Mitigating Attacks using Relay Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV4IS19001

Download Full-Text PDF Cite this Publication

Text Only Version

Mitigating Attacks using Relay Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

K. Dhivya, M.E Computer Science and Engineering

M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering and Technology Karur, India

R. Pradeepa M.E Computer Science and Engineering

  1. Kumarasamy College of Engineering and Technology Karur, India

    Abstract Several relay-based routing protocols are projected within the previous couple of years; there has been very little work that investigates the protection of such protocols. As several applications for wireless sensing element networks need preparation in adversarial environments, it's important to supply security mechanisms to make sure these protocols operate properly within the presence of attackers. Additionally to standard attacks against sensing element networks like injecting, modifying, replaying, and dropping packets, relay network based mostly routing protocols area unit prone to new attacks that focus on the virtual reference system. Propose new mechanisms against the known attacks. Use an applied mathematics check based mostly detection algorithmic rule, hop-by-hop authentication, and a completely unique replay detection and mitigation technique to deal with coordinate deflation attacks. Stabilize the reference system by investing results from management theory to mitigate coordinate oscillation attacks, and introduce random relay routing to mitigate coordinate disruption attacks.

    Keywords Virtual coordinate,relay node,void region.

    1. INTRODUCTION (Heading 1)

      In current years, wireless sensor network (WSN) have be extensively used in various fields. Routing is one of the key technologies in WSN. Geographic routing selects path only relying on the location information of neighbor nodes. Since geographic routing protocol have the distinguishing of better scalability and is less affected by the network size, it has broad application prospects in large-scale WSNs. Due to the nodes irregularity in distribution, geographic routing protocol by greedy algorithm are able to cause local minima problem thus leading to data transmission failure eventually, which is denoted routing void problem. To resolve the routing void, designated a quarantine program around the cavity. The program by the ban in the region of separation node acts as a relay node to avoid routing void. Reference put forward RCF methods. RCF creates an annular cavity approximately the band. To avoid voids, the policy routing is created by choosing the relay node in the annular band. Chang et al. proposed the RGP (Route-Guiding Protocol) algorithm. To restricted routing voids, RGP is chosen for each node in the network from the overall perspective of the destination node due to the position association between the relay node and the void area. While the above methods are accepted to choose a particular area designating relay node to reduce computational complexity, the implementation process will contain larger control packet overhead and

      transmission delays. RGP is not conducive to network energy-saving and also not capable to resolve planning given special area inside the node routing void problem. Reference proposed GPSR protocol. To resolve the difficulty, GPSR used a network link topology through a combination of greedy mode and edge forwarding mode. Reference presented a sub effective interface routing algorithm. But the routing algorithms in need to build and maintain peripheral node link diagram (such as Gabriel Graph), which is not conducive to the development of high-scale networks. At present the method which uses virtual geography information to solve the routing void difficulty has achieved a few initial investigate results. But the key problem is that network nodes use the preselected reference node or the neighbor node information to rebuild their coordinate information. If the network node equivalent to the destination node is distorted, it uses the virtual reconstruction location information. It is able to only apply to a permanent destination node, and the network is inevitably void. Node in virtual position based routing protocol is restricted by the actual physical location, and the virtual location can be adjusted. Although the greedy algorithm is easy and less difficult, the previous virtual routing protocols are not fitting for every node in the network.

    2. BVR-VCM

      The basic plan of BVR-VCM is to make virtual coordinates of the complete void edge nodes by mapping their geographic coordinates to a virtual circle that covers the void, so establish a path by victimization these virtual coordinates. The virtual circle composed of edge nodes will solve routing void downside and create greedy formula add entire forwarding method, during this manner overhead of management packets are reduced. Moreover, the establishing and maintaining for virtual coordinates don't seem to be stricken by alternation of destination node, so energy consumption will be reduced. to the establishing method of virtual coordinates, the projected routing protocol is additional appropriate for stationary device networks, like exploration, during which nodes are stationary throughout their operating periods. To resolve previous issues, AN economical bypassing void routing protocol supported virtual coordinate mapping (BVR-VCM) is projected during this system.


      The basic plan of BVR-VCM is to make virtual coordinates of the entire void edge nodes by mapping their geographic coordinates to a virtual circle that covers the void, so establish a path by mistreatment these virtual coordinates. The virtual circle composed of edge nodes will solve routing void drawback and create greedy algorithmic program add entire forwarding method, during this means overhead of management packets square measure reduced. What is more, the establishing and maintaining for virtual coordinates aren't tormented by alternation of destination node, so energy consumption is reduced. as a result of the establishing method of virtual coordinates, the projected routing protocol is additional appropriate for stationary sensing element networks, like exploration, during which nodes square measure stationary throughout their operating periods.

      Figure 1: Routing void in greedy forwarding

      1. Routing Void in Geographic Routing

        .In geographic routing, once greedy forwarding is adopted, it will be simply interrupted attributable to the piece of land or radio coverage, for instance, pools, hills or buildings that find within the sensing element space. The finite distance of communication vary also can cause greedy forwarding failing. Once a sensing element node tries to forward the packet to at least one neighbor node that's geographically nearer to the destination node than itself, however such node doesnt exist, then a routing void is encountered. Greedy forwarding fails during this state of affairs. As shown in Figure.

        Figure 2: Edge structure without routing void

        A node n1 tries to forward a packet to the destination node d1 by greedy forwarding in multi hops. First, node n1 sends the packet to n2 by greedy forwarding. Since the neighbor nodes set of n2 is , none of that is nearer to the node destination d1, so a routing void is encountered and greedy forwarding fails to deliver the packet. Similarly, a routing void is encountered at node n5 once it tries to forward a

        packet to the destination node d2. round the obstacle space in Figure. Greedy forwarding fails at node n5 as represented higher than. except for completely different destinations, greedy forwarding might not fail at constant node. for nstance, if n5 tries to forward a packet to the destination node d1, packet will make d1 in conjunction with the trail n5n6n7d1 while not routing drawback.

      2. BVR-VCM Routing Protocol

        The projected routing protocol BVR-VCM consists of greedy mode and void process mode. In BVR-VCM, greedy formula is adopted to pick relay node in greedy mode. If greedy mode fails once a routing void is encountered, void process mode is activated. Void process mode consists of 3 phases, in step with process within the order, severally void police investigation, virtual coordinate mapping and void region dividing. When the implement of void process mode, the virtual coordinates of edge nodes area unit established. Then greedy mode is reactivated, these edge nodes that have the virtual coordinates are often selected because the relay node by greedy formula. Within the following section, 3 main phases in void process mode and therefore the main steps of entire method in BVR-VCM area unit delineated.

      3. Cooperative MAC

      Initial add cooperative networking was chiefly targeted on physical layer approaches planning to reach higher abstraction diversity. Though previous work shows the advantage of cooperation in wireless networks, it doesn't outline medium access ways that may support new cooperative methods. To require full advantage of physical layer cooperative techniques, new MAC methods should modification the transmitter-receiver communication model to incorporate a transmitter-relay(s)-receiver model. Common samples of MAC source-based cooperative relaying methods square measure those that use one relay or 2 relays in parallel. Source-based relaying approaches need the sources to take care of a table of CSI that's updated by potential relays primarily based upon periodic broadcasts. As Associate in nursing example, with Coop MAC, the supply will use Associate in nursing intermediate node (called helper) that experiences comparatively smart channel with the supply and also the destination. Rather than causing frames on to the destination at an occasional transmission rate, the supply makes use of a two-hop high rate path to the destination via a helper. just in case of Coop MAC, potential helpers take in current RTS/CTS transmissions for activity the source-helper and helper-destination CSI. Supported the CSI broadcasted by potential helpers, sources update an area table (coop table) wont to choose the simplest relay for every transmission. Another example of supply primarily based relaying is CODE, which uses multiple relays supported network cryptography. In CODE all nodes take in RTS/CTS frames, and if they realize that they'll transmit information quicker than the supply, they add the identity of supply and destination to their disposition list. Once the supply finds its address within the willing list of relay(s), it adds those relay(s) into its cooperative table. The most important distinction between Coop MAC and CODE is that with the latter, a supply selects two relays with latest feedback time, forming a cooperative diamond. The usage of RTS-CTS

      frames is additionally totally different. Source-based approaches bear two main problems: channel estimation and periodic broadcasts, which introduce overhead that's problematic in mobile eventualities. Whereas source-based proposals follow a proactive approach, reactive cooperative ways place confidence in relays to transmit on behalf of the supply once the transmission mechanism fails. Associate in nursing example is professional, that selects relays among a group of overhearing nodes in two phases: initial, an area qualification method takes place at potential relays, throughout that the link quality is compared with some predefined threshold, resulting in the identification of qualified relays. During a second section, qualification data is broadcasted, permitting qualified relays to line programming priorities. Reactive approaches face identical challenges of source-based ways. CoRe-MAC is another reactive Cooperative MAC protocol. In CoRe-MAC, once a NACK is overheard, candidate relays send Associate in Nursing AFR (Apply for Relay) message to the destination inside a set range of slots. Once receiving non colliding AFRs, the destination elects the simplest relay in term of the best received SNR. but the destination doesn't grasp that is that the appropriate range of AFR messages to attend for, so as to succeed in an honest call. Moreover, the additional handshaking messages introduce important overhead just in case of relay failure. Propose a mechanism wherever all overhearing nodes estimate the ratio (SNR) for each source- relay and relay-destination channels, supported that they'll nominate themselves as potential relays. Potential relays send a nomination message to the destination; by choosing a make time for the rivalry window, and also the destination selects a best suited relay among all the appointive nodes. This proposal has many drawbacks:

      1. Geographic position of nodes is assumed to be known;

      2. The dimensions of the rivalry window has nice influence in choosing the simplest relay;

      3. The destination node isn't tuned in to the quantity of appointive relays. Within the case of multi-hop networks the performance gain of cooperative relaying could also be exploited by finding a node that assists the transmission for each hop. Although the gain achieved through cooperative diversity will increase hardiness, it needs retransmissions reducing network capability. Such hop base cooperation methods neglects crucial evidence: not solely the destination of information could be in want of facilitating however conjointly successive hopped. Another approach could also be to use two in-one cooperation, during which one retransmission will improve the success likelihood of two standard transmissions (source to next-hop and next-hop to destination), resulting in a stronger usage of the network capability. In two-in-one cooperation all potential relays react once sleuthing a missing Acknowledgment (ACK) from the destination. Though two in one cooperation are able to do a diversity gain of three, the foremost appropriate relay choice ways isn't investigated.


In what considerations relay choice mechanisms, the fundamental mechanism defines associate opportunist

behavior during which all overhearing nodes estimate the CSI of sender-node and node destination links, supported that they set a timer specified nodes with higher channel conditions broadcast initial their qualification as relays, or maybe information to be relayed. Such mechanisms gift a high chance of collision, moreover as low potency in mobile eventualities owing to CSI measurements. Yet, opportunist relaying has been changed attending to increase its potency level. Though most of the connected work considers opportunist relaying, it should result in information collision if quite one relay is chosen. Collisions could also be avoided by employing a appropriate resource allocation strategies, or by employing a relay only if required, that result in the necessity to plan a relay on demand mechanism. For example, with relaying on demand, the fundamental relay choice mechanism is changed with the introduction of a receiver threshold attending to improve energy savings. With on-demand approaches nodes with dangerous channel conditions don't participate in relay choice. However, such approaches still depend upon RTS/CTS for channel estimation, resulting in high overheads. Alternative quite relay choice mechanisms consider geographical info. Such approaches assume that users location is thought, based mostly as an example on info from GPS, and Packet Error Rate (PER) is employed as metric for choosing relays. It depends on constant/known channel statistics in terms of weakening chance Density operates (PDF), weakening motor vehicle correlation operates, and path

Figure 3: Opportunistic relay selection scenario

In evntualities wherever the users are moving quick such parameters cannot be assumed to be proverbial, that limits the potential of this kind of approaches. A proposal to cluster and choose set of relays for cooperative networks within which every node has knowledge of its own to transmit, and cooperation could also be non-reciprocal. The study of non- reciprocal approaches to relay allocation brings many edges, since with distributed algorithms nodes create individual selections concerning cooperation. Investigate the result of allocation policies on system performance, and the way the cooperative gain scales with the amount of cooperating nodes, specified every node will decipher message with high chance. In terms of the outage chance, it assumes that every node might facilitate n alternative nodes, and therefore the choice strategy guarantees diversity n+1 for all transmissions. However, as n+ one node participates in one transmission, the system complexness is significantly high. Moreover, this

work assumes that tiny scale weakening isn't dominated by path loss that points to networks of up to an explicit coverage space.


  1. Dejing Zhang and Enqing Dong, A Virtual Coordinate-Based Bypassing VoidRouting for Wireless Sensor Networks, IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 15, NO. 7, JULY 2015

  2. W. Liu, E. Dong, and Y. Song, Robustness analysis for node multilateration localization in wireless sensor networks, Wireless Netw., Nov. 2014. [Online]. Available:

  3. F. Yu, S. Park, Y. Tian, M. Jin, and S. Kim, Efficient hole detour mehods for geographic routing in wireless sensor networks, in Proc.

  4. Veh. Technol. Conf., Singapore, May 2008, pp. 153157.

  5. C. Chang, C. Chang, Y. Chen and S. Lee, Active route-guiding protocols for resisting obstacles in wireless sensor networks, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 44254442, Nov. 2010.

  6. B. Karp and H. T. Kung, GPSR: Greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks, in Proc. ACM 6th Annu. Int. Conf. Mobi Com, 2000, pp. 243254.

  7. P. Huang, C. Wang, and L. Xiao, Improving end-to-end routing performance of greedy forwarding in sensor networks, IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 556563, Mar. 2012.

  8. Z. Zhong and T. He, Achieving Range-Free Localization beyond Connectivity, Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2009.

  9. W. Jia, T. Wang, G. Wang, and M. Guo, Hole Avoiding in Advance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks, Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC), 2007.

  10. F. Yu, S. Park, Y. Tian, M. Jin, and S.-H. Kim, Efficient Hole Detour Mehods for Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks, Proc. Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC), pp. 2326- 2330, 2008

  11. X. Ma, M. T. Sun, G. Zhao, and X. Liu, An efficient-path pruning algorithm for geographical routing in wireless networks, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 24742488, Jul. 2008.

Leave a Reply