Maximum Coverage in Square Region (MCSR) for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

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Maximum Coverage in Square Region (MCSR) for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

P. Sathya1

Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science,

Periyar University PG Extension Centre, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India.

Dr. P. Sengottuvelan2

Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science,

Periyar University PG Extension Centre, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract:- Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are promising and rising systems having a wide scope of utilizations. The underwater sensor sending is benecial; be that as it may, a few elements limit the exhibition of the system, i.e., less unwavering quality, top of the line to-end postponement and most extreme vitality spreading. The provisioning of the previously mentioned variables has turned into a difficult undertaking for the examination network. In UWSNs, battery utilization is unavoidable and directly affects the presentation of the system. Most extreme Coverage in Square eld locale (MCS) for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) is presented. The general territory of the system is partitioned into ten sub areas and two versatile sinks (MSs) are sent. The information is transmitted to the MS straightforwardly and portability example of MS is balanced so that it covers the entire zone of the system. Whenever MS and sensor hubs are in transmission scope of one another then information is transmitted.

Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks, mobile sinks, end-to-end delay.


    The planet Earth ,on which we live our lives, comprises of 70%water. While the seas hold more than90%oftotal water. This much amount demonstrates the significance of the water medium. To investigate the submerged mechanism for getting and sharing significant data ,a system is conveyed in a specic locale. Data transmission utilizing Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) is one of the developing advancements and is utilized for the improvement of sea perception frameworks.

    Utilizations of UWSNs extend from aquaculture to oil industry; instrument checking to atmosphere recording; contamination control to expectations on cataclysmic events; search and study purposes to submarine purposes. The sensor hub in a UWSN procures the ideal data and transmit towards the following forwarder hub which is nearer to the sink(Sink: This word is on the other hand utilized as sink hub, sonobuoy, foreordained hub and goal hub) [1]. This sink might be the coastal server farm or a straightforward sensor hub over the water surface. In information sending strategy , the source(Source: The words source hub and introductory hub are on the other hand utilized for the source) hub creates information parcels and speak with its neighbors to nd the potential

    hub. The vitality and system security have an immediate connection. As the vitality of sensors builds, the strength of the system will be longer, and the other way around. Void openings are regions inside the transmission scope of a system where a hub can't nd its next neighbor or forwarder.

    The void gaps creation has following reasons (1) hub turns out to be dead because of a great deal of vitality use and (2) no forwarder hub. Topology control can conquer the undesired impacts of UWSNs and subsequently to improve the presentation of directing conventions. The connection between topology control and UWSN is condensed as pursues [3] In UWSNs, remote correspondence is given by the acoustic channel to empower systems administration administrations.

    • UWSNs have numerous particular qualities that upgrade the difficulties in viable systems administration structure.

    • To conquer these difficulties and increment the exhibition of the system, the topology control strategy is the best arrangement.

    Limitations of sensor arrange in submerged is basic. The accumulated information is futile until it isn't related with the specied position of the sensor hub. Confinement in UWSNs is significant as it has numerous valuable applications, e.g., target following, submerged condition observing, contamination control and geographic directing conventions. In any case, UWSNs can't utilize the Global Positioning System (GPS) because of high vitality scattering and high constriction of RF signals [4,5].


    Restriction Based The creators in[6]discuss the geographic or confinement based directing. The work in [7] audit the works wherein the idea of restriction based directing is utilized. Both of these above, talk about unwavering quality and none of them chip away at versatility the board or parcel size administration. Additionally, in [8], the idea of single-bounce and multi- jump is formulated. The difficulties which are examined in these works are high obstruction, restricted batteries of sensor hubs, low data transfer capacity and malevolent assaults. The work in [8] accomplishes the higher PDR by ending the areas of alive hubs. A short time later, the information parcels are sent to these alive hubs, in like manner. The difficulties talked about in [9] are restriction,

    possible equipment, significant reproduction apparatuses and low power lightweight flyers.

    Topology Control Based The creators in [10] proposed topology control-based arrangements. TCEB and GARM plans are proposed for controlling the topology of UWSNs in [7,10], respectively. Furthermore, the[11] classies diverse topological conventions. From [3], dependability and portability is talked about. The work [3] centers around single-jump and multi-bounce while the work [7] just spotlight on next forwarder hub. The difficulties that examined in [3,5,7,] are: high lessening, versatility of sensor hubs, vitality efciency, low data transfer capacity, availability misfortune, high piece rate mistake, high organization cost, complexities and ideal area of lightweight plane. Utilizing dynamic topological technique, work in [7] accomplishes vitality efciency and the work in [12] improves both PDR and vitality efciency. In [5], portability the board is a noteworthy thought utilizing EEL and the idea of multi-trusting. What's more, the work [5] accomplishes better recreation results from thought about ones.


    This section presents the working of the protocol operation, network model, mobility model of sink and energy harvesting mechanism in detail.

    Protocol Operation The proposed protocol operates in two phases:

    (i) setup phase and (ii) steady state phase.

    1. Setup phase: At first, every hub communicates a welcome parcel inside its transmission range to share data about its ID, profundity, and lingering vitality. Based on this data sharing, neighbors are identied.

    2. Steady state phase: Source hub advances information bundle to goal hub or to MS if in transmission go. At the goal hub, the bundle is either acknowledged or dismissed based on number of effectively got bits. Besides, the hubs that lie in the transmission scope of the versatile sink send their information legitimately to the sink.


    Introduced maximum coverage square region routing protocol MCS in which the mobility pattern of sink is adjusted in such a way that the overall area of the network is covered and each node sends its data directly to MS and hence the throughput increases and packet dropped ratio is reduced.

    TABLE I: Simulation Parameters



    Number of nodes


    Numberof sinks


    Network area

    1100m x 1100m

    Transmission range


    Initial energy


    Size of data packet


    1. Performance Parameters

      The proposed protocol is evaluated by following parameters:

      1. Network Stability Period: Strength period is the term wherein every one of the hubs are alive in the system. The unit of steadiness period is seconds.

      2. Throughput: Number of bundles effectively got at the base station. It is unit less, on the grounds that it is proportion of absolute transmitted bundles by all out got parcels. It's unit is bits every second.

      3. Packet Drop: Number of packets send by sensor nodes but not received at base station.

      4. Packet Acceptance Ratio: Number of packets successfully received at the base station divided by total packets sent to the base station.

      5. Network Lifetime: It is the time from the beginning of the system till the passing of the last hub. The unit of Network lifetime is seconds.

      6. Residual Energy: It is the remaining energy of a sensor node at any time interval. Its unit is joule.

    2. Performance Parameters

    Discussions In this section, we discuss the performance parameters in detail.

    1. Network Lifetime:

      Figure 1 demonstrates the system lifetime of MCS, MC and EBECRP. Dependability time of MC is more than MCS and EBECRP. In MC portable sinks are move clockwise way and spreads the zone so that all the sensor hubs legitimately speak with sinks when they are in their transmission extend.

      Fig. 1: Number of Alive Nodes

    2. Energy Consumption:

      The vitality utilization of MCS, MC and EBECRP. As bunching is performed in EBECRP and hubs use vitality in making groups and group head additionally because of which more vitality is devoured when contrasted with other two plans. Less vitality is expended in MC as a result of the clockwise development of sink and direct transmission among MS and hub. Additionally in MCS, the MSs proceed onward the predened ways and direct transmission is performed when MS is in transmission extend. The portability of sink is balanced so that every single square locale is secured. Therefore, the vitality utilization of MCS is less when contrasted with EBECRP and more than MC.

    3. Packet Dropped:

    In gure 2, the quantity of parcels dropped in MCS, MC and EBECRP are analyzed. All the sensor hubs send information to their individual bunch head in EBECRP and if group head isn't found in specic region than all bundles are dropped. In this way, more bundles are dropped in EBECRP.

    In MCS, the MSs, spread the general territory of the system in some measure of time and hubs send information legitimately to the MS. Along these lines, an ever increasing number of parcels are gotten and the bundle drop proportion is diminished when contrasted with other to systems.

    Fig. 2: Number of Dropped Packets


A different square area based steering convention MCS is executed in this paper. MCS is an efcient method that can be utilized to safe the assets of the channel. The additional assets are possibly utilized when required. We have figured the articulations for the versatility example of sink and demonstrate the portability example of the sink graphically. The immediate transmission is performed among hubs and sink when in transmission run

.Simulations and results demonstrates that our proposed plan MCS is superior to MC and EBECRP as far as throughput, packet recognition proportion, vitality utilization and bundle drop. As a future path, we utilize agreeable directing procedure and the efcient choice of hand-off hub with the goal that our convention performs much superior to anything the other direction-finding strategies.


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