure 7: Velocity and position of thermocouple distribution across fins

Temperature distribution rectangular fin liner
Position 0180 degree angle
Position 90270 degree angle

Velocity = 11.38
Position 0180 degree angle
Position 90270 degree angle

Velocity = 8.76 m/s
Position 0180 degree angle
Position 90270 degree angle

Velocity = 6.2 m/s
Figure 8 (AC): Temperature distribution in liner in rectangular fin liner at different location and at different air velocity


Temperature distribution in triangular fin liner
Position 0180 degree angle
Position 90270 degree angle

Velocity = 11.4 m/s
Position 0180 degree angle
Position 90270 degree angle

Velocity = 8.74 m/s
Position 0180 degree angle
Position 90270 degree angle

Velocity = 5.82 m/s
Figure 9 (ac): Temperature distribution in triangular fin liner at different location and at different air velocity
In steady state simulation temperature distribution all over the fin surface at different air velocity and at different position at rectangular and triangular fins are given in Fig. 8 (AC) and Fig 9 (ac).
3. Result and Discussion
The convection heat transfer from fin surface to atmosphere by forced air is given as
= ( ) (5)
Where,
Q: Heat flux from fin surface, h: Fin surface heat transfer coefficient, A: Surface area of fin, Tavg: Average fin surface temperature, Tair: Bulk temperature of air.
3.1. Determination of heat transfer coefficient
As the given case is the forced convection, the flow is turbulent, constant wall temperature and flow through pipe. To find out the convective heat transfer Churchill and Bernstein equation is used,
fin profile. From Fig. 10 show that in both profiles there is slight variation in velocity.
Rectangular fin profile Triangular fin profile
Velocity (m/s)
Velocity (m/s)
13.5
11.5
9.5
7.5
5.5
900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900
RPM
Figure 10: Experimental velocity measurement
3.3. Temperature variation
Temperatures are measured at various locations in the liner at different velocity. There is continuous variation in temperature due to variation of velocity. As the velocity increases temperature decreases in both triangular fins and rectangular fins. The trend
0.62 1/2 1/3
5
followed by simulated and experimental result is same
Nu=0.3 +
2 [1 + 8]4/5 (6)
as shown in Fig. 11.
[1+ 0.4 3 ]1/4
282000
Triangular experimental Triangular simulated
Where, n is 0.3 for cooling and 0.4 for heating application.
Rectangular experimental Rectangular simulated
165
=
(7)
Temperature (oC)
Temperature (oC)
155
As the flowing fluid is air the prandtl number = 0.701 for present case.
145
=
From the above expression the convective heat transfer coefficient is calculated..
. (8)
135
125
900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900
RPM
3.2. Velocity measurement
In experimentation the velocity is measure at different grid point and average velocity is considered for analytical calculation and simulation purpose. From the experimental result. It is observed tha velocity in rectangular fin profile is slightly higher than triangular
Figure 11: Experimental and simulated temperature variation
In experimentation temperature of triangular fin profile is higher than rectangular fin profile. Similarly in simulation also triangular fin profile temperature is higher than rectangular fin profile.

Heat transfer coefficient variation
In experimentation the heat transfer coefficient is calculated from Churchill and Bernstein equation. In simulation the heats transfer coefficient direct output.
% Error
% Error
Experimental rectangular Experimental triangular Simulated rectangular
% variation of rectangular fin
% variation of triangular fin
25
20
15
10
5
Simulated triangular 0
85
HTC (W/m2 K)
HTC (W/m2 K)
75
1 2 3 4 5
RPM
65
55
45
900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900
RPM
Figure 12: Experimental and simulated HTC variation
In experimental result observed that, heat transfer coefficient of rectangular fin profile is higher than triangular fin profile. In experimental result of both fin profile have 2% difference is observed. Similarly, in case of simulation also observed that heat transfer coefficient of rectangular fin profile is higher than that of triangular fin profile. In simulation result of both fin profile have 4% difference observed.
In experimental and simulated both profiles it is observed that heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing velocity. But in comparison with experimental and simulated results of both profile observed that there is 12 to 18% difference as shown in Fig. 12.

Heat transfer
In experimentation the heat transfer coefficient is calculated. In simulation the heat transfer coefficient direct output.
Figure 13: Experimental and simulated heat transfer variation
In experimental result observed that, heat transfer of rectangular fin profile is higher than triangular fin profile. In experimental result of both fin profile 10 to 12% difference is observed. Similarly, in case of simulation also observed that heat transfer of rectangular fin profile is higher than that of triangular fin profile. In simulation result of both fin profile 8 to 10% difference observed.
In experimental and simulated both profiles it is observed that heat transfer increases with increasing velocity. But in comparison with experimental and simulated results of both profile observed that there 14 to 19% variation of heat transfer Fig 13.

Conclusion

The air flow velocity in abstraction with rectangular fin profile is higher than triangular fin profiles.

Surface temperature of triangular fin profile is higher than rectangular fin profile at different air velocity.

Heat transfer coefficient increase with increases with increases in velocity in both profiles. In comparison of both profile rectangular fin profile have higher heat transfer coefficient than triangular fin profile.

Amount of heat transfer increases with decreasing the surface temperature or increasing air velocity in both profiles. In comparison of both profile rectangular fin profile transfer large amount of heat than triangular fin profile.
Acknowledgment
I thank to Sr. Manager Nitin Gokhale at kirloskar oil engine ltd for sponsoring the project. I also thank to my guide Prof. S S Shinde for helping and guiding me during the project time. I also thank to my parents, brother, and my friends for motivational and peacefull support.
References

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