 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 669
 Authors : Patel Jalpa M, Chandresh D. Parekh
 Paper ID : IJERTV2IS1143
 Volume & Issue : Volume 02, Issue 01 (January 2013)
 Published (First Online): 30012013
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Minituarized Compact Monopole Antenna for Multiband Applications
Patel Jalpa M
M.TECH (Digital communication) Student of RIET, Jaipur
RTU, KOTA, RAJASTHAN
Chandresh D. Parekh
Asst. Prof. (Electronics and communication Engg.) Raksha Shakti University,
Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Modern telecommunication system require antenna with wider bandwidth and smaller dimensions. Various antennas for wide band operation have been studied for communication and radar system. The fractal antenna is preferred due to small size, light weight and easy installation. A fractal microstrip antenna is used for multiband application in this project provides a simple and efficient method for obtaining the compactness. A sierpinski carpet based fractal antenna is designed for multiband applications. It should be in compactness and less weight is the major point for designing an antenna. This antenna is providing better efficiency.
Keywordscomponent; siperinski gasket,fractal,multiband antenna
1. INTRODUCTION (HEADING 1)
The term fractal was coined by the French mathematician B.B.Mandelbrot during 1970s after his pioneering research on several naturally occurring irregular of conventional geometrics not contained within the realms of conventional Euclidian geometry has significantly impacted many areas of science and engineering .one of which is antennas. Antenna using some of these geometries for various telecommunication application are already available commercially .The use of fractal geometrics has been shown to improve several antenna features to varying extents. Microstrip patch antenna (MPA) has attracted wide interest due to its important features .Such as light weight, low cost, simple to manufacture and easy to integrate with RF devices. For reducing the size of antenna, fractal geometries have been introduced. The main objectives are to design a square shaped fractal antenna which will be small in size and multiband performance. A fractal is a rough of fragmented geometric shape that can be split into parts, each of which is reduced size copy of the whole .Roots of the mathematical interest in fractals can be traced back to the late 19th century. However mathematical fractal is based on an equation that undergoes iteration, a form of feed based on recursion.
Fractals are a class of shapes which have not characteristics size. Each fractal is composed of multiple iterations of single elementary shapes. The iterations can boundary but of infinite length or area.
Fractals have the following features.

It has a fine structure at arbitrarily small scales.

It is too irregular to be easily described in traditional Euclidean geometric.

It is selfsimilar.

Simple and recursive.
A fractal is A rough of fragmented geometric shape that is generated by starting with a very simple pattern that grows through the application of rules. In many cases the rules to make the figure grow from one stage to next involve taking the original figure and modifying it or adding to it. The process can be repeated recursively an infinite number of times.
The first application of fractals to the field of antenna theory was reported by Kim and jaggared. They introduced a methodology for designing low side lobe arrays that is based on the theory of random fractals. The fact that self scaling array can produce fractal radiation pattern was first established in 1992.This is accomplished by studying the properties of a special type of non uniform linear array, called aweiertrass array, which has selfscaling element spacing and current distribution.
For reducing the size of antenna, fractals geometries have been introduced in the design of antenna fractal geometries have two antennas. Fractal geometries have two common properties: selfsimilar property, space filling property. The selfsimilarity property of certain fractals results in multiband behavior. Using the selfsimilarity properties a fractal antenna can be designed to receive and transmit over a wide range of frequencies. While using space filling properties, fractal makes reduce antenna size.
Fractal antenna engineering is the field, which utilize fractal geometries for antenna design. It has become one of the growing fields of antenna engineering due to its advantage over conventional antenna design.

ANTENNA DESIGN

Equation
The transmission line model represents the microstrip antenna by two slots each of width W and height h separated by two impedance ZC transmission line of length
L. the essential parameters for the design an antenna according the transmission line method are dielectric constant of the substrate ), resonant frequency (fr) and the height of substrate h. The conventional microstrip rectangular antenna is designed by following the standard procedures:

Calculation of the width W of antenna, which is given by:

Calculation of effective dielectric constant, reff, which is given by:

Calculation of the effective length, Leff which is given by:

Calculation of the length extension, L, which is given by:

Calculation of the effective length extension of patch L which is given by:

Ground plane dimension LS and WS which are given by:
is cut down from the center of the rectangular patch antenna which is shown the first iteration, again rectangular shape is cut down from the some portion of 1st iteration. Finally resonant frequency found at 2nd iteration.fig.1 shows the rectangular patch antenna without iteration and fig.2 shows the fractal with 1st iteration of the rectangular patch antenna. Fig.3 shows the rectangular patch antenna with 2nd iteration. The size of the rectangular patch antenna is 24mm Ã— 33mm (without iteration) and after 1st iteration indetation 8mmÃ—11mm. This rectangular patch fractal antenna has scale factor equal to 1/3.
Figure 1 Conventional Patch Antenna
Figure 2 Geometry Of First Iteration


Design
LS = 6h + L
WS = 6h + L
The parameter taken into account for the design are the reasonant frequency (fr=2.77GHz), dielectric constant =4.3) and thickness of the subtrate (h=1.575mm).the convensional patch antenna is shown in figure1with dimesions.
The rectangular microstrip patch antenna is based on sieperinski carpet. For designing this fractal antenna IE3D software is used. The FR4 epoxy material is used as subtrate. The thickness of the substrate is 1.575mm. The dielectric constant of the antenna is 4.3. The sierpinski carpet fractal shapes is used in this paper with single iteration. In decomposion algorithm for rectangular shapes
Figure 3 Proposed Antenna And Its Geometry Of Second Iteration


SIMULATION REASULT
Simulation of the proposed antenna is carried out by zeland inc`s software based on method of moment (MOM) the simulated return loss of second iteration is shown in fig.4.
Figure 4 Simulated Return Loss (S11) Of Rectangular Fractal Antenna
Figure 5 VSWR Frequency Characteristic
Figure 6 Elevation Pattern Gains Display (dbi)
Figure 7 Smith Chart
TABLE 1: SIMULATION OF PROPOSED ANTENNA
S
r
N
o
Fre q.
(G
Hz
)
Radi ation Effic iency
Anten na Efficie ncy
Gain (dBi)
irectivit y
3dB Beam Width (degree)
(dBi
)
(de gre e)
1
4.3
52
59.2
883
41.662
2
4.60
2
87
8.40
54
5
65,
90
53.2825,
58.1961
2
5.6
73.5
767
65.364
2
7.42
4
54
9.27
11
4
0,
70
60.0033,
77.0687
3
6.2
4
35.3
252
35.325
2
2.76
9
52
8.22
16
5
65,
40
35.7242,
45.2231
4
8.2
56
33.4
461
28.022
6
2.28
1
45
7.80
63
6
60,
27
0
44.205,
52.0199
5
11.
39
2
69.7
501
49.919
6.68
9
25
9.70
66
35,
30
33.0123,
46.4951
6
12.
76
8
22.1
935
22.094
6
1.37
6
17
7.93
33
2
55,
14
0
40.8714,
51.3686
7
13.
50
4
18.5
031
16.434
4
2.45
8
76
10.3
01
2
65,
90
28.1782,
35.9851
8
14.
59
2
28.6
201
23.797
1
3.50
3
3
9.73
80
6
65,
90
38.9439,
58.4226

CONCLUSION
The aspects of microstrip antenna have been studied in this paper. The aspect is the design of typical rectangular microstrip antenna. A simple and efficient technique of design has been introduced for an impedance matching improvement of antenna in this paper. The microstrip fractal antenna is proposed for the wireless various applications. The antenna is designed for multiband frequencies (4.35, 5.6, 6.24, 8.256, 11.39, 12.76, 13.50, and 14.59) GHz and
the simulation result are obtained up to second iteration. The proposed antenna show a significant size reduction compared to the conventional microstrip antenna. The designed antenna is compact enough to be placed in typical wireless devices.

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