DOI : 10.17577/IJERTCONV9IS12003

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Roshan E C Student, Department of ECE Coorg Insitute of Technology,

Ponnampet, Karnataka571216

Dechakka M P

#Assistant Professor, Department of ECE

Coorg Insitute of Technology, Ponnampet, Karnataka571216

Abstract: LoRa is low power wide area wireless netwo rk (LPWAN) protocol for Internet of Things (IoTs) ap plications. These technologies offer novel communication paradigm to address discrete IoT's applications. LoRa i s a recently proposed LPWAN technology based on sp read spectrum technique with a wider band.


    Lora (Long Range) is a proprietary low-power wide- area network modulation technique. It is based on sp read spectrum modulation techniques derived from ch irp spread spectrum (CSS) technology It was develop ed by Cycleo of Grenoble, France, and acquired by Semtech, the founding member ofTthe LoRa Alliance

    and it is patented.

  2. OBJECTIVE Lora uses license-free sub-

    gigahertz radio frequency bands like 433 MHz, 868 MHz (Europe), 915 MHz (Australia and North Amer ica), 865 MHz to 867 MHz (India), and 923 MHz (Asia). LoRa enables long-

    range transmissions with low power consumption. Th e technology covers the physical layer, while other t echnologies and protocols such as LoRaWAN (Long Range Wide Area Network) cover the upper layers. It can achieve data rates between 0.3 kbit/s and 27 kbit/s depending upon the spreading factor.

    LoRa devices have geolocation capabilities used for t rilateration positions of devices via timestamps from gateways.


    Since LoRa defines the lower physical layer, the up per networking layers were lacking. LoRaWAN is on e ofTseveral protocols that were developed to define the upper layers of the network. LoRaWAN is a c


    based medium access control (MAC) layer protocol but acts mainly as a network layer protocol for man aging communication between LPWAN gateways and


    node devices as a routing protocol, maintained by th e LoRa Alliance.

    LoRaWAN defines the communication protocol and s ystem architecture for the network, while the LoRa

    physical layer enables the long-

    range communication link. LoRaWAN is also respons ible for managing the communication frequencies, dat a rate, and power for all devices. Devices in the ne twork are asynchronous and transmit when they have data available to send. Data transmitted by an end- node device is received by multiple gateways, whichf orward the data packets to a centralized network ser ver. Data is then forwarded to application servers. T he technology shows high reliability for the moderate load, however, it has some performance issues relate d to sending acknowledgments.


    • CHALLENGE ONE first satellite to use LoRa

    • Amazon Sidewalk, IoT network for Ring home c ameras, Amazon Alexa assistant, and other consu mer devices

    • Reindeer tracking in Finland

    • Glasgow IoT network

    • IoT networks in Argentina, Brazil, and Estonia

    • Smart fire alarms and fire detection

    • Smart Parking

    • Black rhino poaching protection in Tanzania and endangered sea turtle monitoring in Peru

    • Natural disaster prediction

    • Cotton farming in Australia

    • Utility metering in India

    • Autonomous irrigation and soil health monitoring

    • Smart water monitoring and water monitoring for commercial farms

    • City-wide network in Calgary, Alberta, Canada

    • IoT Network in Alba Iulia, Romania

    • IoT Network in Gold Coast, Australia as part of required upgrades for the 2018 Commonwealth


    • Country-

      wide LoRa network in Switzerland, operated by Swisscom.

    • IoT4Africa is a consortium of African passionate, investors and experts, aware of the opportunitieso ffered by the Internet of Things that creates plat forms and infrastructures to facilitate the develop ment and integration ofTIoT technologies in Afri ca for developers, companies, and private users.

      The 2021 Roadmap: Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Sen egal, Nigeria, Ghana…


    • The Lora Alliance is a non-

      profit and open association ofTmembers with a v ision to standardize LoRaWan for LPWAN (Low

      Power Wide Area Network) to enable IoT

    • LoRaWAN is part of the LPWAN network

    • LoRaWAN utilize the IoT such as seamless inter operability among IoT, secure bi-

      directional communication, mobility and localizati on services

    • The alliance consists of several companies who t ogether build carrier communication networks and sensing solutions, to improve the connected wor


    • LoRaWAN network architecture uses a star topol ogy network similar to WIFI

    • The data rates range ofTLoRaWAN are from 0.3 kbps to 50 k

      LoRaWAN has three classes known as A, B, and C that operate simultaneously:

    • Class A is asynchronous: this means a specific operation begins upon receipt ofTa signal that th e preceding operation has been completed. These

      end nodes only transmit when they need, and t he rest of the time they are on standby

    • Class B allows messages to be sent down to ba ttery-

      powered nodes. All LoRaWAN stations are a sla ve to 1PPS (one-pulse-per-

      second), and they transmit beacon messages at t he same time. All nodes in class B are assigne d a time slot within a 128-

      second cycle. This means you can tell a node t o listen to every fifth slot and allow for a dow nlink message to be transmitted when the slot c omes up.

    • Class C nodes can listen constantly and can sen d a downlink message at any time. This is prim arily used for AC-

      powered applications, as it takes a lot of energy to keep a node actively awake.


    Smart City: LoRa WAN will be inevitable technolog y in future smart city applications together with the

    Internet of Things like:

      • Smart lighting

      • Air quality and pollution monitoring

      • Smart parking and vehicle management

      • Facilities and infrastructure management

      • Fire detection and management

      • Waste management

        Industrial Applications: LoRa WAN is suitable for a wide range ofTindustrial applications.

        • Radiation and leak detection

        • Smart sensor technology

        • Item location and tracking

        • Shipping and transportation

          Smart home applications: In the future, billions ofTs mart devices and home appliances will be connected

          to the internet.

        • Enhanced home security

        • Home automation for IoT enables sma rt appliances

          Healthcare: LoRa is one ofTthe best solutions for co nnecting healthcare devices efficiently

        • Health monitoring devices and manage ment

        • Wearable technology

    Agriculture: LoRa technology can be used in smart agriculture and farming applications.

    • Smart farming and livestock management

    • Temperature and moisture monitoring

    • Water level sensors and irrigation control


In the future, our global, national and regional netw orks have to support billions or even trillions ofTde vices. Lora can play a significant role in providing a smart, low cost and highly efficient network for f

uture applications. It has an association of more than

400 companies globally to contribute, improve and implement a smart network for future needs.


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  3. Fargas, BernatCarbones; Petersen, Martin Nordal. DTU Librar y.

  4. M. Chiani; A. Elzanaty (2019). "On the LoRa Modulation fo r IoT: Waveform Properties and Spectral Analysis". IEEE Int ernet ofTThings Journal.

  5. Mohan, Vivek. "10 Things About LoRaWAN& NB-IoT".

  6. Bankov, D.; Khorov, E.; Lyakhov, A. (November 2016). "On the Limits of LoRaWAN Channel Access". 2016 Internation

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