 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 574
 Authors : Dalvir Singh , Santosh Kumar Rai , Sanjeev Kumar Shukla
 Paper ID : IJERTV6IS110004
 Volume & Issue : Volume 06, Issue 11 (November 2017)
 Published (First Online): 01112017
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Numerical Analysis of Two Phase Flow Boiling Heat Transfer through MicroChannel
Dalvir Singh
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Meerut Institute of Engineering Technology, Meerut India
Santosh Kumar Rai
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Meerut Institute of Engineering Technology, Meerut India
Sanjeev Kumar Shukla Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Meerut Institute of Engineering
Technology, Meerut India
Abstract – Day by day rapid miniaturization of electronics devices in electronic industry have resulted in continuous raise of heat removal requirements for making the more efficient the electronic devices, thereby making a call for highly thermal efficient cooling technology. Two phase flow boiling heat transfer is the one of the potential solution for heat dissipation for electronic devices. For highly efficient performance and reliability of microelectronic and mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, the working temperate should be keep below some specific temperature less than 90 Â°C. The purpose of the work is to develop a numerical model to predict the behaviour of two phase forced convection in microchannels using deionize water (DIW) as the coolant with uniform heat flux in laminar and turbulent flow regime. A 1D thermalhydraulic – homogeneous equilibrium model (THHEM), consisting of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations and empirical correlation for laminar and turbulent flow, and properties of substance equation as dryness fraction relation with liquid and vapour density, are solved numerically using a finitedifference upwind scheme for single as well as two phase flow and algebraic equations. Finally, the THHEM model is used to evaluate the location of boiling front, its variation with uniform input power, Variation in dryness fraction in two phase region, pressure distribution of fluid along the axial length, wall and fluid temperature distribution along the axial length, for one fixed inlet temperature and fixed outlet pressure condition.
Keywords Two phase, Boiling, force convectio,; micro channel, thermal hydraulic homogenoues equlibrium model
INTRODUCTION
With the development of micro fabrication technology, micro fluidic systems have been increasingly used in different scientific disciplines such as biotechnology, physical and chemical sciences, electronic technologies, sensing technologies etc. Microchannels are one of the essential geometry for microfluidic systems; therefore, the importances of convective transport phenomena in microchannels and microchannel structures have increased drastically. In recent years, a number of researchers have reported the heat transfer and pressure drop data for laminar and turbulent liquid or gas flow in microchannels.
Flow boiling heat transfer in microchannels is now the most popular topic in heat transfer, as the need has arisen for very high heat flux cooling for the new generation of computer chips. Understandings of macroscopic flow and heat transfer have reached a mature stage, but when it comes to microchannel flow, flow becomes notably different and complex. The universal use of MEMS devices, microheat
exchangers, microfluidics, other biomedical applications like micro drug delivery, have opened a new field for research.
The quick development of excessive power electronics devices with the expanded scaling down of microelectronic devices and thermal issues and high speed processing are influencing general system performance and electronic packaging. In the previous couple of decade, the requirements of uniform heat dissipation from electronics devices have increased drastically from 10 W/cm2 to 1000 W/cm2 which exceeds the system capability of present cooling technology "[1]". Tuckerman and Pease expressed that single phase convective cooling in microchannels ought to be attainable for input power 1000 W/cm or more than 1000 W/cm, and exhibited a microchannel heat sink that dissipate 790 W/cm with 71Â°C temperature increment at 600 mL/min mass flow rate "[2]".
The increase in heat flux, the temperature of MEMS system and electronic devices is also increase but the performance of the devices is decreased due to thermal issue. So improvement of performance of MEMS system and electronic devices are required to reduce thermal issue. So increase the performance of MEMS system and electronic devices, the maximum heat flux should remove from the device or reduce the thermal issue. That why, flow boiling heat transfer method is used to extraction of heat flux from the device, because in flow boiling due to extraction of latent heat devices can dissipate heat without rise in temperature. Also, convective heat transfer coefficient is 0.1 MW/m for laminar flow of water in a 250m square channel, whereas flow boiling heat transfer coefficient can exceed 1 MW/m2Â°C, which makes more attractive for cooling of MEMS systems and electronic devices. In this present study, TH HEM model has been adopted for flow boiling heat transfer through microchannel. Numerical simulation is performed with a microchannel dimension of
500 Âµm hydraulic diameter and having length of 3 cm. Numerical simulation is carried out to analyze of the two phase flow boiling through micro channels using DI water as the working fluid medium to predict the location of boiling front, pressure drop, variation of fluid coolant temperature and wall temperature along the length of micro channel.
With the increase in heat flux dissipation, device temperature also increases, limiting the heat dissipation capability [35]. But flow boiling due to extraction of latent heat component can dissipate heat without increase in temperature. Also, single
phase heat transfer coefficient for laminar flow of water in a 200 m square channel is around 0.1 MW/m2Â°C, whereas flow boiling heat transfer coefficient can exceed 1 MW/m2Â°C making two phase flow more attractive for cooling of electronic devices [610]. In the present study, THHEM model has been adopted for two phase flow through micro channel. Numerical analysis has been carried out on micro channels of having diameter 250 m and length 3 cm. Results of THHEM studies on two phase flow through micro channels using water as the fluid medium were analyzed to predict the location of boiling front, pressure drop, variation of fluid coolant temperature and wall temperature along the length of micro channel
Problem Definition
In two phases boiling heat transfer, Thermalhydraulic Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (THHEM) and thermal hydraulic Annular Flow Model (THAFM) are mostly adopted [5]. The mixture remains in equilibrium in THHEM while void fractions occur in THAFM. The THHEM works on the principle that the mixture (two phase) acts like pseudo single phase fluid whose mass/weight is similar to that of the mass/weight of vapour and liquid contents. At this stage only latent heat exchange within the phases takes place. Due to pressure change, variation of property occurs in the micro channel, resulting in complicated terms. Properties like density, viscosity and enthalpy behave dynamically and hence quality becomes important.
Numerical simulations were carried out with a microchannel diameter of 250Âµm having length of 3 cm. DI Water was taken as coolant that enters the channel at ambient temperature of 25ÂºC. Constant heat flux was applied to the surface. Fig 1 shows schematic diagram of microchannel with boundary condition on witch simulation was performed. DI Water extracts heat continuously, resulting in phase transition leading to a two phase predominant flow.
Figure 1: schematic iagram of micro channel
Mathematical Modeling of ThHem Assumption
Applying Drichlet boundary temperatur condition at inet and system pressure at oultlet of microchannel shown in Fig 1, pressures and temperatur at discreet point along axial length of microchannel have been . All the other properties namely enthalpy of fluid, wall temperature, enthalpy, density, dryness frction were obtained by state of equation.
Detemination of Boiling Front
The equ. 1 is essentially an energy conservation equation. Here i1 is input heat flux supplied to the microchannel, L is
length of microchannel, while is mass flow rate of DI water. With pressure distribution known along the axial length
of the microchannel, enthalpy of saturated liquid was evaluated using saturation properties. The location at which bulk fluid enthalpy obtained from equ. 1 and that of saturation enthalpy become equal and intersect to each other, give the location of boiling front known as Xc.
It is very important to obtain the location of boiling front. Beyond this point vapour quality is greater than zero hence two phase flow exist while before this point, flow is in single phase. Location of boiling front can be extracted by
if(x) = i1 +
W
Calculation of Dryness fraction( Vapour Quality)
(1)
characteristics of saturation enthalpy and bulk fluid enthalpy as shown in Fig 2. Effectiveness of cooling is obtained in terms of temperatures of wall and fluid. For the same two set of equation have been solved for two distinct zones.
Drynes fraction is the ratio of vapour mass to the total mass. It
is zero in sub cooled liquid, and varies in two phase from zero to 1 and more than 1 . Hence it was evaluated in the two phase region by equ. 2. Equation 2 establishes relationship between enthalpy of liquid, vapour contained, and mixture. Before boiling front, dryness fraction was zero but after boiling front, that is two phase zone the quality of liquid, Vapour quality (Drynes fraction) was determine by using equ. 2. Where if is bulk fluid enthalpy, is the saturation enthalpy at liquied zone and is the saturation enthalpy at vapour zone at given system pressure
() = (1 ())() + () () (2)
Determation of Pressure for Single Phase Zone
Pressure distribution in single phase zone was obtained by using the pressure equation 3. Where fsp is single phase friction
factor, G is mass flux in Kg/sm2 and is DI water density in Kg/m3. fsp was be calculated using laminar flow correlation for flow inside a pipe fsp=64/Re for this. In calculations effect of pressure drop due to contraction has been ignored as cross section area was constant and smooth.
fsp G2 Xc
T = T + Q
w f hconv(wL + 2dL)
is fin efficiency and is heat transfer coefficient. if was computed using equ. 10.
dif
(9)
Psp =
2 Dh
(3)
W dx hconvPc(Tw Tf) = 0 (10)
,
Where G, Re and fsp are kg/sm2 , kg/m3 Reynolds number, friction factor in single phase respectively.
Pressure Equation for Two Phase Region
The equ 4 is mainly pressure drop equation derived from Navier strokes momentum conservation equation. Pressure distribution was calculated by using equ. 4. Here in the equation the right hand side first term is known as signifies friction drop while second term signifies convective acceleration term. Here effect of gravity body force has been
Here W is mass flow rate, Pc is perimeter of cross section.
Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculation
Convective heat transfer coefficient ( hconv ) for single phase was computed using correlation for laminar flow through a tube for constant heat flux condition. In two phase region, heat transfer coefficient hl was computed using correlation of Kandlikar[15] for homogeneous flow through a given tube.
k
disregarded because microchannel is horizontal. Also capillary effect i.e. surface tension effects have been not taking
hconv = 4.36 Dh
h
(11)
to simplify the problem. Hydraulic dryness Dh was used to make this case analogous to pipe flow. All the properties:
TP = 1Co2 + 3Bo4 (12)
hl
density, viscosity, enthalpy, friction factor of two phase (fTP) was dynamic so average properties were used.
1 x 0.8
C0 = ( x )
(p v 0.5
)
pl
is convention Number
dp fTP G2
dx = 2 D
d G2
+ dx ( ) (4)
1 4 is constant dependent upon fluid properties, hl was found using Detous Boelter correlation [1214].
h
Average density was computed by equ. 5.
= 0.023 0.8 0.4
(13)
1 = X +
m v
1 l
(5)
Numerical Simulation Algorithml
GDEs are used to performed simultaneous equation to be
Similarly average viscosity m and two phase friction factor fTP was computed using equ. 6 and 7 respectively. Here l and v are saturated liquid and saturated vapour density at specified pressure.
solved for pressure and temperature together for all node points. Numerical algorithm developed for solving these equations is given in the following sub section. Figure 2 is showing the schematic diagram of discrete physical domain with inlet and outlet boundary conditions.
m m(
= X v
v
+ (1 X) l l
) (6)
Algorithm
#.Find out if(j) at all grid points using given temperature at first node and equ. 1 by marching in forward direction.
f = 64 = 64 m
(7)
tp Re
G Dh
#.Assume pressure P(j) at all grid points maintaining negative
In equ (6) m and l are saturated vapour and liquid viscosity at given pressure.
Energy Equation use to calculat temperatur
Energy equation was used to calculate the bulk fluid temperature and wall temperatures. In single phase as well as two phase zone fluid temperature was computed using equ. 8
pressure gradient based on outflow Drichlet pressure BCs.
#.Evaluate saturation properties at all discretized points for assumed pressure P(j) like Tfsat(j), if(j), Âµl(j), Âµv(j), l (j), v(j), Prl(j), Rel(j).
#.Use if and if saturated to find out location of boiling front. At the location of boiling front, these values should be equal.
#.Find X(j) in two phase region using and properties of and using equ. 2.
T (x) = T
+ Q x
(8)
#.Find m(j) and Âµm(j) using equ. 5 and equ. 6 respectively for
f 1 W Cpl L
Here Cpl is saturated specific heat capacity at specified pressure. In two phase region temperature of fluid (Tf ) is equal to saturated temperature at specified pressure. Also, temperature of water (Tw ) was calculated using equ. 9.
two phase region.
#.Similarly find ftp and fsp using equ. 7.
#.Solve pressure equation for single phase and two phase region using discretized equ. 3 and equ. 4 respectively. Iterate the process till pressure P (i) gets converged.
#.Find Tf(j) for single phase region by using equ. 8. In two phase region it will be equal to Tf saturated.
#.Find hconv(j) using equa. 11 and equ. 12 for single phase and
two phase region respectively.
#.Find Tw(j) using equ. 9.
#.Find if using equ. 10. Iterate if till convergence is achieved.
Ti EXIT
j=1 j=2 Xc j=M
Figure 2: Discretization of physical domain.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Numerical simulation was carried out for fixed inlet temperature and fixed outlet system pressure condition. The present work are presented in the form of location of boiling front, Its variation with heat fluid supplied Q, Variation in dryness fraction X in single and two phase region, pressure distribution of fluid along axial length, wall and fluid temperature distribution along the axial length.
Boiling Front Location
In the Fig 3 red curve shows bulk enthalpy charecteristics hile blue shows saturated enthalpy charecteristics at saturated pressure.The point of intersection gives boiling front location. The saturatin enthalpy first contant and then decreace minimal rate but bulk entholpy contounsly incerease hence saturated enthalpy and bulk enthalpy intersect to each other at a point. This point is known as boiling front location.
Figure 3: Boiling Front Location.
Variation of Boiling Front with Input power
With the increased input power supplied to the wall of micro channel, input power supplied boiling will start early. Fig 4 shows intensely the shift of boiling front location towards inlet
section with the increase in input power supplied. With 0.5 W input power supplied it was at 8 mm while with 2 W input power supplies it was at 3 mm boiling front location. The rate of shift however would decrease and becomes almost constant; boiling front took almost fixed position beyond 2.5 W input powers supplied.
Figure 4: Variation of Boiling front with respect to input power supplied.
Vapour Quality along the Length of Channel
In single phase region dryness fraction is zero and only sub cooled liquid single face exists. In two phase region beyond Xc
, X increases almost linearly from 0 to 3 in downstream
locations as fluid will get more and more heat while moving in downstream direction. Fig 5 depicts almost liner variation of vapour quality X with channel length. It can be seen clearly that throughout two phase region faster heat transfer takes place as X has not crossed value of 1.0.
Figure 5: Variation in vapour quality in downstream direction points.
Pressure Variation along the Length
The variation of system pressure in single phase region is very low while that in two phase region is very high. The reason being in single phase region pressure drop is only due to friction while in later acceleration terms also contribute to pressure drop. Also friction loss is accompanied with a multiplier point whose value is greater. Pressure drop due to acceleration term dominates in two phase flow Fig 6.
Figure 6: Variation in Pressure distribution in downstream direction Points.
Pressure Drop Variation with Input power
Pressure drop (dP) increases with increase in input power because with increase in input power there is increase in convection current (more turbulence) which in turn increases pressure drop. Moreover as input power increases, two phase region would be larger and hence more pressure drop take place Fig 7.
Figure 7: Variation in pressure drop with respect to power input.
Bulk Temperature and Wall Temperature Variation Along the Length
Figure 8 shows in single phase region both bulk temperature (Tf) and wall temperature (Tw) increases because of increased fluid enthalpy as a result of heat input. In two phase region beyond Xc due to existence of saturation condition and to maintain favorable pressure gradient both Tf and Tw decreases.
Figure 8: Variation of Tw and Tf along microchannel length
CONCLUSION
A numerical analysis was conceded out to estimate the existence of location of boiling front, pressure drop, and pressure drop variation with input power, variation of boiling front with input power, bulk temperature (Tf) and wall temperature (Tw) and variation of quality of fluid along the length of microchannel. The present results of THHEM studies on two phase flow through micro channels using DI water as the fluid medium were analyzed. GDEs analysis incorporates effects of fluid flow rate, heat transfer and power input. The GDEs were solved to predict the location of boiling front, pressure drop and variation of quality of fluid along the length of microchannel.

Increasing in power input location of boiling front decreases

Increasing in power input pressure drop increases linearly.

Variation of pressure along length first decrease with minimal rate in single phase and after reaching in two phase zone pressure is drastically decreases

Bulk temperature (Tf) and wall temperature (Tw) increases up to single phase after reaching in two phase zone the bulk temperature and wall temperature decrease and both the temperature are almost equal
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Nomenclature
Tf bulk temperature
Tw wall temperature
Q heat fluid supplied
i1 heat supplied
L length of microchannel
W mass flow rate
ii saturation enthalpies of liquid iv saturation enthalpies of vapour if bulk fluid enthalpy
fsp single phase friction factor G mass flux in Kg/sm2
DIwater density in Kg/m3
Re Reynolds number
Dh Hydrolic dryness
Ftp friction factor of two phase
m Average density
m average viscosity
l saturated liquid density at specified pressure.
v saturated vapour density at specified pressure.
Cpl saturated specific heat capacity at specified pressure. fin efficiency
Pc perimeter of cross section