Leader’s Role and its Effect on Organizational Change: the Case of Federal Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institute

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Leader’s Role and its Effect on Organizational Change: the Case of Federal Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institute

Handiso Selamu Yisihak

Author 1st (Researcher) Tianjin University of Technology and Education Address: No.1310 Dagu South Road, Hexi District, Tianjin, P.R.China

near to Lambert National Bus Station

Bekuretsiyon H/Silasse (PhD) Advisor: –

Federal Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institute Address: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, near to Lambert National Bus Station

Yujun Cai (Professor) Author 2nd

Tianjin University of Technology and Education Address: No.1310 Dagu South Road, Hexi District, Tianjin, P.R.China

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research paper would not have been possible without the guidance and support of many professional colleagues at all management level. My profound appreciation and thanks are due to Dr.Bekuretsiyon H/Silasse, my research advisor, for his unreserved guidance, constructive and useful professional opinion.

My Sincere gratitude also goes to Dr. Tareqagn Lera Lecturer and Advisor in Federal Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institute, Dr.Ricardo Mejia, Advisor in TVET Outcome Based Training, Assessment and Certification, MoE- (FTA+FTI), Eng. Fekade Asrat senior TVET system Freelance Consultant in Ministry of Education, Federal TVET Institute and Center of Excellency for Engineering and ***My Father Mr.Yisihak Handiso, Senior Freelance Consultant in Education and Training system and Educational Psychology in Ethiopian Evangelical Church of Mekane Yesus Education and Training Project (NGO). Without whose assistance this study would not have been successful. I would also like to convey my deepest gratitude to the Federal TVET Agency and Federal TVET Institute for providing the means for me to undertake this graduate study.

I would like to give my Special and deepest gratitude to H.E Mr. Sahleselassie Teka, State Minister (TVET sector),H.E Mr. Teshome Lema, former State Minister (TVET sector), Mr. Neguse Gebre, Deputy General Director of Federal TVET Agency, Mr.Kehass G/Medihin, Deputy General Director of small and Medium Manufacturing Agency, Mr.Mathewos Ashenafi, Director Center of Excellency for Engineering, H.E Mr. Saifu Tedesse, Deputy General Director of Federal TVET Institute, all respondents and informants who helped me during my fieldwork. In addition, I would like to express my appreciation to all my Instructors, graduate friends and classmates.

***Lastly, I would like to thank my beloved Wife and Childrens, Woizero Netsanet Degineh, Refayim Selamu and Ewuneta`ab Selamu, for their moral and material support in carrying out double responsibilities during my absence from home.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to assess LEADERS ROLE AND ITS EFFECT ON ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT

CHANGE in the Federal TVET Institute. To conduct this research study, surveying method was employed. For the sake of convenience in generalizing and homogeneity; Five Faculties (Divisions), selected teachers and Administration staffs, General Director, Three Deputy General Directors and 8 Directorates were purposefully selected to make the approach manageable. The target population used in the study consisted of 54 Teachers, 104 subordinate staffs; one General Director, 3 Deputy General Directors, 8 Directorates (process owners). Questionnaires, Interview and Oral discussion were the main data gathering instruments. Semi-structured interview, document analysis, and observation checklist were employed to enrich the data gathered through questionnaires. Both the leaders and subordinates were first selected on the basis of department and occupational area respectively by using stratified sampling. Then the sample population was taken from these by employing simple random sampling method proportionately. The Federal TVET Institute is purposefully selected as an organization and to narrow down the sampling by selecting Five Faculties and 8 Directorates on the basis of their behavior, responsibilities and related qualities for better responses in the interview represented by 170 respondents. Moreover; the collected data were analyzed by using SPSS 20 and ANOVA. Some of the major findings include: Insufficiency of government competent leaders, Current leaders in the Federal TVET Institute served the TVET system but lacking the qualifications as required by the National TVET Strategy and corresponding policy document. Most of the leaders identified on this study has not complied with the requirements of the National TVET Qualification Framework, as such came into conclusion

that the TVET Institute is suffering from inefficiency and dysfunctional leadership which affect the training and development of leaders. Lastly, the TVET Institute has insufficient budget allocated for training and development of TVET leaders. This can be visibly observed in the absence of appropriate training equipment and materials as well as training facilities such as: reference books, e-library and research center and Internet room. Finally, the Ministry of Education, Federal TVET Agency and Federal TVET Institute MoE-(FTA+FTI) has to work hard in conducting continuous training and development of TVET leaders and must ensure that an appropriate supervision, monitoring and evaluation system of leaders activities is put in place. This will lead to the creation of internationally accepted and recognized Center of Excellence in leaders training and development.

Key words: leadership role, visioning and setting an example; empowering and energizing. Leading team

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

      1. Background of the StudyThe 21st century has brought Ethiopia into a bright prospect and challenges for leaders and managers as an engine of growth having more emerging indicators of success. To sustain this momentum of growth and development in the economy of Ethiopia, the strategy of requiring rapid and innovative and high impact interventions shall be put forward that will benefit the people of the nation through the creation of well-educated leaders and managers that will provide quality skills training and development program.

        A serious demographic explosion remains to be a problem of the country where it is expected that population will be more than double by 2050 (60% of which will be youth under 25 year old); though, it is foreseen that most of these youth will be increasingly educated because of government initiatives but the quality and relevance of education they receive often make them unfit for the demands of the labor market due to lack of appropriate skills require of the occupation. In Ethiopia with a population of roughly estimated to over a100 Million and about 2/3 lives in the rural areas based on the current available government statistical data, the youth population is about 60% which would require better skills preparations to make them productive citizen of the country. The TVET Reform launched in 2007 G.C has brought tremendous and significant improvements in the life of the people having equipped with the right skills for the job. However, improving the relevance of leaders leading the education systems and the creation of jobs continuous to be one of the great challenges for Ethiopia and African countries in the next 10 or more years. Failure to address this particular problem will put the next generation at risk.

        It is right to say that the performance of employees is generally influenced by their leaders role and capacity to effectively lead the people and organization. There are several reasons why the role of a leader is an important issue in management.</p

        In general perspective, the main task of the manager is to achieve the organizational goals by demonstrating skills in effective management, thus motivating the employees or workers productivity through its effectiveness and efficiency (Reem, 2011, p. 8). In order to perform well in the workplace,

        employees do not only have to be skilled for their job but they also have to understand what they are required to do (Reem, 2011, p. 8). This would mean that effective leadership role will come in to play for the employees or workers to perform effectively and efficiently. However, if the leader cannot demonstrate effective leadership, it will not motivate even the most talented employees and workers to be productive in the workplace. Additionally, an effective leader will be able to motivate the employee or worker to be much more productive in the workplace and chances are would not be engaged in showing grievances and complaint, and even demonstrate an act of insubordination (Reem, 2011, p. 9). Eventually, an energized and highly motivated employee or workers can perform and achieve good performance even though there could be some knowledge or skill gaps but the attitude of the employee or worker is ready to learn(Reem, 2011, p. 9), thus, a happy, contented and motivated employee or worker they are (Reem, 2011, p. 9).

        It is in this context that this research intended to make an assessment of the role of leaders and managers as public servants in the Federal TVET Institute. The Institute tasked to train and develop TVET trainers, leaders and industry technicians, which redound to the production of skilled and competent human resource that will be productive in the workplace. It is appropriate and timely addressing the seemingly lack of skills competence of TVET trainers, leaders & managers, and industry technicians.

        The research output will benefit the Federal TVET Institute which identifies its leadership weaknesses and would have the opportunity to transform into strength if given appropriate attention. In a national context, it will also benefit Ethiopia, considering that the identified weaknesses might be true also in whole or in part in some government organizations. And in the bigger context will benefit the whole of Africa considering that the identified weaknesses of the leaders are also happening in other African countries (Reem, 2011, p. 9).

        In general, its worker character is being influenced by the kind of leadership being demonstrated by a leader, and the satisfaction that a worker feels in the workplace environment (Perry& Porter, 1982, p. 90). Leadership according to Perry and Porter provides provisions to the creation of organizational climate whereby the workers who are doing good jobs are being rewarded and those who cannot cope up with the expectation are being re-enforced and assisted. It provides transparent organizational leadership and management and considers employees success as a significant achievement (Perry& Porter, 1982, p. 91-92).

        This research study is consistent to the Ethiopian strategies and development objectives for relevant skills development of TVET leaders. It is also in line with the objectives of the Ethiopian Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP-Phase II) that emphasizes on the economic sector priorities that have high demand. The establishment of the Federal TVET Institute to caters for the training and development of the TVET trainers, leaders and managers. The establishments of more TVET polytechnic colleges have to meet the demands for skill workforce that can meet the requirements of the industrial parks. Unfortunately, the effective training and development of TVET teachers and leaders in terms of quality and quantity is being affected by lack of centers or institutions that would

        cater for teachers and leaders training and development except the Federal TVET Institute. The Federal TVET Institute is an Institute of higher learning with character of TVET and only

        expected employment demanded in the industry.

        demanded demanded

        one of its kinds in Ethiopia and whole of Africa whose mandate is to train and develop TVET teachers, produce and create TVET leaders, and offered bachelor and master degree programs.

        Need of Well educated Human capital and Technology

        (TVET Virtuous Circle)

        scientist

        M s c

        Bs.c

        technicians

        . .

        Ph.d

        Ph.d

         

        L A

        L B

        Level 5

        Need of Well educated Human capital and Technology

        Training and Research

        Industry extension

        TVET training

        Cooprative treining

        Well educated experts and Technology

        (Meister)

        20% Higher Education

        80% TVET

        Level 4

        Level 1-3

        20% Higher Education

        80% TVET

        market

        Direct provider

        Sub

         

        Mscs medium and higher Enterprise

        Industrys

        This provides directions and identified priorities to be undertaken for economic empowerment of the people through the capacity building strategy in Leadership and technology

        contracting

        imitation, improvement, and innovations.

        Competent product and service

         

        GTP II Priority sectors

        The Ethiopian Government has projected the labor requirement need of about two million skilled workforces in in-demand priority sector occupations and about 40, 000 TVET teachers and leaders would be needed to lead and manage the training and development of the TVET institutions. In Kenyas 2013-2018 Medium Term Development Plan (MTP) II, and for the Vision 2030, the government has targeted specialized skills as priority to promote Bio-medical tourism within the region to improve Kenyas competitiveness regionally and globally by training and development of teachers and leaders to train and manage the production of skilled workforce. In Rwanda, its 5-year priority skills development strategy 2013-2018 aims to train and produce at least 11,666 skilled workers on specialized jobs driven labor-market demands. In Uganda, the Government Vision 2040 prioritizes the development of human resource with globally competitive skills that can be produced by competent teachers and manage by competent leaders. This aims at moving towards a strong and competitive economy and to alleviate people from poverty.

        The Ethiopian Renaissance and Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) II are important documents that are guiding the people of Ethiopia to the goal of becoming a Middle-level income country in the year 2025 with more Ethiopians equipped with in-demand skills on identified priority sector occupations who are expected to gain employment as demanded by the industry.

        In response, the Ethiopian TVET, guided by the TVET Strategy and systems document has made a progressive journey from unresponsive to responsive TVET. From a very limited and less quality to capable and quality oriented TVET institutions that provide skills training and development for its people for gainful wage or self-employment. From a very few to the current 398 TVET institute and Polytechnic colleges located around the strategic locations at the different regions of the country, and the presence of the Federal TVET Institute supporting the TVET institutions, the Ethiopian journey to the provisions of quality skills training and education in some priority sector occupations is within reach. The Ethiopian TVET absorbs 70% up to 80% of general education graduates to training and education in different TVET institutions and polytechnic colleges in the country. While, the Federal TVET Institute, the only one of its kind absorbs in-service TVET teachers from regional state TVET colleges and polytechnic for bachelor and master degree programs. The remaining 20% is absorbs by the higher education state universities and

        colleges. This makes TVET playing a major ole in developing skilled workforce for wage and self-employment. Furthermore, the establishment of the Federal TVET Institute by Council of Minister Proclamation 245/2011, with a strategic vision of becoming an international center of excellence in TVET skills training and development, tasked to train and develop TVET trainers, leaders and industry technicians to improve and enhance their capabilities has shown the commitment of the Ethiopian government to Technical and Vocational Education and Training, as one of the alternative solutions to empower Ethiopians with life-long skills. Currently, its services are being extended to South Sudan with 50 of its TVET trainers undergoing long term skills training program in different priority occupational sector occupations and just recently an agreement was reached for the TVET trainers of Djibouti and Somali Land to also undergo the same training being provided to the TVET trainers of South Sudan. The Ethiopian Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Education of the above-mentioned countries have forged an agreement that the Federal TVET Institute provides the training services, making the TVET Institute in TVET leaders, trainers and technicians training and development both national and international.

        One of the important skills of a leader is the ability to motivate his people towards achieving the organizational goal. As it is repeatedly stated in this research paper that motivated workers or employees is the direct result of effective and efficient leadership. A leader becomes successful managers when the workers or employees works hardly and committed to achieve the organizational goals. (Naile & Selesho, 2014, p. 175).

        Though, the Federal TVET Institute has been in operation delivering training programs and services for about 6 years already, still much effort are needed to bring the Federal TVET Institute leadership to the higher level of management. A leader with a vision to initiate organizational change, and has the capacity to lead the people of the Institute to a better future. In spite of substantial numbers of TVET leaders who have served and still some continuously serving the TVET sector, there is still a great need of developing young and promising leaders in identified in-demand priority economic sectors with key shortages.

        As most people think about employees as indispensable in any organization in order to achieve an organizational goal. If an employee does not perform according to the level of expectation, an immediate decision shall be made by a leader so as not to hamper the momentum of achieving the goals. In American term, they call this as performance-based evaluation of workers. If a worker is not contributing and non-performing an immediate solution by a leader is to replace the worker with a performing worker. Other people think that organization is composed of people, and its people provide leadership, thus people is important in the organization and it is the greatest resource of an organization and shall not be taken for granted. The people who are the workers or employees can be productive in the workplace by contributing its individual best towards achieving the organizational goals. The other role of a leader is to make sure that the employees or workers are continuously motivated by giving attention to their personal and career development (Naile&Selesho, 2014, p. 175).

        Considering the abovementioned background and facts relative to this research, the following problem statements and research objectives shall be addressed regarding the role of leadership affecting organizational change in FTVETI.

      2. Statement of the ProblemIn todays society there is constant and continues organizational change through the process of re-organization or in some organization they called Business process re- engineering (BPR).It is an accepted fact that due to the dynamic nature of an organization, change is inevitable and usually happened and in Ethiopia it is perceive as a common thing to happen.Any organization has to be receptive to change in order to meet the challenges and to satisfy customers need or without adapting change, the organization will become irrelevant to the need of the customer and eventually fail. Though these things are common happenings, not so many knows about that this is happening and several questions are crossing in the minds of people such as the following: What is reorganization? How extensive it is? What are the effects? What are the expectations for the leaders? What are their roles in a change process? How does a change affect the leaders?

        These are some of the questions that came across my mind and have chosen to conduct research on this topic to find answers that will benefit my personal need and the other people in the organization. According to Kotter and Rathgebers (2006) change happens around us but appears to be unnoticed or concerns people have chosen to ignore and not be bothered by the change. The fact that change happens in an organization and someone must try to study its impact to leaders, employees or workers. According to Bolman and Deal (2005:42) organizations of todays society plays a dominating role that makes it complex and definitely complicated to manage. That is why large organizations concentrated in the cities would be a good example in highlighting the issues considering that they have greater influence in the society. This paper intends to address critical issues and problems of an organization and highlight them for people awareness and probably find solutions in facing the problem. To be able to manage organizational change successfully, we must continuously do research primarily to determine possible solutions and for the leaders to be aware of.

        As we all know that the only permanent thing in this world today is change, so the managers must be prepared in managing changeBolman and Deal, 2005. This makes the topic of leadership very important in this paper. In an organization, a leader not only supervises and controls the production to ensure quality of products. It has to manage change in any eventuality to be able to create a quality working environment and quality products or outputs. This thesis would explore all these qualities of an effective and efficient leader.

        As there are already existing literatures or papers that focused on leadership, the failure rate of change processes in TVET is still 65% (FTI and FTA 2008/09 E.C Annual Report). Considering this report, I wanted to focus my study on a very specific point of reality. I really wanted to explore what change really means in an organization and how it affects the

        leader in a real situation. This study can provide probable factors that influences change processes and would try to compare with the existing literatures in order to find out if it is too narrow, too complicated or what are the causes that affects the high rate. Though the report provides general guidelines in affecting change management, it is the intention of this paper to make an in-depth research study on how change process works in reality. This study however will examine a specific and extensive case of the Federal TVET Institute leadership to see what was done, how it was done, how this experience relates to existing literatures. Eventually, the results of this study can be good inputs to properly manage change in the future.

        Though, generalization is not a good approach but a critical study of the Federal TVET Institute experience could possibly contribute to the improvements of existing guidelines and in the future leaders of the FTVETI.

      3. Basic Research Questions
        1. To what extent do leaders at Federal tvet Institute has practiced Leadership Role to lead the institute?
        2. Does the Leadership Role in practice now in the Federal TVET Institute have relationship with initiating and leading organizational change?
        3. What is the contribution of leaders in organizational change at Federal TVET Institute?

<li

Objective of the study

      1. General Objective of the StudyThe general objective of the research study was to assess the Leadership Role in Federal TVET Institute and its significant effect on organizational change.
      2. Specific Objective of the Study:The specific objectives of the research study are:
          • To identify whether the leaders at the Federal tvet institute has defined leadership role to lead the institution.
          • To examine leadership role in practice now inFederal TVET Institute and its relationship with initiating and leading organizational change.
          • To determine whether leadership role in Federal TVET Institute have significant positive contribution and effect to organizational change.
    1. Delimitations of the StudyThe study tried to investigate leadership role and its effect to Federal TVET Institute with in depth analysis. This study focuses on the power and authority vested on the leaders of the TVET Institute and how they lead the organization with their vision for the Institute, setting as model example as team leader and leadership, empowering and energizing people towards defined goals. The research study is a cross-sectional, using the collected data and findings to be analyzed using the mean, frequency, correlation and data regression analysis.
    2. Organizational of the StudyThe research study is organized in five chapters. The first chapter deals with the study and its approach. The review of the related literature is presented in the second chapter. The third chapter is devoted to research design and methodology.

      The presentation and analysis of the data collected and interpretation of the findings is included in chapter four. Summary of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented in the fifth chapter.

    3. Definition of Key Term

Institute: A public organization which offers training to which a pre-accreditation license or an accreditation certificate is issued by the appropriate accrediting authority to engage in the provision of technical and vocational education and training.

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/institu te

Federal Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institute FTVETI is established as an autonomous higher education Institution having its Owen legal personality. Council of Ministries Regulation No245/2011

Colleges: The organizations or colleges where TVET education is undertaken.

Leadership:

    • Is the reciprocal process of mobilizing, by persons with certain motives and values, various economic,political, and other resources, in a context of competition and conflict, in order to realize goals independently or mutually held by both leaders and followers (Burns 1978 p. 425).
    • The ability of one person to influence a group of persons toward the achievement of common goalsYukl (1994) p. 14).
    • is a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential Bennis 1989 p. 7.

Management: Is the planned achievement of certain goals by

the use of policies, strategies and tactics operated in the best possible way (Adams, 1987:11).

Trainee: A person who participates in technical and vocational education and training program provided by a training college with a view to acquiring or upgrading his/her technical and vocational skills. (MoE.2010:7)

Trainer: A TVET trainer is an instructor, facilitator, or supervisor who is qualified to facilitate specific occupations (MoE.2010:7)

Training: Technical and Vocational Education and Training provided through formal program leading to certificate of different levels (EFDRE, 2004: 2553-2554).

Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Designed to train and teach the knowledge and skills required for particular kinds of work (Thomas, et.al, 1978:360).

CHAPTER TWO

  1. Review of LiteratureThis chapter reviews the literature on the concept of leadership spanning from trait theory to transformational leadership style.

    It also focuses on the concept of transformational leadership and school effectiveness. The practices of principals employing transformational leadership in schools, teachers perceptions of their principals leadership style and the role of principals transformational leadership style in school effectiveness are thoroughly discussed.

    1. The Concept of LeadershipLeadership is a constructive conceptualization is often shaped by the nature of theoretical traditions advocated by its researchers. Hence, depending on schools of thought, researchers offer different definitions of leadership. For instance, scholars like Yukl (2010), McManus (2006), Koestenbaum (2002) and Blanchard (2007) define the term leadership in accordance with their perspective. Yukl, after a comprehensive review of the literature, stated that leadership is a way of influencing an individual to work toward the personal or organizational goals willingly. It is also a process of bringing people together to strive to achieve shared goals (2010:20). While, willingness to be influenced and shared objectives are key issues to Yukl, McManus (2006:12), on the other hand, argues that leadership is a process of establishing a team, and team spirit using empowerment as a tool to get positive outcomes. Northouse (2001: 3) presented that a potential leader is such that one can influence others and ensure that they follow him/her. Leadership is a process in which we find the involvement of both leaders and followers. Nevertheless, it is the leader who initiates this process to be feasible more than their followers. It is one of this characters that distinguishes a leader from his followers. According to Plunkett, Attner, and Allen (2008: 434-435), leadership comprises three sets of variables, namely: the leader, followers, and the conditions and state of affairs in which both the leader and the follower are interacting and continuously altering. Both the leader and those being led are human beings with various proficiencies, traits, understandings, and attitudes developed through experiences that shape their personalities, personal viewpoints, and ethical beliefs. These factors can contribute to or detract from the leaders ability to influence others. They are the sources of the individuals strengths or weaknesses. To the researcher, leadership makes people feel important and then inspire them to exert their maximum effort to achieve the purpose. Koestenbaum (2002:19-21) states that leadership is greatness in all one does. Greatness is a style that leaders practice in their daily activities such as: innovativeness, foresight, effectiveness, and flexibility giving high value for people and their willingness to take risk. Blanchard (2007:3) notes that leadership is the process of touching the thoughts and actions of others. Likewise, Sashkin and Sashkin (2003:39) define leadership as the art of transforming people and organizations with the aim of improving the organizations performance. Moreover, Jean Marie (2004: 49) defines leadership as a selfless desire to both serve and prepare others. Leaders are expected to encourage followers and present clear vision to them. They also need to generate a willingness within followers to follow them along a socially accountable and commonly beneficial course of action toward the set target. Leadership is not just the territory of officials at the highest position. It can arise at different echelons and by any person. Higher level leaders are also

      expected to create leadership in those leaders under them. This view is at the centre of transformational leadership. What is essential to effective leadership is beliefs such as classroom instruction, and prominently, to issues of change in social life (Bass &Riggio 2006: 17). Leadership and its potential outcome on organizational performance and enduring experience are at the prioritize agenda of organizations of the world. Hence, in this era of globalization, all organizations, be it profit making or not-for-profit, need high-quality leadership at all tiers. There is also growing evidence that senior leaders can play a crucial role in the design and success of service delivery and employment to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse population. Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward achievement of goals. It is considered as the centre of group change and activity, and embodies the willingness of the group. Leadership is also conceptualized from a personality perspective. According to Creighton (2005), this perspective considers personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits that differentiate leaders from others. Leadership has been defined in terms of the power relationship that exists between leaders and followers. From this viewpoint, leaders have power to affect change in others (Northouse, 2013:5). While leadership is as an act or behavior, or change in a group that we observe as a consequence of leadership initiatives, Bonaros (2006: 14), Munoz (2013: 6-7) and Stone and Patterson (2005: 1) find leadership as an instrument in facilitating the followers achieve their goals. It is nothing but enabling their followers translate their vision into reality. Thus, from the above literature, leadership may be considered a process of influencing and leading followers and situations. It is impossible to provide detailed summary on leadership in this chapter considering the voluminous literature available. However, since the focus of this study is on leadership styles of secondary school principals, it is logical to examine the evolution of principal leadership spanning from trait theory to the current model of transformational leadership.

      1. Trait Theory of LeadershipTrait Theory is one of the earliest leadership theories. It assumes that leaders share certain inborn personality traits, or that some people are born with certain traits that others do not have. This approach dominated the study of leadership up until the 1950s, but failed to produce evidence that personal characteristics influence leadership success (Yukl, 2010:31). Maritz (2003: 243) found in his research that distinguishing leaders from non-leaders as per their traits, personality, and social, physical or intellectual attributes dates back to early 1930s. Traits are unique characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, values, self-confidence, and appearance. These approaches focus on traits and skills with the assumption that some people are endowed with certain physical qualities such as height and appearance, aspects of personality which include self-esteem, dominance, conscientiousness, and emotional stability, and aptitudes which comprise general intelligence, verbal fluency, and creativity (Hargis, 2011:7; Lewis, Packard, & Lewis, 2007:321-322; Daft &Marcic, 2006: 413; Plunkett et.al., 2008: 435). The early research focused on leaders who had achieved a level of greatness and, hence, the phrase the greatman approach was coined. The great man theory focuses

        on the leader as the primary element of leadership that contends to focus mainly on the leader by excluding or down grading of other variables that are part of leadership process. Most importantly, the idea was to investigate what made those people great, and select future leaders who exhibited the same traits or could be trained to develop them. In recent years, there has been a revival of concern in assessing leadership traits. In addition to personality traits, physical, social, and work-related distinctiveness of leaders have been examined. Traits such as weight, fluency of speech, intelligence, height, appearance, extroversion, introversion, industriousness and dominance were the main emphasis in a Trait theory (Kruger &Sheerens, 2012: 3). In addition, Maritz (2003: 243) in congruence with his peers such as above authors and augments attributes such as enthusiasm, charisma, and courage. According to Kruger and Sheerens(2012:3), personality traits appear to play a rather deterministic role in leadership. The suitability of a trait or set of traits depends on the situation of leadership. However, the same traits may not apply to all leaders or situations. Each situation may have particular requirements that make one trait or skill more important in one situation than in another. A different trait or skill, or a set of them, may be more important in another situation. Leaders do not have to be intellectual, geniuses or prophets, but they do need to have certain capabilities and the capacity to use their skills. However, a certain set of traits and skills, does not guarantee successful leadership. Leadership is considered as a combination of special traits or characteristics that an individual possesses and that enables him or her to induce others to accomplish tasks. But it is not a matter of passive status or of the mere combination of traits, rather a working association among members of a team, in which the leader gets rank through active participation and demonstration of his or her ability to carry supportive tasks to end. From the late 1940s to mid-1960s emphasis shifted to the behavioral styles that leaders demonstrated in schools and non-school contexts (Maritz, 2003: 243).

      2. Behavior Theory of LeadershipSince the 1950s, dissatisfaction and discouragement with trait theories led scholars to search for new ways on what leaders do and how they do it (Kruger &Scheerens, 2012:4). Behavioral studies of leadership emerged and aimed to identify behaviors that differentiated leaders from non-leaders and effective from ineffective leadership. The failure to describe successful leadership by focusing only on traits led to a concern of searching for the behavior of leaders and how this can facilitate or impede leadership success. Therefore, they changed their direction of study from leaders traits to behavioral approaches of leadership and consequently different patterns of behavior were categorized collectively and labeled as styles. Unlike trait theories, behavioral theory focuses on leaders effectiveness, and not on the emergence of an individual as a leader. Moreover, this theory focuses on how leaders behave and how the way leaders behave affected their performance (Yukl, 2010: 31). This theory laid the foundation for studies on what constitutes effective principals and give new insight on tasks and activities of school principals. The primary role of the principal focuses on teaching and learning while the secondary task revolves

        around preparing input to instruction (Kruger &Scheerens, 2012:4). Such typologies help to appreciate the complex duties of principals in schools. Most research results show that principals spend their time on administrative issues rather than on teaching and learning (Horng, Klasik& Loeb, and 2009: 24). Kruger and Scheerens (2012:4) argue that students achievements will improve and schools will become effective if the principal give the lions share of his/her time to school vision. Leadership style studies such as the Ohio State Leadership Studies on participatory or directive leadership and the Managerial Grid Studies suggest that there are specific behaviors through which leaders could be identified. Ohio State Leadership Studies developed leadership concepts in two dimensions, namely; task orientation and relationship or consideration orientation. While the task-oriented school principals mainly focus on making the organizational goals successful by any means, relation-oriented principals give more attention to the needs of teachers, students and other staff members through respect and trust to achieve organizational goals. By blending these dimensions, the study proposes four different leadership styles. The first style depicts a principal who gives high attention to both dimensions. A principal who prctices this blended style uses relationship as a means to achieve organizational goals. The second style gives high value to relationships and less attention to tasks. School principals who adhere to this style try to attain their schools learning performance through interpersonal behavior. The third style gives less notice to relational orientation and high attention to task. Principals who use such style give priority to the existence and successful implementation of instructional programand procedures. The fourth style is described by lower attention on both dimensions. Such principals are characterized by enormous focus on administrative matters and neglect of academic issues (Kruger &Scheerens, 2012:6-7). Another study associated with Ohio State Leadership Studies is called Managerial Grid. The credit for developing this model is given to Blake, Mouton and Williams (2003). In a similar study by Bolman and Deal (2003: 340), they found Blake and his colleagues developing a dichotomous approach to leadership by indicating a grid during 1960s that proposed a grid-based approach on the dimensions of concern for task/production and concern for people. This approach emanated from an understanding that the leaders can mainly be divided into two while one prioritizes tasks of the organization whereas the other on employees side of the organization. In addition, Bolman and Deal (2003: 340) noted that principals does not constantly maintain a singular style of leadership but choose alternatives to suit their discourse though they begin by applying most dominant one in their practice. Bolman and Deal (2003: 340-

        41) state that, Managerial Grid principally embodies the Ohio State dimension of consideration and initiation structure or the Michigan Dimension of employee and production oriented. Though the grid contains 81 cells, Blake and Mouton (2003) focused on the most salient five, namely: 1) little concern both for task or people, 2) concern for people but little for task, 3) concern for task but not for people, 4) balance for both task and people, and 5) integrate both task and people. According to Maritz (2003: 245), the two approaches associated with Ohio State Leadership were before the era of globalization

        which was stable and predictable. Consequently, researchers from Finland and Sweden explored other approaches to the leadership if any. It resulted in the discovery of third approach which is related to leaders effectiveness. Development- oriented leaders enable their employees to be innovative, generate new ideas, and will be willing to be dynamic and let their followers to be so. Nevertheless, this statement may be further supported by further evidence. However, development- oriented have more contented employees and are seen as more capable by those staffs. Effectiveness of leadership was studied at the University of Michigan and found out that the most effective superiors were those who focused on the followers human needs to establish strong teams with high performance targets. The Michigan researchers coined the terms such as employee-centered leaders and job-centered leaders. While the first one is used in reference to those who established high performance goals and displayed supportive behavior toward subordinates the later is intended to refer to those tended to be less concerned with goal achievement rather focus on secondary matters that include cost minimization and production efficiency (Daft &Marcic, 2006: 415).

        It is in this context, that one may conclude that the implications of behavioral theories, unlike trait theories, are that there exist possibilities to train leaders and stimulate changes by developing their behavior and improve the quality of their leadership. They can develop flexibility in their leadership style, which would enable them to adapt their leadership style to suit the context in which they find themselves. However, according to Bonaros (2006:19), scholars identified the limitations of behavioral theories and the studies focused the situations in which leadership takes place. It is known that the leadership styles change from circumstanceto-circumstance. Processes by which leaders emerged in different circumstances became the main direction of research for some while others turned to the way in which leaders and followers viewed each other in various contexts (Bonaros, 2006:19). This led to the emergence of situational theory of leadership that focused on the combination of factors that affect effective leadership.

      3. Contingency TheoriesThe contingency theory on leadership attempts to identify which of these situational factors is most important and to predict which leadership style will be more effective in a given situation (Yukl, 2006:32). The contingency theory is often referred to as the it depends approach to effective leadership. It assumes that there is not one best approach to leadership and stresses the influence of the total set of conditions or circumstances in which the leader must function. Contingency theory suggests that the situation determines which leadership approach will be better rather than saying that one of the two (or a combination) of the approaches is most valuable. According to Scheerens (2012: 9), three important situational factors emerge from this view. The first one includes leader-subordinate association, which mainly includes a common belief between them. The second factor is task structure, which mainly comprises the question of whether and to what degree a manager understands what must be performed in order to make the most of the job. The last

        element is concerned with the mechanisms on hand to a leader for managing benefits and sanctions. Contingency theory proposes that leaders do not just act, but that they also react to specific situations. Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership Model proposes a contingency theory in which a leaders use of differing leadership behaviors depends upon two interrelated maturity factors, namely: job and psychological maturity. A teacher who has high level of knowledge and skill in his/her subject matter and is self- confident requires little principal leadership, while a teacher who has low level of knowledge and skill in his/her subject matter and is not self-confident demands principals direct supervision and mentoring (Yukl, 2006:32). Such leadership style relies on employees who are willing to learn (Bolman& Deal, 2003: 341). Hersey and Blanchard Model aims to dwell into facilitator-follower behavior, which helps develop strategies to ensure that the leaders behavior would stand up to theexpectations (Coetzee & White, 2004:107). The proponents of contingency theories believe that approaches of leadership would change from situation-to-situation. As a result, leaders are expected to perform their duties in different situations and adapt different styles to fit the situations in which they operate. Fiedler made a prevalent effort to mix leadership style and organizational circumstance into a complete theory of leadership. The essential thought is to match the leaders style with the situation most favorable for his or her success (Daft &Marcic, 2006: 417). By analyzing the style of leadership and the situation of the organization, the right suit can be set. The base for situational approaches is the belief that individual capacities should go with the context if leadership is to appear. Although these assumptions had lived for some time, the major advance did not occur until the 1970s, when Fiedler established the contingency theory (Scheerens, 2012: 9). Fiedler developed a contingency model in which three major situational variables function to determine whether a given situation is favorable to the leader or not. These include a leaders personal relationship with members of their group (leader-member relations), the degree of structure in the task their group has been assigned to perform (task structure), and the power and authority their position provides (position power). Fiedlers contingency heory proposed that leader effectiveness is not determined by leaders ability to adapt to the situation, but by the ability to choose the right leader for the situation. This implies that some principals are simply better for specific situations than others are and the situation determines the identified principals success (Stone & Patterson, 2005:5). Principals must find the style and structures most suited to their own local situation (Hallinger, 2003: 345). Moreover, in order to lead a school effectively, the principal must understand the context in which a school operates. Student background, community make-up, school culture and structure, teacher experience and competency could be contextual variables that a principal may consider (Hallinger, 2003: 346). Recent thinking about effective leadership has supplemented the situational approach with emphasis on the leaders charisma, ability to develop and implement the vision of the organization, and the ability of each worker to act as self- motivated employee. This is transformational leadership

        where the leader influences others such that they lead themselves.

    2. The Concept of Transformational LeadershipThe search for effective leadership style is a continuous process. The summary of how leadership theories evolved indicates how it developed from the earlier trait theory to the transformational leadership style. The pioneer work of the transformational leadership concept as a leadership theory emanates from the study of James McGregor Burns (1978). Burns (1978) introduced the concept of transforming leadership. It was historically great leaders leadership quality that led Burns to raise questions. For Burns (1978), transformational leadership was basically setting aside self- interest from both the leader and follower such that goals are achieved for the benefit of all. Later, Burns book motivated Bass and his friends to develop the transformational leadership model that subdivided leadership into a two-pronged theory, namely: transformational leadership and transactional leadership (Bass &Riggio, 2006: xi). Bass (2002) argues that leaders could be both transformational and transactional and they could complement each other. Burns (1978) made a fundamental distinction between transactional and transformational leadership. Transactional leadership is defined as trading one thing for another, whereas transformational leadership is more focused on change. As described by Bass and Riggio (2006: 3), there are three forms of transactional leadership: contingent rewards, management by exception and laissez-faire leadership. The modes are labeled Contingent Reward, Management by Exception- Active, and Management by Exception-Passive. The Contingent Reward mode of transactional leadership is seen as fairly effective by Bass and Riggio in motivating constituents to achieve higher levels of performance. The Management by Exception-Active and the Management by Exception-Passive modes of transactional leadership are not seen as being as effective and may actually be counterproductive (Bass &Riggio, 2006: 8). Transformational leadership is a form of leadership in which leaders set a common goal and shared vision of the future, inspire followers mentally and show individual consideration to followers (Chi & Huang, 2014: 302). Char bonnier, Akremi, and Vandenberghe (2010: 700-

      702)

      Also argue that transformational leadership promotes followers adaptive performance, and its practice has a built-in linkage with the emergence of adaptive behavior which involves the capacity to work imaginatively and gain knowledge of new skills, the ability to deal with demanding circumstances, as well as the competence to contain varied social environments. These capacities should be particularly well addressed by transformational leaders. Transformational leadership focuses on stimulating and inspiring followers to achieve both extraordinary outcomes and develop their own leadership capacity (Bass &Riggio, 2006: 3). Bass (2002) stated that transformational leadership emphasizes the growth and development of an organizations followers and its goals. In addition, Hargis (2011: 11); Bass and Riggio (2006: 5-8) classified the dimensions of transformational leadership into the following four categories:

      1. Idealized Influence: – The transformational leader becomes a role model for the followers, facilitates the acceptance ofgroup goals, and encourages them to upgrade their organizational goals. Idealized Influence is the degree to which leaders behave in charismatic ways, causing followers to identify with them. The followers transcend their self- interest for the sake of the organization and develop a collective sense of mission and purpose.
      2. Intellectual Stimulation: – The leaders behavior helps the followers to identify new approaches when faced with difficult challenges. Intellectual stimulation is the degree to which leaders challenge assumptions, take risks, and solicit followers ideas. Here the transformational leaders question the status quo, appeal to followers intellect, stimulate them to question their assumption, and invite innovative and creative solutions to problems.
      3. Individualized Consideration: – Transformational leader provides the followers with helpful advice relevant to each individual. It is the degree to which leaders attend to followers needs, act as mentors or coaches, enabling them to develop and self-actualize, and listen to follower concerns.
      4. Inspirational Motivation: – refers to the way in which transformational leaders energize their followers by articulating a compelling vision of the future. The leader communicates high expectations to followers, inspiring them through motivation to become committed and a part of the organizations shared vision.

      Thus, transformational leadership gives more attention to the charismatic and emotional basics of leadership. Northouse (2010: 187-191) also explains transformational leadership as a process where an individual engages with another person and creates a correlation that raises the level of inspiration and goodness in both the leader and the follower. Such leaders also set demanding goals of the future that inculcate dedication, favor the materialization of empowerment in work groups, and enhance results closely related to adaptive performance such as ingenuity and organizational modernization. Transformational leadership also encourages independence and demanding work, became increasingly important to followers job satisfaction (Bass, 2010: 10; Bass &Riggio, 2006: 4; Charbonnier, et al., 2010: 700-702; Chi & Huang,

      2014: 302; Goodnow&Wayman, 2009: 4-5; Munoz, 2003:37; Tekleab, Sims, Yun, Tesluk, & Cox, 2008: 187). The fundamental job of transformational leaders is to increase the responsiveness and consciousness of their subordinates to higher levels of behavior and goodness. The final measurement for actual transformational leaders is their role in promoting employees higher ethical maturity and they move followers to go beyond their self-interests for the benefit of their team, organization, or society (Mulla& Krishnan, 2012: 86). Tekleab et al. (2008: 186-187) maintain that transformational leadership focuses on educating followers loyalty to governmental goals and shaping the culture in ways consistent with the organizational plan. According to these authors, transformational leadership helps to focus followers efforts on lasting targets. To achieve these objectives, they concentrate on setting goals and stimulating followers desire for success. Bass (2010:10) also emphasizes that transformational leadership goes beyond ones self interest for the wellbeing of the society and that personal interests and values of employees are also aligned with that of the organization. Furthermore, transformational leadership

      inspires alterations or alignment of structures in the service of a new vision rather than functioning within existig systems to maintain the status quo. Zagorek, Dimovski, and Skerlavaj (2009: 145) also portray the potential role of the transformational leadership as one of the essential ways of creating learning institutions.

      According to these authors, some behaviors of leadership such as helping and empowering of employees that are the features of transformational leadership positively affect organizational learning. Transformational leadership also influences employees and practices by encouraging flexibility and exchange of views and creating an environment for learning. This also creates a condition for improvement and employees develop the culture of taking initiatives, exploring and developing new ideas, actions, and products out of which organizations can benefit. As the main action of transformational leadership involves stimulating followers to widen their horizon and see challenges from various perspectives, it also assists subordinates to grow and get to higher performance, and inspires them through a demanding goal. Such actions should be facilitated when the work group has created cultures and values that stimulate individual initiatives, new views, and innovative ideas (Charbonnier et al., 2010: 700).

      Transformational leaders constantly examine and review their environment to satisfy the changing needs of organizations. Transformational leaders also integrate the resources of the organizations and direct all efforts towards the common goal and make the organization open to change. In transformational leadership, accountability and responsibility are increased and transformational leaders constantly share the vision of the organization to all the members of the organizations. If organizations want to plan and implement change, they need to have transformational leadership practitioners. Transformational leadership also focuses more on the charismatic and emotional elements of leadership (Munoz, 2003: 37). Therefore, prioritizing the organizations interest in the place of individual interest is sine-qua-non. Transformational leadership goes well with the needs of todays team-based organizations which can be effective when they are motivated and empowered to succeed in times of uncertainty. Charbonnier et al. (2010: 700) also state that transformational leadership behavior helps to set a common objective and vision of the future, encourage subordinates emotionally and show personal selflessness to employees. Transformational leadership is also certainly related to work group performance outputs. Chi and Huang (2014: 302-303) assert that transformational leadership influences performance of team in organizations by determining shared targets within work groups.

      Moreover, Bass and Riggio (2006:7) posit that transformational leaders ensure productivity by enabling the employees translate vision into action by inculcating inspirational culture across the institution that can create congenial working environment and to promote intellectual stimulation among the school community. Thus, the role of transformational leadership is reflected in the attributes of a principal who transforms the values and needs of teachers, motivates them to achieve goals beyond their expectation, and provides leadership and support through carefully conceived

      change stages, acting as a role model (Kim, 2012: 876). Today, there is widely accepted conceptualization that leadership in a school setting is a shared process, rather than a one-way process in which only leaders influence others. The introduction of mutual influence process in leadership study has brought a paradigm shift in educational leadership understandings. Principals now need active involvement from their staff members to achieve their schools goals. Leadership theories that closely link with this concept are known as transformational leadership.

      Transformational leadership is a type of shared or distributed leadership. Principals who exercise transformational leadership models focus on bottom-up approaches to incite change in schools (Hallinger, 2003:338). The present study, based on the Transformational School Leadership model (TSL) (Leithwood, Steinbach &Jantzi,, 1999; 2001; 2006), adopts the three categories (setting directions, developing people, and redesigning the organization) and six dimensions (sharing school vision and building consensus, high performance expectation, individualized support, intellectual stimulation and modeling behavior, building collaborative structure and strengthening school culture) of transformational school leadership. Leithwood et al. (1999; 2001; 2006) model incorporates the Bass and Avolio dimensions of transformational leadership that are idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation and contingent reward. They have done more than 34 large studies using transformational school leadership model. Among these 22 of the studies focused on principals. After such extensive research Leithwood et al. determined that Transformational School Leadership is the best starting point to develop a model for making schools effective (Gulbin, 2008: 31).

      Leithwood et al. aligned the behaviors with the concepts of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and organized them into three categories. According to Gulbin (2008: 265-271) and Leithwood&Jantiz (2006: 212-216), the three categories and specific dimensions of transformational school leadership model are discussed as follows: 1. Setting Direction. This category has three dimensions, namely: Building school vision, establishing school goals and Demonstrating high performance expectations.

      While building school vision focuses on providing staff with an overall sense of purpose, sharing and exciting staff with visions, helping clarify the meaning of the schools vision in terms of its practical implications for programs and instruction, assisting staff in understanding the relationship between external initiatives for change and the schools vision and the larger social mission of the school, and using all available opportunities to communicate the schools vision to all the school community; establishing school goals concentrates on providing staff with a process through which to establish school goals and to regularly review those goals, expecting teams of teachers and individuals to regularly engage in goal setting and reviewing progress towards those goals, assisting staff in developing consistency between school visions and both group and individual goals, encouraging teachers to establish and review individual professional growth goals. Demonstrating high performance expectations gives attention on expecting staff to be innovative,

      hardworking and professional, commitment to the welfare of students, not accepting second-rate performance from anyone, permitting freedom of judgment and action within the context of overall school goals and plans.

      Examining the proximity of constructs between building school vision and establishing school goals, the researcher merged them in to one dimension- sharing school vision and building consensus. Thus, in this study setting direction have two dimensions (sharing school vision and building consensus, and demonstrating high performance expectations).

      2. Developing People. This category has three dimensions, namely: providing Individualized support, providing Intellectual stimulation and Modeling. Offering individualized support includes treating everyone equally, having an open- door policy, being approachable, giving personal attention and being thoughtful about the personal needs of staff. Moreover, encouraging individual staff members to try new practices consistent with their interests, providing coaching for those staff members who need it, following through on decisions made jointly with teachers and assuring staff members that they can get what they want personally in exchange for their efforts are behaviors included in this dimension. Providing intellectual stimulation focuses on the practice of removing penalties for makng mistakes as part of efforts toward professional and school improvement, directly challenging the basic assumptions of staff about their work as well as unsubstantiated or questionable beliefs and practices, encouraging new initiatives, stimulating the search for and discussion of new ideas and information relevant to school directions. Modeling behaviors gives attention to best practices and important organizational values, general commitment to the school organization, working alongside teachers to plan special events, displaying energy and enthusiasm for own work, commitment to professional growth, demonstrating the value of examining problems from multiple perspectives, modeling problem-solving techniques that others can adapt for their own work. Furthermore, this dimension promotes reinforcing key values such as respect for others, trust in the judgment of ones colleagues, integrity and the instrumental value of punctuality. 3. Redesigning the Organization. There are two dimensions under this category, creating a productive school culture and developing structures. Creating a productive school culture dimension dedicated on clarifying the schools vision in relation to collaborative work and the care and respect with which students were to be treated, reinforcing with staff norms of excellence for their own work and the work of students, using symbols and rituals to express cultural values in the context of social occasions in which most staff participate, confronting conflict openly and acting to resolve it through the use of shared values, using slogans and motivational phrases repeatedly, acting in a manner consistent with those beliefs and values shared within the school. Furthermore, this dimension includes sharing power and responsibility with others, working to eliminate boundaries between administrators and teachers, and providing opportunities and resources for collaborative staff work.

      Developing school structures focuses on distributing the responsibility and power for leadership widely throughout the school; Sharing decision-making power with staff, Taking

      staff opinion into account when making decisions; Providing autonomy for teachers (groups, individuals) in their decisions, altering working conditions that helps staff have collaborative planning time and creating opportunities for staff development. Though this category (re-designing the organization) has two dimensions, the researcher merged them to one dimension-building collaborative structure and strengthening school culture. Thus, in this study the transformational school leadership model is constructed by three categories and six dimensions. It is widely believed that the more the transformational leader employs these dimensions, the more likely the school becomes efficient and effective (Gulbin, 2008: 34). Leithwood and Jantzi (2007:190) in their review of transformational leadership research found that this type of leadership had positive relationship with the concept of school effectiveness.

    3. Transformational Leadership in EducationPolicy designers who have objectives of improving schools by introducing large scale changes believe that the achievement of the implementation of those designed policies is highly related to the character and value of the leadership at the local level, particularly at the school level (Leithwood&Jantzi, 2006: 201). It is also believed that such local leadership has the considerable impacts on school situations and learners education. This also calls for searching the best way of developing successful leaders at school levels. In the context of education, the two leading approaches to study leadership are instructional leadership and transformational leadership (Hallinger, 2003: 329).

      Sun and Leithwood (2012: 420) further discuss that different aspects of transformational leadership in education setting include instructional leadership and managerial leadership. As opposed to numerous previous leadership theories such as trait, situational and contingency theories that were implemented in the school context, the instructional and transformational theories center clearly on the way in which the educational leadership exercised by leaders and educators at school level brings about enhanced educational results. Including instructional leadership aspects into the transformational leadership approach makes a complete and more appropriate model for schools.

      Schools must change themselves into learning institutions to get better, to continue to meet the expected objective, that is, student achievement. So, the task is to develop practice around the notion of school effectiveness that demands personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning and systems thinking must be there (Hargis, 2011: 12). Instructional leadership approaches developed at the beginning of 1980s from early studies on effective schools which identified strong, directive leadership focused on curriculum and instruction from the principal as a characteristic of elementary schools that were effective at teaching children in poor urban communities (Hallinger, 2003: 330). Assumptions disseminated in the 1980s and at the beginning of 1990s globally about successful principal leadership were also shaped by this instructional leadership model, and this model is chosen by many principals. Beginning early 1990s, the scholars in the field of educational leadership see birth of new terminology such as shared leadership, teacher leadership, distributed leadership, and

      transformational leadership (Hallinger, 2003: 330). This also indicated a broader discontent with the instructional leadership model, because its main focus was excessively on the director as the core source of capability, influence and authority.

      Leadership models in education are subject to the same fashion that is evident in other areas of the study. Over the years, researchers have subjected both instructional leadership and transformational leadership approaches to expand practical research. Even though substantial development has been made over the years, the environment of successful leadership at the school level still requires more investigation to properly understand the substance and form of leadership appropriate for it. Transformational models to leadership have long been explained as best in situations essentially in schools targeted for reform. As has been pointed out by Leithwood and Jantzi (2010: 452), this approach to leadership basically aspires to promote capacity expansion and higher levels of individual dedication to organizational objectives. Improved approaches and loyalty are believed to create additional attempt and better output. Oterkiil and Ertesvag (2014:6) contend that a school leadership whose ability to enhance shared decision making and collaborative efforts at highest level is required for school-based interventions.

      This type of leadership is indispensable. However, it is challenging because it demands a principal who can establish good culture and structure in the school system. The authors also say that combining both transformational and transactional leadership approaches may offer the needed leadership practices to apply multifaceted interventions effectively. Transactional leadership will give the predictable, logical and constructive school situation that is important for staff to discharge responsibility in the decision-making process. Hence, a principals capability to balance competently both approaches of leadership (transformational and transactional) will make the school system capacitated and successful. As depicted by Leithwood and Jantzi (2010: 206), transformational school leaders set directions of schools by designing school visions of the school, setting detailed and achievable objectives and priorities, and creating soaring performance outlooks. In addition, such leaders also engage in building the capacity of human resource of the schools by arranging scholarly inspiration, giving personal assistance, and modeling attractive specialized actvities and standards. Furthermore, transformational leaders redesign the processes of the school. This results in building a school culture where collaboration prevails, designing organizational structures that promote involvement of members in decisions related to educational issues, and establishing creative society relations. This shows that school principals have a responsibility in establishing a suitable work environment in which instructors perform together being united and identify strongly with the purpose of the schools. The means for achieving such an environment include the allocation of tasks, development of instructors educational levels (empowerment) and the development of a shared vision for the track in which the educational institution must develop (Scheerens, 2012:23). To transform a school system, the leader needs to set out a vision, properly plan and put activities in a sequential order, and clearly spell out how the restructured process can shape the employees. In most cases, transformational leaders start the

      activities of changing the institutions by focusing on the structures of the organization before planning for change in the organization. The practice of reforming the organization may include shaping and properly matching the organization and the vision (Kiper, 2007: 19). Bonaros (2006: 22) also argues that the school principal should provide services to the community by modeling the art of teaching and supporting the school community so that they become better followers. This will lead to a leadership style driven by service and stewardship. A study conducted in Tanzania by Nguni et al. (2006:161) shows that teachers value dedication was more influenced by transformational leadership factors whereas loyalty to continue was more influenced by transactional leadership factors. School leadership should connect people to each other and their work following the rules of morality. Nguni et al. (2006:162) also found that the more the level of the experienced transformational and transactional leadership aspects, the more the level of satisfaction of the employees on their work. As identified by Leithwood and Jantzi (2010:204), practices of transformational leadership in school settings have both direct and indirect effects on teaching staff performance. The leaders in education also indirectly influence the teachers inspiration, competence, and work conditions. Research scholars Bass &Riggio, identified the elements of transformational leadership as found in a study that the followers of such leadership experience dedication to schools and associated organizational citizenship deeds and professional pleasure (Bass &Riggio, 2006: 34). The commitment of an employee can be perceived as his/her attachment to his superior or it can be to the work group or it may be. The transformational leader guides the attitudes of teachers by designing a vision for the future, by stimulating, encouraging, providing personal assistance through coaching and by establishing scholarly challenges. In addition, the importance of building an educational school institution by ensuring organizational transformation of teachers into learners shall be the main focus (Scheerens, 2012:23-24). There is need for distinguishing the leadership styles especially transformational leadership from transactional leadership. These two aims to utilize two different means to fulfill intended objectives.

      The transformational leadership strive to enhance intrinsic motivation of the teachers, whereas the later one, teachers are inspired mainly to change based on the external rewards. All transformational theories to leadership focus on feelings and ideals and share the basic objective of promoting capacity building and advanced levels of individual dedication to institutional objectives on the part of leaders social groups. Improved competences and loyalties are believed to bring about additional endeavor and better output.

      Power and pressure associated with this kind of leadership are not essentially owed to those who occupy official managerial positions. Rather, authority is indeed ascribed by members of the organizations. Practices associated with transformational leadership may be extensively disseminated all the way through the business. The study of Bonaros (2006: 6) also indicates that strong positive relationship between transformational leadership and work performance exists be it military or non-military organizations, business or school. In educational context, scholars also identified a strong positive

      relationship between transformational leadership and learners achievement. Effective schools are those that show clear organizational purpose, successful leadership and activities, higher expectations, a secure, logical, and helpful situation, greatest utilization of instructional time and regular follow-up of learners improvement and encouraging relationships between students home and the school. Hence, majority of the studies show positive relationship between principal leadership and student achievement. Marks and Printy (2003:128-130) also suggest a reasonably well-built, constructive association between transformational and dependable and superior pedagogy. Examination of different school cases revealed the significance of the school leaders role in establishing convincing academic challenges, enhancing academic staffs leadership abilities, and creating numerous and regular links to teachers job in their classrooms.

      Lazzaro (2009: 21) suggests that school principals need to adopt transformational leadership approach. He also found out that teachers satisfaction improved with the awareness of their leaders leadership methods applied as more transformational and less transactional. Furthermore, Lucas and Lazzaro (2002: 21) found a strong relationship between transformational leadership and school culture. They also reported that the sharing of power between leader and their leadership work teams increases the success of modeling school culture. In such kind of leadership, mutual support systems prevail. In general, the capacity of a principal to implement the conducts of transformational leaders such as setting clear vision, modeling behaviors, promoting dedication, offering personal assistance, giving scholarly inspiration and holding better performance outlooks can change the school culture. This will also help to improve the retention of school staff. So, it can be said that the job of school effectiveness begins with the school leader because the principal is powerful in optimistically planning and implementing the needed change. Transformational school leaders emphasize transforming and positively changing the school environments. In a healthy and positive school climate, change can be successfully implemented to facilitate school improvement (McCarley, 2012: 7). Schools with good climate are critical to student achievement.

      Leadership is considered as one of the most prominent organizational factors that can influence the ability of school to change because it has the capability to positively influence the other things and to bring about possible capacities that are found in school settings. Transformational leadership is well thought-out to play an essential role in sustaining or restraining changes in school environments (Oterkiil&Ertesvag, 2014:6). By transforming and making the change sustainable in the school environment through transformational leadership, it could be possible to determine what practices and characteristics can be associated with positive student achievement. According to Hargis (2011: 12), the school principals leadership has a clear impact on learners attainment. In sum, transformational leaders are those who can lead change in schools. They are the reformers of school environment. To change the whole system, they can influence the attitude of the followers towards the shared vision of the future. By implementing and leading successful

      change in school environment, transformational leaders can enhance students acievement.

    4. The Concept of School EffectivenessStudies published in the 1970s (Coleman et al., 1966; Jencks et al., 1972) showed that teachers, schools, and even education in general did not at all make much difference on student outcome. These studies concluded that it is the students background characteristics (student ability and family background) that contribute to students learning outcomes, not the education factors. It was the studies in the 1980s (see Edmonds, 1979; Rutter et al., 1979) that brought out strong arguments and findings against the early (1970s) studies that schooling makes a difference in students success (Creemers&Kyriakides, 2008:12). Following these, several studies in different countries conducted research on school effectiveness and identified factors that make schools effective or ineffective (Teddies& Reynolds, 2000: 71). School effectiveness refers to the impact that school-wide factors, such as school policy for teaching, school climate, and the schools perceived mission, have on students cognitive and affective performance (Creemers&Kyriakides, 2008:3).

      School effectiveness is one of the concepts that are hard to explain and even more tough to quantify. Many scholars in the arena of educational planning see effectiveness as a measure of factors that seeks to improve a childs ability to learn irrespective of his/her background. Among different models of school effectiveness, the Five-Factor model put forward the five factors i.e. leadership, high student expectations, a secure environment, acquisition of basic skills, and frequent performance assessment as very important that help attain school effectiveness (Scheerens, 2000:23). School effectiveness depends on several factors, particularly under the current climate where global reforms in education and innovation have been the order of the day. Researchers, educational planners and policy makers have been much occupied with what constitutes school effectiveness. They are also concerned with how to make their schools more effective and raise quality and standards of achievement. However, the concept of school effectiveness evolved into the current definition gradually following certain agreements on measurements. Two widely known elements of measuring school effectiveness are economic and sociological. To economists, effectiveness is related to the production process of an organization, that is, transformation of inputs to outputs. The assumption of this perspective is that the increased inputs will lead to increments in outcomes. While they consider finance, educational materials and students as input; instructional methods, curriculum, and organizational conditions are considered the process that produce the output. Students successful graduation or their grades at the end of school are considered output. However, input-output model is criticized for not giving clear answers to how the desired outputs can be defined and how the production process operates (Creemers&Kyriakides, 2008: 15-16). According to sociological perspectives, Socio Economic Status (SES), gender, social and cultural factors have effects on student achievement.

      The effectiveness of education is measured by its ability to provide schooling to the needs of different groups of students. They take school climate, culture, and structure as main

      factors for effectiveness. Moreover, as organizational theorists they take pluralistic stance and thus measure organizational effectiveness criteria such as productivity, adaptability, involvement, continuity, and responsiveness to external stakeholders (Creemers&Kyriakides, 2008:16). In 1970s and 1980s, researchers used school results such as the number of transfer for special education, transitions from one levels of education to the other and repetition ratio as criteria for school effectiveness, current studies mostly use data from national tests (Creemers&Kyriakides, 2008: 20). Horng, Klasik, and Loeb (2009: 18), in their study, principal time-use and school effectiveness, also use four types of school effectiveness measures: student achievement on state standardized tests, teachers assessments of the school, teacher satisfaction, and parents assessments of the school. Moreover, quality and equity are used as measurement of effectiveness.

      The criteria for effectiveness will be measured at the level of individual students, classes, and schools (Creemers&Kyriakides, 2008: 23), as well as how far each school manages to reduce the variance between students (equity). Quality is measuring outcomes of schooling by investigating whether what is achieved exceeded the expectations, the expected is achieved, or less than expected is achieved. Equity is measuring outcomes of schooling by investigating whether the gap is reduced, remains the same, or is increased (ibid). Effective schools give more emphasis to the formative purposes of assessment than for the summative purposes (Kyriakides, 2005a in Creemers&Kyriakides, 2008:40). In less effective schools, more scheduled time is wasted because there is no system to encourage, or compel schools to use time effectively. Achieving or excelling goals that are set by a school is generally deemed as school effectiveness. Several studies (Sun &Leithwood, 2012; Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, and Wahlstrom, 2004; Robinson, 2003; Horng, Klasik, & Loeb, 2009; Witziers, Bosker, & Kruger, 2003; Scheerens, 2001;

      Creemers&Kyriakides, 2008; Gulbin, 2008; Ngunietal., 2006;

      Leithwood&Jantzi, 2007; Catano&Stronge, 2007; Browning, 2014; Greb, 2011) have been conducted to establish possible correlation between school leadership and student achievement. Of these studies, some focused on transformational leadership. The meta-analysis of Chin (2007) showed that transformational school leadership had positive and very large effect on student achievement. Bush also argues that the quality of leadership makes a significant difference to school and student outcomes. This requires trained and committed teachers but they need the leadership of highly effective principals (Bush, 2009: 375). Sun and Leithwood (2012) analyzed the nature of transformational school principal ship and its effects on student achievement.

      They found that transformational school leadership has small but significant effects on student achievement (Sun &Leithwood, 2012: 418). Similarly, Leithwood and Sun (2012) examined unpublished studies to see the effects of transformational school leadership on student achievement. Though, Sun and Leithwood (2012) in their review found that the effect of transformational school leadership on student achievement is low, they argue that the result adds value to the understanding on how transformational school leadership affects student achievement (Sun &Leithwood, 2012:422).

      Researchers most frequently use student achievement or student learning outcome to measure the impact of transformational leadership on school effectiveness (Ross, 2004; Leithwood et al., 2003; Leithwood et al., 2004; Griffith, 2004; Silins&Mulford, 2002). While Day et al., (2001a; 2001b) and Griffith (2004) used local and national test scores, Ross (2004), Silins and Mulford, (2002) and Leithwood et al. (2003; 2004) used state and national test results in math and language skills to measure student achievement. All the above studies reported significant and positive correlation between transformational leadership and student achievement, except the study by Leithwood et al. (2004) that reported insignificant effect (Leithwood&Jantzi, 2007: 190). This study uses Ethiopian National School Leaving Certificate Examinations aggregated results to measure the relationship between transformational school leadership with student achievement at secondary school of SNNPR, Ethiopia.

    5. The Role of Transformational Leadership in School EffectivenessThe six dimensions (building collaborative structure and strengthening school culture, sharing school vision and building consenss, high performance expectation, intellectual stimulation, modeling behaviors and individualized support) of transformational school leadership will collectively or individually enhance schools effectiveness. The role of transformational school leaders in excelling schools is immense. The leader gives challenging tasks to enhance teachers skills, serves as role model, clearly articulates and shares his/her vision, and inspires teachers to be committed to achieve higher outcomes (Sun &Leithwood, 2009: 407). The role of transformational leadership is transforming followers into good leaders by motivating them to do more than they originally intended and some times more than they thought possible (Bass &Riggio, 2006: 4). Developing leadership skills in their subordinates or followers are what make transformational leadership special. Bass and Riggio (2006: 2) believe that transformational leadership is fundamental for effective performance of schools. Rose and Gray (2006: 800) postulate that principals who practice transformational leadership can raise teachers willingness to go beyond the usual requirements of teaching. Nguni et al. (2006: 161) found that principals transformational leadership contributes between 17 and 18% of the variance in organizational commitment.

      Today, principals are expected to exhibit this leadership quality to improve teaching and learning in schools. Bass and Riggio (2006) argue that transformational principals motivate teachers to strive for their schools effectiveness by setting more challenges. Transformational leaders succeed by committing themselves to satisfying and empowering their followers and by giving more attention to individual needs and personal development. By allowing teachers to exert their leadership potential, transformational principal raise teachers leadership abilities to higher levels. Transformational principals inspire their followers to commit to shared vision and goals (Bass &Riggio, 2006: 4) and continually highlight the mission of the school to staff, parents, and students (Kirk & Terry, 2004:3). Thus, the role of the transformational principal, as the articulator of the mission of the school, is

      crucial to the overall effectiveness of the school (Lezotte, 2001: 3).

      For the principal to have an effective school with motivated teachers, he/she should not only seek to motivate teachers directly on the quality of curriculum and instruction, but also directly influence their behavior by using a facilitative and distributive approach to leadership. Hallinger (2003:339) stated that transformational leadership effects are far reaching. It will not only enable teachers to be vision oriented but also turn themselves into leaders of the future when they are under transformational leadership. Ultimately the teachers under such leadership ascribe to same vision as with that of their leaders that paves way to the present as well as future of the school leadership (Barth, 2002:6). Devos and Bouckenooge (2009: 191) conducted research on principals conceptions about their leadership role using Quinns model. They divided educational leaders role in to three, namely: people-minded school leader, administrative-minded and moderate. The study realized that strong leaders motivate professional learning and be able to work so even in dynamic environments and generally emphasize on mentoring role.

      The administrative-minded principals, who consider administration, organization, and the implementation of rules and regulations as more important than their educational leadership role and or who consider the mentor role not as their most important leadership role. They lack the skills to support their staff effectively and more likely will have a negative impact on school climate. Transformational leadership model has been advocated for effective management of schools. For some time now, it has attracted researchers and educational policy makers. Rose and Gray (2006: 798), in their search to identify the impact of the role of transformational leadership, found that schools with higher level of transformational leaders produced teachers with higher self-esteem resulting in higher student achievement. Researchers (Rose & Gray, 2006: 799; Nguni et al., 2006:

      168) argue that teachers commitment and sense of self- efficacy are attributes principals can use to influence student achievement. A transformational school leader is one who inspires teachers and the school community to excel and articulate a meaningful vision for the organization. By involving teachers in decision making, creating opportunities for them to learn from each other, and reducing their stress level, principals can move teachers to go beyond their own interest for the good of their school. Leithwood and Jantzi (2005:192) conducted a meta-analysis of studies published between 1996 and 2005, and found that transformational leadership has effects on academic achievement and students engagement. While the transformational leadership effects on academic achievement were mixed but tending toward positive, transformational leadership effects on students engagement in school was uniformly positive. Sun and Leithwood (2009: 407) also conducted a meta-analysis of studies done between 1996 and 2004, and found that transformational leadership has effects on teachers emotions and beliefs, teachers practices, school conditions, and student achievement. Among 24 studies, 19 indicate that transformational school leadership has effects on five different types of student outcomes (achievement, attendance, college- going rates, dropout rates, and graduation rates). However,

      transformational school leadership had small but significant positive effects on student achievement as typically measured by State wide achievement tests. Similarly, Chin (2007) analyzed 28 unpublished studies and found that transformational school leadership had positive and very large effects on student achievement (mean effect size =.49).

      Research confirms that transformational leadership style is best suited to achieving school reform aspiring to improve student learning outcomes (Day et al., 2001; Leithwood&Jantiz, 2007; Eyal&Kark, 2004). Leithwood and Jantzi (2007: 186) found that transformational leadership model is the favored model in school systems devising school reform initiatives. Transformational leadership also emerges as the style of choice in times of crises or confusion in schools. Under such conditions, principals are duty bound to take risks and serve as role models (Bass &Riggio, 2006: 8). Transformational leaders take advantage of such situations by creating a shared sense of vision and inspiring teachers to be committed to organizational goals (Leithwood&Jantzi, 2007:186). Beach and Reinhartz (2000: 87) assert that transformational leadership is important in meeting the challenges facing schools today. In transformational leadership, the leader gives personal attention to the individual and provides opportunities for them to achieve and grow in a supportive environment.

      The principal mobilizes the resources and allows teachers to exploit them to achieve schools goals (McLean, 2004:116). It indicates that the principle enables teachers to consume resources in the interest of the school and also ensures their commitment to the school by creating a sense of ownership (Sahin, 2004:388). In addition, a transformational school leader plays a key role in promoting the teachers interest in an ethical way (Gupton, 2003:3). It can be realized that the school affairs revolve around the principle. Instead of being head of the line authority the principle shall of professional expertise for him to be a transformational leader in the 21st century. The principal shall mentor his teachers as he would monitor. Gupton (2003:106) shares similar view and states that the principal as manager should create such system to promote mutual interest.

      However, transformed principals do not concentrate only on management skills. They also engage teachers, parent and other stakeholders in planning as well as in evaluating so as to advance the school and improve student achievement. Investigations studying the importance of a sense of community within a school test the relationship between the principals role in managing interpersonal relationships and enhanced student learning. Transformed principals work hard to promote community involvement in almost every aspect of school leadership. The literature is replete with studies that show effective community participation as valuable to school effectiveness. For example, Cheng (2005:387) argues that family-school collaboration is a cooperative process of planning that brings together staff, parents, children, and community members to maximize resources or school achievement and development. Sharing the school vision with community, which enhances the organizational commitment and social cohesion, is one of the roles of transformational leaders (Kark& Shamir, 2002 in Castro et al., 2008: 1843).

      The Ethiopian Ministry of Education states that school principals are given power and responsibility, among other things, to appropriately manage the overall educational activities in schools, and seek and maintain the active cooperation of the community. Despite being of paramount importance, the effort of promoting active community participation has been hindered by different factors. These are associated with school principals lack of competence and commitment, refusal to encourage the school board and association to participate, degrading the decision making capacity of community representatives, lack of clearly defined roles and responsibilities of school committees, and distance of school community residence from the school preventing active participation in school matters (MoE, 1994: 32). Principals who possess transformational leadership skills typically overcome shortcomings by involving community members. Gaps between leaders and the community are typically recognized and filled by transformational principal. Hallinger (2003: 338) conceptualizes transformational leadership as shared leadership style between the principal and the school staff and community rather than as one persons show. Another essential role of transformational school leader is the ability to create and communicate the school vision. Significance of vision was a recurring message in educational research literature. Vision is a statement of what the organization aspires to be and it expresses what is desirable. What is desired must be achieved in ways that inspire and motivate. As a starting point, principals must envision better schools, articulate the vision to others and orchestrate consensus on the vision. Cheng (2005:342) defines vision as an image of a future that school members want to achieve. According Bush (2008: 3), vision is increasingly regarded as an essential component of effective leadership. Transformational principals have a vision or a picture of what they want their schools to be and their students to achieve. They have the ability to persuade their followers to join their vision and share their ideals. The actions of transformational leaders convey the beliefs and commitments that they speak about (Kim, 2012: 870).

      Harris (2005: 53) adds empowering the teaching staff as another role of transformational principals. Empowering teachers by giving space on organizational decisions, giving them opportunities to shape organizational goals, purposely providing forums for staff input, acting on staff input and giving real leadership opportunities are situations that really matter and should be among the roles of transformational principals (Harris, 2005: 53). Many scholars view empowerment as an act by transformed school principals to delegate authority and responsibility to teachers on matters related to classroom instruction. Transformational leaders act through empowerment in influencing work outcomes. Empowerment plays crucial role in positively influencing teachers behavior.

      Transformational leaders can use empowerment to create perceptions among followers that they are being accepted and recognized as important part of an organization (Epitropaki& Martin, 2005 cited in Castro et al., 2008:1843). In addition, transformational leaders empower their followers by encouraging them to see higher purpose in their jobs and this enhances satisfaction, effort and cohesion among followers

      (Castro et al. 2008:1846). Transformational leaders provide teachers with opportunities for professional growth and development through feedback, reward, recognition, training, seminars, conferences, and workshops to help increase participant skills and organizational standards. Using review methods, including standard meta-analysis and vote-counting techniques, Sun and Leithwood (2012: 419) identified a wider range of TSL practices than typically has been measured in previous TSL research. They found that most leaders engage in practices at both ends but evidence has suggested that transformational practices augment effects above transactional leadership alone. TSL (subsumes instructional leadership and managerial leadership) ground its roots in moral foundations and can be participative. The development of TSL has aimed to absorb and integrate many other leadership models. The inclusion of these newer dimensions into transformational leadership model makes it a more comprehensive leadership model in different settings (Sun &Leithwood, 2012: 420). Transformational school leaders formulate and articulate idealized future goals that serve to energize and create a sense of empowerment to followers who internalize these goals. Sergovanni (2001) points out that most of the time the best principal is engaged in transformational leadership behaviors. They do this by generating enthusiasm for achieving goals and by providing meaning and challenge in the followers work. Inspirational motivation generally increases the followers self-identity. Moreover, transformational school leaders use intellectual stimulation to challenge their followers thoughts, imagination and creativity. They also use individualized considerations to help bolster teachers achievements and growth by encouraging them to take on increasingly bigger responsibilities to reach their full potential (Castro et al. 2008: 1847).

      Researchers apply different mediators or intervening variables to examine how transformational leadership roles of principals impact student outcomes. For example, the study of Barnett and McCormack (2001) and Silins, Mulford, Zarins and Bishop (2000) used learning climate, while Leithwood and Jantzi (1999a) used professional collaboration; Leithwood and Jantzi (2002) used organizational commitment and Bogler (2001) used job satisfaction as mediators. In extensive review of the above mediators, Leithwood and Jantzi (2007: 187) concluded that transformational school leadership had uniformly positive effects on all mediators. Moreover, Geijsel, Sleegers, Leithwood and Jantiz (2003), Ross (2004) and Leithwood et al. (2004) in their study used changed teacher practices, and the Leith wood, Aitken and Jantzis (2001) study used planning and strategies for change, schools information collection and decision making process, decision making structures and school policies and procedures. Ross (2004) and Ross and Gray (2006) used collective teacher efficacy as mediator and found they have the mediating effects of transformational leadership on student learning outcome (Leith wood & Jantzi, 2007: 187). Principals might affect the student achievement by influencing teaching learning environment particularly teachers, since the conduciveness of the school environment can be measured through teachers perceptions (Horng, Klasik, & Loeb, 2009: 21). If teachers do not identify and articulate their experience about their principals leadership, educational leadership could be a futile

      exercise. Leithwood and Jantzi (2005: 192) found that student characteristics (a prior achievement) and teacher perceptions do act as mediating varables to measure transformational leadership. Using Quinns model, Devos and Bouckenooghe (2009: 191) did a research on principals conceptions about their leadership role. They categorized the role of school leaders in to three areas: people-minded, administrative- minded and moderate. While they found that the people minded leaders are supportive, stimulate professional learning environment and believe mentoring as their invaluable role, administrative-minded leaders mainly consider the organization, rules and regulation as more important than educational leadership roles.

    6. The perception of teachers (instructors) towards their leadersThis section of the literature review is especially concerned with the principals transformational leadership role and the perceptions of teachers towards their principals. Since transformational leadership creates emotional attachment between principals who exercise this style and teachers, the style helps build beliefs, values and commitments in followers since teachers are considered the best in evaluating principals leadership roles. According to Castro et al. (2008: 1842), teachers consent is an important variable in measuring the success of principal leadership styles and its results in schools. Employees may like their organization for many reasons. They may like the type of work they do, payment and benefits they receive, people they work with, and the existence of a recognition system or career advancement opportunities. The most important indicator of commitment, according to Bass and Riggio (2006: 32), is leadership that is inspirational, stimulating, and considerate of followers needs. The strongest effects of transformational leadership seem to be on followers attitudes and their commitment to the leader and the organization. Teachers who feel inspired by school objectives are more likely to have an affective link to their school (Ozaralli, 2003 in Castro et al., 2008:1846). In transformational leadership, followers develop strong affinity with the leader positively influencing their commitment and behavior (Castro et al., 2008: 1842). This leadership style encourages teachers to be involved in continuous learning and work with the staff to identify individual goals (Hallinger, 2010: 338). Analysis done by Bass and Riggio (2006:36-38) revealed that each component of transformational leadership does help build followers commitment in different ways. When the leaders exercises idealized influence, teachers want to imitate the leader or identify with the leader emotionally identifies with the goals, interests, and values of the leader. When leaders use inspirational motivation, teachers perceive that principals are trying to build emotional commitment to the mission or goals, values, beliefs, and responsibilities. By employing leadership, particularly by creating opportunity to deal with problems in a creative way, transformational leaders increase followers commitment. Since followers feel their personal career needs are being met and the coaching and support provided by their leader enhances their competency to carry out assignments, their commitment towards the leader, the task and the larger organization will escalate. Leadership is a significant issue for employees happiness since leaders have considerable power on work strains and work resources both

      of which can affect followers emotional wellbeing (Holstad, Korek, Thomas & Mohr, and 2014: 271).

      As clearly depicted by these authors, transformational leadership style clearly contains the supply of necessary resources. Teachers positively perceive if leaders pay attention to the problems of the followers and if principals show that they are concerned for every one of the employees (individual consideration). Transformational leadership is also related to different job satisfactions that all over again associate to minimize tension levels of employees. Social support, empowerment, meaningful tasks, high level of task behaviors, clarity of responsibility, and opportunity for growth are positively related to transformational leadership (ibid). Since transformational leadership creates good working conditions and fulfills the necessary resources to a higher level, it is associated with enhanced comfort of employees. To followers, transformational leaders are those who motivate and encourage employees to attain beyond expected results, and one who also broaden their own leadership ability. Such leaders assist organizational members develop into leaders by reacting to their individual interests. Teachers perceive that transformational leaders undertake these activities by empowering and aligning the goals of the follower and team members with organizations objectives (Bass &Riggio, 2006: 3). Besides motivating and inciting followers to work beyond expectations, transformational leaders also align team goals with individual goals (Chi & Huang, 2014: 302). Teachers perceive that transformational leadership can move employees to go beyond the predictable result and direct to elevated levels of pleasure and loyalty if they do provide individualized support to teachers and involve teachers in school decisions. Teachers believe that such practice could establish trust between staff and brings organizational unity. Trust is an important an important glue between teachers and their principal. The higher trust there is in a school, the less people keep things to themselves. The less people keep to themselves, the more trust there is (Segovanni, 2007: 117). Teachers perceive that creating opportunities to be active part of school goals and giving support for their professional development are important roles of transformational leaders. Hence, we can say that principals highly influence employees work and contextual performance, team and organizational citizenship behavior if they implement transformational leadership styles. Finally, the positive impact of transformational leadership on school outcomes such as teachers satisfaction, student achievement and other performance indicators is well established (Bass et al., 2003; Castro et al, 2008; Ross &Gray (2006); Leith wood & Jantzi, 2007; Sun & Leith wood 2019; 2012). Besides these impacts, it would be not free from possible negative costs and challenges.

      Being a transformational school principal is not an easy task. Such leaders face several challenges. One of the challenges experienced by transformational school principal is low student achievement. They are always expected to register high student achievement in their school, which is the highest priority by the government and parents. According to Bass and Riggio (2006: 225), matching their philosophy with those of the staff, school and community is one of the challenges that confront a transformational school principal. Similarly, Bass et al. (2003) state that transformational school principal face a

      number of challenges, the most important of which is to communicate the vision effectively to followers. Moreover, until they gain the staffs heart, they face strong resistance and suffer misunderstandings. Transformational leadership though touted as the most successful method of leading, is also replete with challenging circumstances (Bass &Riggio, 2006: 226).

      Transformational leadership constructs such as individualized consideration and intellectual motivation demand more energy and time, which may cause family conflict or leader burnout. Since this leader does not practice contingent leadership, producing dedicated teachers in the school needs more work than transactional leadership (Bass &Riggio, 2006: 236). Complications with community relations add their own time- consuming challenges to the best of transformational leaders as well.

    7. Empirical EvidencesThe Relationship between Leadership Role and Organizational change

      The role of a leader of an organization is to achieve result beyond normal and sets higher corporate goals by motivating and stimulating employees or workers committed to partcipate by inspiring them to achieve goals over personal self-interest (James, 2005).

      In his study on the leadership practice in Russian companies; Elenkov (2002) examined the former impact on organizational change. Using a Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, he analyzed the leadership behavior of 253 leaders. The analysis underlined a strong correlation between leadership role and organizational change.

      According to Obiwuru et al. (2011), the result in their study showed that Leadership role has positive and significant effect on organizational change. In another study by Benkhoff (1997) investigated the relationship between Leadership role and organizational change using correlation analysis and found that there was a statistically and positive correlation between Leadership role and organizational change.

      Sun (2002) compared the leadership style with the organizational change in schools and enterprises, and showed that the Leadership role has a significantly positive correlation with the organizational change in both schools and enterprises. And his finding shows that Different leadership styles might have a positive or negative correlation with the organizational change, depending on the variables used by researchers.

      According to Huang, (2006) the visioning and setting an example as leadership role has a positive correlation with the organizational change, higher than the exchange leadership. Business management attributes their successes to the leadership efficiency, that is, the leadership style of administrative supervisors has a considerable effect on the organizational change (Terry, 1960). The leadership style of a leader has a substantial influence on the work performance of employees. It further indicates that the leadership style also affects the organizational change. The leadership style determines the organizational change that subordinates need realize, and gives suggestions and feedback to execution. In this course, subordinates can know the requirements of their role and executives can know demands of subordinates at the same time. Thus, under the leadership style of executives, subordinates can make organizational requested performance

      and get their rewards. Elenkov (2002) study indicated that the Leadership role has a significantly positive correlation with the organizational change.

      In addition to the above findings Peris & Namsonge (2012) study also found that the correlation between visioning and setting an example as leadership role leadership factors and organizational change rating were high( 0.518 to 0.696, P< 0.05) were as the correlation between transactional leadership behavior and organizational change were relatively low(0.219 to 0.375, P<0.05).

      According to Yukl (1994) and Burns (1978) transactional leadership theory creates better organizational change as it helps employees to achieve common goal. Lee & Chuang (2009), explain that excellent leadership style not only inspires subordinates potential to enhance efficiency but also meets their requirements in the process of achieving organizational goals.

      In similar with the above finding Munirat (2014) in their study in Nigeria indicated that for any percent increase in good Leadership role leads to prosperity in organizational change

      .Canella and Rowe, 1995; giambatista, 2004; Rowe et al., 2005 suggested that effect of transactional leadership styles on organizational change has been a topic of interest among academic and practitioners working in the area of leadership. Perhaps the most prominent reason for this interest is the widespread belief that transactional leadership can affect the performance of organizations (Rowe et al., 2005). The style of this leadership style adopted is considered by some researchers(e.g. awamleh,1999; conger,1999; Dubinsky et al., 1995; Yammarino et al., 1993) to be particularly important in achieving organizational goals.

      In contrary to the above findings Obiwuru et al. (2011), show that the result of their finding shows that transactional leadership style had an insignificant but positive effect on organizational change. Campbell (1977) also suggested that transactional leadership style had insignificant but positive effect on organizational change. Howell and Frost (1989) and Bryman (1992) also presented that there is an insignificant but positive relation between transactional leadership style and the organizational change.

      According to the result of the study done in Kenya by Peris&Namsonge (2012) Lassie faire leadership style isnt significantly correlated to organizational change. Dubinsky, Yammarino, Jolson, and Spangler (1995) also stated that Laissez-faire style Leadership is a negative form of leadership in which leader doesnt get involved in important decision- making process. He shows no concern or sense of responsibility when an important issue or situation requiring an urgent response is confronted. Alternatively, employees are at their own in the time of crisis and problem and look for assistance from other sources and this results in poor organizational change.

      Deluga (1992) stated that lassiez faire is type of leadership, that the leader avoids responsibilities and does not build two- way communications with his sub-ordinates. In this type, mostly sub-ordinates are not satisfied with their leader, so production targets are not met which results in poor performance of organizations.

      In contrary, Maoore(2007) suggested that there is a significant and negative relationship between lassies-faire and

      organizational change . Roi (2006) also supported that there is a significant and negative relationship between lassies-faire and organizational change.

    8. Conceptual Framework of the StudyThe study will use the following conceptual frame work as the map to this study.

      Figure 1. Model of Effective Leadership Roles

      Source: Ktinlnkov, Vadim (2014), 100 ventures. com

      1. Description of Conceptual Model Create an Inspiring Vision and Lead by ExampleThis dimension according Vadmin (2014) measures the leader role of Create an inspiring vision; establish shared values; give direction and set stretch. Manage change strategically, take risks, create change; lead change; manage resistance. Lead by example; practice what you preach; set an example, and share risks or hardship. Demonstrate confidence; win respect and trust without courting popularity.

        Empower, Inspire, and Energize People

        This dimension according Vadmin (2014) measures the leader role of be enthusiastic; inspire and energize people; create a positive work environment. Empower people; delegate authority; be open to ideas; have faith in the creativity of others. Communicate openly and honestly; give clear guidelines; set clear expectations. Empathize; be willing to discuss and solve problems; listen with understanding; support and help.

        Build and Lead a Team

        This dimension according Vadmin (2014) measures the leader role of Use team approach; facilitate cooperation; involve everyone; trust your group; rely on their judgment . Bring out the best in your people; have common touch with them; coach and provide effective feedback. Permit group decision; help your team reach better decisions. Monitor progress, but don’t micromanage, lead your team; avoid close supervision; do not over boss; do not dictate; lead team self- assessment.

    9. SummaryIn this chapter, a review of literature relevant to general leadership theories, particularly the concept of transformational leadership and its role in education in general and in school effectiveness in particular, the concept of school effectiveness and the perceptions of teachers towards their leaders has been assessed. Transformational school leadership dimensions that focus on the school context, the practice of transformational leadership by school principals and its relation with student achievement has also been reviewed. The next chapter deals with research methodology that addreses the research approach, design and the instruments the researcher used to carry out this study.

      CHAPTER THREE

  2. Research MethodologyIntroductionThis chapter highlights the different methods and procedures the researcher used in conducting the study in order to answer the research questions raised in the study.
      1. Research DesignThe research design used in this study was both quantitative and qualitative method. The Quantitative research is an inquiry into an identified problem, based on testing a theory, measured with numbers, and analyzed using statistical techniques to prove or disprove predetermined hypotheses regarding the relationships between specific variables. In a quantitative research approach a number of objects are selected and studied in order to increase the ability to draw general conclusions (Marczyk et al., 2005).

        The study focuses on the effect of leadership role on the organizational change. Therefore, in order to show the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable and also since the purpose of quantitative research is to gather, analyze, and measure statistical data; the researcher used quantitative research method. But in order to describe the supplement information obtained through interview, the study also employed qualitative methods.

        According to Trochim,( 2002) Explanatory research design connect ideas to understand cause and effect that means researchers what to explain what is going on. The research design for this study is therefore explanatory in nature. The reason for selecting explanatory research design is because the researcher wants to find the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable (organizational change). whereas the qualitative data was organized and narrated by using words.

      2. Population and Sampling Size
        1. Population and Sample SizePopulation is defined as the entire group of people, events or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate Sekaran (2001). Consequently, permanent staff of the Institute was the subjects for the study. These staff members include General Director, Vice General directors, directorates, Teachers (Instructors), team leaders, and other supportive staff members to provide different information required for the study.

          Currently there are 298 permanent employees of the Federal TVET Institute of which a sample size can be drawn.To be able to draw the sample size from the total population, Taro

          Yamane (1967) introduced a sampling formula to get the size of the subject population as shown below:

          n =N 1+N (e2)

          Where n=Sample Size

          N=Total Population Size and, e=the standard error with 95% confidence level.

          e=0.05 which is susceptible sample error n = 298

          1+298 .052

          n =170

          The sample size for the study was 170 employees. The sample size is expected to be a representative sample for the population under study.

          For the qualitative approach purposive sampling methods was used, General Directors, Vice General Directors, Directorates and Faculty Deans were included in the study. Accordingly, fourteen (14) leaders were actively involved in the interview session.

      3. Data Collection MethodThe data source requirement for this study so as to address the general as well as specific objectives is obtained from both primary and secondary sources. The primary source is obtained through standard questionnaire that uses 5 point Liker-Scale and the questionnaires were distributed to Leaders and subordinates of the Institute. The secondary source was collected by reviewing articles, journals, books, research papers and reports by taking financial data and other relevant information from the Institute.
        1. QuestionnaireThe questionnaire was developed to obtain an understanding of the relationship between the variables leadership role and organizational change in the Federal TVET Institute. The questionnaire was comprised of three sections.

          Section I-contained demographic questions which includes; sex, age, educational level and experience in Federal TVET Institute.

          Section II- was about leadership role. The researcher reviewed Multifactor Leadership questionnaire according to Bass & Avolo (1994) who developed 45 questionnaires to measure leadership role in organizations to measure the three dimensions visioning and Setting an example; empowering and energizing and leading team this questionnaire was modified by different researchers to properly measure leadership style in different context. So, after careful review of the modification of MLQ questionnaire the researcher selected 31 questions to modify Bass &Avolo (1994) questionnaire.

          Section III-was about organizational change. Self-constructed questionnaire was used for the different dimensions of organizational change.

        2. InterviewInterviews are appropriate to collect in-depth information and allow opportunity for explanation of questions can be applied to any type of population (Johnson and Christensen, 2008:203). For this research, semi-structured interview guide consisting of fifteen items were prepared in English and were asked in Amharic so as to get better detailed information from General Directors, three Vice General Directors, eight Directorates, Five Faculty Deans and thirteen department heads. The interview was conducted on a face to face basis.
      4. Data Reliability and ValidityThe data must be tested according to the measure of its reliability and validity. According to Ticehurst and Veal (2000), reliability is the extent to which research findings would be the same if the research were to be repeated at a later date, or with a different sample of subjects. In other words, the reliability of a measure indicates the extent to which the measure is without bias and hence offers consistent measurement across time and across the various items in the instrument. It helps to assess the goodness of measure, and indicates accuracy in measurement (Sekaran, 2003).

        Cronbach’s alpha is a coefficient (a number between 0 and 1) that is used to rate the internal consistency (homogeneity) or the correlation of the items in a test. A good test is one that assesses different aspects of the trait being studied. Cronbach’s alpha will generally increase as the inter correlations among test items increase, and is thus known as an internal consistency estimate of reliability of test scores. Because inter correlations among test items are maximized when all items measure the same construct, Cronbach’s alpha is widely believed to indirectly indicate the degree to which a set of items measures a single construct (Gleam & Rosemary, 2003). Cronbachs alpha is used to test the questionnaires reliability and validity. In addition, multicollinearity test employed to analyze the consistency and reliability of the data to be analyzed by using regression techniques.

        Table 3.1: Rule of thumb of Cronbachs Alpha

        Cronbachs Alpha Internal Consistency
        0.9 Excellent
        0.9 > 0.8 Good
        0.8 > 0.7 Acceptable
        0.7 > 0.6 Questionable
        0.6 > 0.5 Poor
        0.5 > Unacceptable

        Source: Cortina (1993)

        1. Reliability Analysis of Leadership Style andOrganizational Change

          The Cronbach Alpha technique is applied to assess reliability of the measurement scales used in the study. Reliability analysis (Cronbachs alpha) was performed on each of the subscales of the Multifactor Leadership questionnaire and organizational change questionnaire.

          Visioning and Setting Example A= .977
          <>Empowering and Energizing = .894
          Leading Team = .820
          Collective Alpha =.873
          Collective Alpha of Organizational change =.861
          Visioning and Setting Example A= .977
          Empowering and Energizing = .894
          Leading Team = .820
          Collective Alpha =.873
          Collective Alpha of Organizational change =.861

           

          Table 3.2: Cronbach Alpha for MLQ Sub Scale.

          Cortia(1993) provided the following rule of thumb: 0.9 is excellent, 0.9 > 0.8 is good, 0.8 > 0.7 is acceptable, 0.7

          > 0.6 is questionable, 0.6 > 0.5 is poor and 0.5 > is unacceptable.

          As can be seen in Table 3.2, the independent variables scored from excellent to acceptable alphas. Visioning and setting example has a high reliability compared to other independent variables with = .977, and this shows that Cronbach Alpha lays where 0.9, so has an excellent reliability. Empowering and energizing has a good reliability with =

          .894. Leading team has an acceptable alpha with = .820. The dependent variable organizational change has = .746

          Data Processing and Analysis

          Data coded, entered into and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 software package. Descriptive statistics used to describe the dispersion of the data. Correlation performed (Pearsons) to analyze the relationship between the variables. In addition, Regression performed to analyze the effect the independent variable has on the dependent variable. (Multivariate, analysis, OLS).

          regression model. It is because some of them may measure the same concept or phenomenon (Jeeshim, 2002).

          B. Pearson Product Moment Correlation

          The Pearson product moment correlation in a measure of the linear correlation between two variables x and y, giving a value between two variables x and y, giving a value between

          +1 and -1 inclusive, where 1 is total positive correlation, 0 is no correlation and -1 is total negative correlation (Galton,1886).

          Pearsons Product Moment Correlation was used to determine the following relationships for the sample respondents.

          1. The relationship between visioning and setting example and organizational change
          2. The relationship between empowering and energizing and organizational change
          3. The relationships between leading team and organizational change.

          According to McDanail and Gates (2006), correlation coefficient can range from-1.00 to +1.00.

          I. The results of correlation coefficient may be interpreted as follows:

          Correlation Coefficient Interpretation
          1 Perfect
          0.8-0.9 Very Strong
          0.5-0.8 Strong
          0.3-0.5 Moderate
          0.1-0.3 Modest
          >0.1 Weak
          0 Zero
          -1 Perfect
          -0.8 – -0.9 Very Strong
          -0.5- -0.8 Strong
          -0.3 – -0.5 Moderate
          -0.1 – -0.3 Modest
          > -0.1 Weak
          Correlation Coefficient Interpretation
          1 Perfect
          0.8-0.9 Very Strong
          0.5-0.8 Strong
          0.3-0.5 Moderate
          0.1-0.3 Modest
          >0.1 Weak
          0 Zero
          -1 Perfect
          -0.8 – -0.9 Very Strong
          -0.5- -0.8 Strong
          -0.3 – -0.5 Moderate
          -0.1 – -0.3 Modest
          > -0.1 Weak

           

          Table 3.5: Interpretation of correlation

        2. Descriptive AnalysisIn the descriptive analysis percentage, mean and standard deviation were used in the study. Frequency tables were used to summarize the respondents profile in the form of frequency and percentages whereas the descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviations of employees answers to leadership styles and organizational change scales were calculated in order to determine employees perceptions of leadership styles and organizational change. While making interpretation of the results of frequency, mean and standard deviation, the scales were reassigned as follows to make the interpretation easy and clear.

          Table 3.4: Range for interpreting quantitative data

          Range Interpretation 1 Interpretation 2 Interpretation 3
          1.49 or Less Strongly Disagree Very Low Very Poor
          1.50-2.49 Disagree Low Poor
          2.50-3.49 Neutral Average Fair
          3.50-4.49 Agree High Good
          4.5 or Greater Strongly Agree Very High Very Good

          Source: -Upgade and Shende(2012)

        3. Inferential AnalysisA. Multicollinearity

          Multicollinerity is a high degree of correlation among several independent variables. It commonly occurs when a large number of independent variables are incorporated in

          a) Multiple Regression Analysis

          Multiple regressions is a statistical tool that allows you to examine how multiple independent variables are related to a dependent variable. Once the multiple variables are related to the dependent variable, you can take information about all of the independent and use it to make much more powerful and accurate prediction about why things are the way they are, this latter process is called multiple regression (Higgins, 2005)

      5. Ethical Considerations

    The data collector solicited consent from individuals to ensure their willingness to participate in the study. Participants will be informed about the aim of the study and their contribution to the research. In addition, the data collector insured that no harm come willing by participating in this study.

    CHAPTER FOUR

  3. Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
    1. IntroductionThis chapter deals with a discussion of the final results and the process through which the results were obtained. In addition to this, background information of respondents is presented. Finally, the descriptive analysis and statistical methods of analysis are discussed; including the result of correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis was conducted using SPSS version20.0. Concurrently, the result obtained from analysis is also compared with empirical studies to confirm if they are consistent.
    2. Analysis and InterpretationThe sample consisted of employees of Federal TVET Institute in Addis Ababa. From 170 distributed questionnaires, only 150 questinnaires were successfully completed and returned with a non-response rate of 11.1% and a response rate of 88.9%.
        1. Coding systemD1= Leaders D2= Directors
        2. Descriptive Analysis
          1. Background Information of Respondents Demographic questions are set in part I of the questionnaire. Personal and demographic information such as gender, marital status, education level and work experience are presented below.Table 4.1 Background Information of Respondents
            No. Frequency Percent
            1 Gender Male 152 71%
            Female 18 29%
            Total 170 100%
            2 Position Leader (D1) 16 9%
            Subordinates (D2) 154 91%
            Total 170 100%
            3 Education level Bachelors degree 140 82%
            Masters degree 27 16%
            Doctorate degree 3 2%
            Total 170 100%
            4 Experience 1-5 years 123 72%
            5-10 years 27 16%
            10 & above years (since Ethio-Chain TVET College) 20 12%
            Total 170 100%

            Source: Research data (2018)

            As shown in Table 4.1. Gender distribution of the sample, 152(58.6%) of the total respondents are male; 18 (29%) are

            female. Few 16 (9%) of the total respondents are Leaders; 154(91%) are subordinates including Teachers. Majority 140(82%) of respondents have bachelors degree; 27(16%) have masters degree and the 3(2%) have doctorate degree. Finally, majority 72% of respondents participated on this study have work experience of 1 to 5 years in Federal TVET Institute.

          2. Perception of Leaders RoleThe descriptive statistics was used to examine the mean and standard deviation. It was needed to determine the employees and leaders perception to Leadership role. The table below contains descriptive data (mean and standard deviations) for the three independent variables which are visioning and setting an example; empowering and energizing and leading team as indicated by the respondents.
          3. Visioning and Setting of ExampleThe leadership role of empowering and energizing has been described by four attributes such as creating and inspiring vision and sharing values; leading change, leading by example and demonstrating confidence.

            Table 4.2 Visioning and Setting an Example

            Items Perceptions of Leadership Role Difference
            Subordinates Leaders
            M M Sig. t
            Build inspiring vision 2.13 4.21 0.00 1.73
            Share the vision and values 2.89 3.22
            Lead by example 2.32 4.55
            Demonstrate confidence 3.00 3.00
            Cumulative Mean 2.56 3.80

            Source: Research data (2018)

            Table 4.2 above describes the leadership role of visioning and setting an example. The result of the study clearly indicated that subordinates do not agree on their leaders role on building and inspiring vision (M=2.13), having shared vision and values (M=2.89) and leading by example (2.32). But leaders witnessed themselves that they build vision, lead by example and share the vision and values. The group difference analysis t-test (P<0.05, t=1.73) also clearly indicated that their significance difference of leaders and subordinate perception of leadership role in the institutions. Leaders place themselves at better place than subordinates.

            Figure 4.1 Leaders Awareness about Their Role as a Leader

            Source: – (primary data, 2018)

            Figure 1 above also indicated that 18% of respondents confirmed that their leaders are aware about their role as a leader. But majority of respondents are not sure about their leaders awareness about their role.

            Items Yes No I am not sure
            Have you ever been involved in the change agendas that will lead the FTVETI in to innovative future 19 12% 21 12% 130 76%
            Do you believe your leader successfully settled change agenda initiated in FTVETI in to innovative future 24 17% 34 20% 112 63%
            Items Yes No I am not sure
            Have you ever been involved in the change agendas that will lead the FTVETI in to innovative future 19 12% 21 12% 130 76%
            Do you believe your leader successfully settled change agenda initiated in FTVETI in to innovative future 24 17% 34 20% 112 63%

             

            Table 4.3 Leaders Involvement of Subordinates on Change Agenda

            The above table assessed TVET leaders activity on involving subordinates on change agenda and successfully settling change agenda initiated by the leaders. Majority 130(76%) respondents neither agree nor disagree regarding their leaders role in involving employees on their change agenda. Only 12% of respondents agree that they involve them on any change agenda. On the same way 112 (63%) of respondents are not sure that their leader successfully settling change agenda initiated in Federal TVET Institute in to innovative future.

            Table 4.4 Inspire and Energize People

            Items Perception of Leadership Role Difference
            Subor dinate s Leader s
            Mean Mean sig t
            Inspire and Energize People 0.00

            3

            – 2.17
            Instills pride in others for being associated with me 3.13 4.33
            Goes beyond self- interest for the good of the group 2.89 3.911
            Act in ways that others build s respect for him/her 3.42 3.44
            Cumulative Mean 3.14 3.90

            Source: Research data (2016)

            The first attribute of empowering and energizing is inspiring and energizing people. Table 4.4 designed to identify the behavior of Federal TVET Institute leaders. The study finding revealed that Leaders instilling pride on oters scored mean value of 3.13, Leaders attribute of giving beyond self-interest for the good of the group scored the mean value of 2.89, and finally Leader act to obtain respect from others result influencing mean value of 3.42. The overall mean of idealized Influence Attribute scored a mean of 3.14 this shows that Leaders have an average or limited role in inspiring and energizing people in Federal TVET Institute to the desired change agenda. But the leader of the institutions believed that they are exercising their role of inspiring and energizing their subordinates through instilling pride on others; going beyond their self-interest. The mean value of leaders perception of their role is 3.90. The calculated t-value also showed significant difference between leaders and subordinates perception of leaders role. The calculated t- value indicated that leaders better perceived their leadership role as inspirer and synergize of their subordinates but subordinates are not. The interview result also indicated that the existence of Insufficiency of government competent leaders, Current leaders in the Federal TVET Institute served the TVET system but lacking the qualifications as required by the National TVET Strategy and corresponding policy document.

          4. Empowering and Energizing

      The leadership role of empowering and energizing has been described by four attributes such as inspire and energize people; empower people, communicate openly and listen, support and help others.

      Table 4.5 Communicating Openly

      Items Perception of Leadership Role Difference
      Subordinates Leaders
      sig t
      Communicating Openly 0.05 – 1.94
      Talk about his/her most important values and beliefs 2.65 4.70
      Specifies the importance of having a strong sense of purpose 2.99 4.89
      Considers the moral and ethical consequences of his/her communication 2.44 4.43
      Cumulative Mean 2.69 4.70

      Source: Research data (2018)

      The second attribute of leadership role is the leaders role of communicating openly. Table 4.5 Revealed that Leaders talking about his/her most important values and beliefs scored mean value of 2.65, Leaders specifying the importance of having a strong sense of purpose scored the mean value of 2.99, and Leaders considering the moral and ethical consequences of decisions scored a mean value 2.44. The overall mean of communicating openly scored a mean of 2.69 this shows that Leaders in Federal TVET Institute have limited role in communicating openly. The result of leaders perception indicated that Leaders talking about his/her most important values and beliefs scored mean value of 4.70, Leaders specifying the importance of having a strong sense of purpose scored the mean value of 4.89, and Leaders considering the moral and ethical consequences of their decisions scored a mean value of 4.43. The overall mean of communicating openly scored a mean of 4.70 this shows that leaders perceived that they significantly plying their role of communicating openly in FTVETI. The group mean comparison result also indicated that leaders perceived better perceived (t=-1.94, P<0.05) their communication role as a leader but subordinates are not cognizant to the respond of the leaders. According to the interview conducted with leaders. According to the interview conducted with leaders indicated that the leaders has limited leadership quality not fit with National TVET Qualification Framework, so that the institution suffering from inefficiency and dysfunctional leadership which affect the training and development of leaders.

      Table 4.6 Listen, Support and Help

      Items Perception Leadership Role Difference
      Subordinates Leaders
      Mean Mean Sig t
      Listen, Support and Help 0.02 -1.99
      Re-examine critical assumptions to questions whether they are appropriate 3.16 4.11
      Seeks differing perspectives when solving problems 3.49 3.99
      Suggest new ways of looking at how to complete assignments 3.42 2.98
      Cumulative mean 3.35 3.70

      Source: Research data (2018)

      The third attribute of leadership role is Listening, Supporting and Helping. Table 4.6 revealed that Leaders re-examine critical assumptions to questions whether they are appropriate scored mean value of 3.16, Leaders seeks differing perspectives when solving problems scored 3.49, Leaders suggesting new ways of looking at how to complete assignments scored a mean of 3.56. The overall mean of Federal TVET Institute leaders role of listening, supporting and helping others is 3.35 this shows the leaders role as listener, supporter is average in Federal TVET Institute. The leaders also perceived that they re-examine critical assumptions to questions whether they are appropriate scored mean value of 4.11, Leaders seeks differing perspectives when solving problems scored 3.99, Leaders suggesting new ways of looking at how to complete assignments scored a mean of

      2.98. The overall score of leaders roles as listener and supporter is 3.70. The overall result indicates that there is significant difference (t=-199, p<0.05) between the way leaders perceive their role as listener and supporter and subordinates perception of the same role.

      Talks enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished 2.27 4.90
      Express confidence that goals will be achieved 2.76 4.34
      Cumulative Mean 2.50 4.44
      Talks enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished 2.27 4.90
      Express confidence that goals will be achieved 2.76 4.34
      Cumulative Mean 2.50 4.44

       

      Table 4.7 Empowering People

      Items Leaders Role Perceptions Difference
      Subordinates Leaders
      Mean Mean Sig t
      Empowering People 0.00 -2.12
      Spend time teaching and coaching me 2.42 4.33
      Treats others as individuals rather than just as a member of a group 3.00 4.77
      Help others to develop their strengths 3.42 4.66
      Cumulative empower people 2.94 4.59
      Items Leaders Role Perceptions Difference
      Subordinates Leaers
      Mean Mean Sig t
      Empowering People 0.00 -2.12
      Spend time teaching and coaching me 2.42 4.33
      Treats others as individuals rather than just as a member of a group 3.00 4.77
      Help others to develop their strengths 3.42 4.66
      Cumulative empower people 2.94 4.59

       

      Source: -Research data (2018)

      The fourth attribute of leadership role is empowering people. Table 4.7 Revealed that Leaders are spending time teaching and coaching scored mean value of 2.42, Leaders treating others as individuals rather than just as a member of a group scored 3.00, Leaders helping others to develop their strengths scored a mean of 3.42. The overall mean of empowering people as perceived by subordinates is 2.94 this shows that Leaders have a stumpy quality in empowering people in Federal TVET Institute. The leaders perception also indicated that that Leaders role of spending time teaching and coaching scored mean value of 4.33, Leaders treating others as individuals rather than just as a member of a group scored 4.77, Leaders helping others to develop their strengths scored a mean of 4.66. The overall mean of empowering people as perceived by leader is 4.59 this shows that Leaders witnessed that they have a strong quality in empowering people in Federal TVET Institute. The Group mean comparison analysis also confirmed the same result with the descriptive analysis. Their significant difference (t=-2.12, P<0.05) the way subordinates perceived their leaders role as empowering people and leaders perceived themselves.

      Items Leaders Role Perception Difference
      Subordinates Leaders
      Mean Mean sig t
      Talk optimistically about the future 1.49 3.99 0.03 -1.98
      Items Leaders Role Perception Difference
      Subordinates Leaders
      Mean Mean sig t
      Talk optimistically about the future 1.49 3.99 0.03 -1.98

       

      Table 4.8 Inspire and Energize People

      Source: -Research data (2018)

      The fifth attribute of leadership role is inspiring and energizing people. Table 4.8 revealed the subordinates perceived their leaders role of talking optimistically about the future scored mean value of 1.49, Leaders talking enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished scored a mean 2.27, Leaders expressing confidence that goals will be achieved scored a mean of 2.76. The overall mean of inspiring and energizing people is 2.50 this shows that Leaders have low quality inspiring and energizing people in Federal TVET Institute. But the leaders of Federal TVET Institute perceived themselves as good at playing the role of talking optimistically about the future scored mean value of 3.99, Leaders talking enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished scored a mean 4.90 Leaders expressing confidence that goals will be achieved scored a mean of 4.34. The overall mean of inspiring and energizing people is 4.44 this shows that Leaders have high quality in inspiring and energizing people in Federal TVET Institute. The group difference analysis also indicated the same result.

      4.2.5.Leading Team

      Table 4.9 Involve Everyone, Use Team Approach

      0.05

      -2.33

      Items Subordinates Leaders Sig t
      Mean Mean
      Involve Everyone, Use Team Approach
      Provide Others With Assistance In Exchange For Their Efforts 3.07 4.67
      Discuss In Specific Terms Who Is Responsible For Achieving Performance Targets 3.13 4.88
      Express Satisfaction When Others Meet Expectations 3.13 4.72
      Cumulative Mean 3.11 4.75

      Source: Research Data (2018)

      The first attribute of leadership role of leading team is involving everyone, or using team approach. Table 4.9 Revealed that Leader providing others with assistance in exchange for their efforts scored mean value of 3.07, Leaders discussing in specific terms that is responsible for achieving performance targets scored a mean 3.13, Leaders expressing satisfaction when other meet expectations scored a mean of

      3.13. The overall mean of leadership role of involving everyone or using team-based approach is 3.11 this shows employees of Federal TVET Institute are not sure about third leader role in considering team-based leadership of involving everyone. The leaders perception of their leadership role discovered that they providing others with assistance in exchange for their efforts scored mean value of 4.67, Leaders discussing in specific terms who is responsible for achieving performance targets scored a mean 4.88, leaders expressing satisfaction when other meet expectations scored a mean of

      4.72. The overall mean of leadership role of involving everyone or using team-based approach is 4.75 this shows that leaders positively perceived their leadership role of leading team in Federal TVET Institute. The t-test group difference analysis also indicated that there is significant difference between subordinates perception of their leaders role of team leading and leaders of the institution.

      Table 4.10 Monitor Progress (Management by Exception (active)

      Management by Exception (Active) Leaders Role Perceptions Difference
      Subordinates Leaders
      Mean Mean sig t
      Focus attention on irregularities, mistakes, exceptions and deviations 3.33 1.22 0.40 1.98
      Keep tracks of all mistakes 2.73 1.43
      Directs his/her attention toward failures to meet standards 2.58 1.11
      Cumulative mean 2.882 1.25

      Table 4.11 Monitor Progress-Management by Exception (Passive)

      Items Leaders Role Perceptions Difference
      Subordinate s Leaders
      Mean Mean Sig t
      Wait for things to go wrong before taken action 2.44 1.23 0.06 2.55
      Shows that he/she is a firm believer in If it isnt broke, dont fix it 2.36 1.22

      <td1.44

      Demonstrates that problems must become chronic before he/she take action 2.42
      Cumulative Management by exception (Passive) 2.407 1.30

      Source: Research data (2018)

      The third attribute of monitoring progress can be considered as describing leadership role as Management by exception (passive). Table 4.10 revealed that Leaders waiting for things to go wrong before taken action scored mean value of 2.44, Leader showing that he/she is a firm believer in If it isnt broke, dont fix it2.36, Leaders demonstrating that problems must become chronic before he/she take action scored a mean of 2.42. The overall mean of Management by exception(passive) is 2.407 this shows that Leaders don not exercise Management by exception(passive) in their role. The leaders also confirmed that they are not management by exception in their role they are neither passive (M=1.25) and active (M=1.30) in monitoring progress of the team. But there is significant difference that perception of subordinates of their leaders role in monitoring progress and the leaders perception. The leaders perception of encouraging group decision is more orthodox than subordinates.

      Table 4.12 Encourage Group Decision

      Items Leaders Role Perception Difference
      Subordinates Leaders sig t
      Mean Mean
      Avoids getting involved when important issues arise 2.80 1.90 0.03 2.44
      Avoid making decision 2.29 2.45
      Delay responding to urgent questions 2.29 1.55
      Cumulative Mean 2.45

      Source: Research data (2018)

      Subordinates on table 4.12 disagree on their leaders role of avoiding getting involved when important issues arose scored mean value of 2.80, avoiding making decision scored a mean value 2.29, Leaders delaying responding to urgent questions scored a mean of 2.29. Finally, the cumulative of encouraging group decision of leaders is 2.45 this shows that Leaders have positive role in encouraging group discussion. On the other hand, the leaders of the institution confirmed that they are exercising group decision making on their role. Leaders disagree on avoiding getting involved when important issues arise (M=1.90); making decision (M=2.45) and Delay responding to urgent questions (M=1.55). Even though the two groups confirmed that their leaders are positive in group decision making the Mean comparison between two gaps also confirmed the existence of significant difference between the subordinates and leaders perception on this role of leaders. Leaders (M=1.96) claim that they are much more concerned

      about group decision making than the way subordinates observed (M=2.45)

      4.2.6.Organizational Change

      Respondents level of agreement (whether you agree or disagree) on leaders role of Federal TVET Institute and effect on organizational change described in the following manner.

      Table.4.13. Organizational change

      Its Leaders Role Perception
      Subordin ates Leaders Difference
      Mean Mean
      Sig t
      Initiate and induce change 2.23 3.99 0.0

      0

      -2.33
      Believes that changes provide the opportunity for personal improvement as well as the development of new skills. 2.65 4.30
      Accept changes to my duties and my responsibilities 2.71 3.89
      Always cooperates 2.45 4.11
      Believe that changes are useful for the advancement of an organization. 2.67 4.1
      Changes lead an organization towards excellence 2.50 4.20
      Set the stage” for change? 2.77 4.33
      Track employee perceptions throughout the change? 2.69 4.22
      Provides honest answers to tough questions? 3.00 4.69
      Explains what’s in it for them”? 2.67 4.21
      Paints the big picture? 3.25 4.34
      Your leader communicates Organizational Change help in achieving the business objectives/ben efits? 2.90 4.56
      Your leader clearly communicates change help the employees/end stakeholders personally? 2.55 4.67
      Your leader let employees to know what happens if we dont embark on the change initiative? 2.67 4.20
      Your leader knows what is the contribution required from the stakeholders? 2.89 4.44
      Your leader clearly plans how do I obtain commitment to our plans from my organization? 2.60 4.52
      Knows how do I minimize resistance from middle management in implementing this change? 3.22 4.21
      Agendas are always innovative and put my institution at leading position 2.33 4.25
      Cumulative mean 2.70 4.30

      Source: primary data, 2018

      Table2.13 above clearly indicates the Federal TVET Institute leaders role perception regarding initiation and implementing organizational change. The subordinates of FTVETI perceived of their leaders limitation of initiating and inducing

      change in the institution. The subordinates confirmed their leaders limited role on initiating and inducing change (M=2.23); cooperation with subordinates in order to successfully implement the proposed change (M=2.45); believing on changes are useful for the advancement of an organization (M=2.67); leading on organization towards excellence and setting stage for change (M=2.77). The overall mean of leaders significant role on initiation and implementing change scored mean value 2, 70.

      On the contrary on the dimensions measuring leadership role and leaders sprit of initiating change and implanting leaders of TVET institutions claim that that they are change agents in terms of initiation change; setting the stage for change; painting big picture for their followers. The overall mean of leaders perception of their role as change leader scored mean value 4.30. As can be seen clearly observed from table above there is significant difference in leaders perception their role as a leader and initiating change and implementing and perception of subordinates. The disparity between the leaders and subordinates perceptions would require significant reconciliation.

        1. Relationshipof Leadership Roleand Organizational ChangeThis part shows the results of the inferential statistics conducted using the SPSS 16.0. To achieve the objective of this study indicated earlier, Pearsons Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, and multiple regression analysis were computed. Using these statistical tools conclusions was drawn.
          1. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient</>The relationship between the different facets of leadership role and organizational change was investigated using two-tailed Pearson correlation analysis.

            Table 4.14: Relationship Leadership Role-Visioning and Setting an Example and Organizational Change

            Variables Coefficient of Correlation Organizational Change
            Create an Inspiring Vision and Shared Values R .426**
            Lead Change R .507**
            Lead by Example R .423**
            Demonstrate Confidence R .439**
            Visioning and Setting an Example R .606**,

            ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

            Source: Research data (2018)

            As seen from the results in Table 4.14, build inspiring vision has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change (r = .426**, p > 0.01). Thus, strong positive correlation of leaders role of building and inspiring

            vision attribute with moderate positive correlation with organizational change in Federal TVET Institute.

            As seen from the results in Table 4.14, Sharing the vision and values has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change (r = .507**, p > 0.01). Thus, strong positive correlation of sharing the vision and values with organizational change indicate that sharing vision and value leads to positive organizational change of the Federal TVET Institute.

            As seen from the results in Table 4.14, leading by example has a moderate and significant relationship with organizational change (r = .423**, p > 0.01). Thus, a moderate positive correlation with organizational change indicates that leading by example can boost organizational positive change of Federal TVET Institute.

            As seen from the results in Table 4.14, demonstrating confidence has a moderate and significant relationship with organizational change (r = .439**, p > 0.01). Thus, a moderate positive correlation with organizational change indicate that demonstrating confidence as a leader will leaded to positive and functional organizational change of the Federal TVET Institute.

            As seen from the results in Table 4.14, leadership role of visioning and setting example has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change (r =.606**, p < 0.01).

            In similar to the above finding Huang, (2006) stated that leadership role has a positive correlation with organizational change. Howell and Frost (1989) and Bryan (1992) also presented that there is a positive relation between the leadership role style and the organizational change. According to Bass, 1985 & Katz & Kahn (1978), leadership role style leads to improved level of organization performance. Most researchers including Bycio et al., 1995 & Howell and Avolio (1993) agree on the concept that leadership role motivates followers for superior performance through leaders inspirational skills and his vision of the organization. (Nicholls, 1988; Quick, 1992).

            Several studies also suggested that (Adegoke, et. al., 2012; Nybakk&Jenssen, 2012; Durán-Vázquez Et Al., 2012) leadership role is positively related to organizational change. In contrary some studies show that there is no relationship between (Selby, 2010; Lööf&Heshmati, 2006;

            Kandybin&Kihn, 2004).

            Table 4.15: Correlation between Empowering and Energizing and Organizational Change

            .76**

            Variables Coefficient of Correlation Organizational Change
            Inspiring and energizing people R .79*
            Empowering people R ,66*
            Communicating openly R .79**
            Listen, support and Help R .88*
            Empowering and energizing

            The result of the analysis in Table4.15 shows that constructs of Empowering and energizing such as Inspiring and energizing people(r=.79; P<0.05); Empowering people(r=.66; P<0.05);; Communicating openly(r=.79; P<0.05);; and Listen, support and Help (r=.88; P<0.05); has significant and positive relationship with organizational change practice of the institution. This will prove that working on these variables will provide positive synergy to organizational change Dubinsky, Yammarino, Jolson, and Spangler (1995) also stated that empowering and energizing Leadership role is positive form of leadership role in which leader get involved in important decision-making process. He shows a leader has concern or sense of responsibility when an important issue or situation requiring an urgent response is confronted. Alternatively, employees are at their own in the time of crisis and problem and look for assistance from other sources and this results in poor organizational change. Similarly, with the above result Peris&Namusonge (2012) empowering and energizing has significantly correlated to organizational change.

            Table 4.16: Relationship of Leaderships Role-Leading Team and Organizational Change

            Variables Coefficient of Correlation Organizational Change
            Involve everyone and use team teaching approach R .621**
            Monitor Progress (Management by Exception (Active) R -.596**
            Monitor Progress- Management by Exception (Passive) R -.589**
            Leading Team R .71**

            ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

            Source: Research data (2018)

            As seen from the results in Table 4.16, involve everyone, use team approach has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change (r =.621**, p < 0.01. Thus, strong positive correlation of involve everyone, use team approach with organizational change, indicate that involve everyone,

            use team approach leads to positive organizational change, innovation, mission and vision and service quality among employees of Federal TVET Institute. Management by exception (active) has a strong and significant negative correlation with organizational change (-r =.596**, p < 0.01. Thus, strong negative correlations of Management by exception (active) with organizational change indicate Management by exception (active) can hamper organizational change initiative of Federal TVET Institute.

            Management by exception (passive) has a strong and significant negative correlation with organizational change (r

            =-.589**, p < 0.01Thus, strong negative correlation of Management by exception (passive) with organizational change indicate Management by exception (passive) can negatively affect organizational change effect of leaders of Federal TVET Institute. leadership role of leading team has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change (r =.717**, p < 0.01).

            Similarly, to the above result Bass (1985) argues that leading through team recognize the needs of their subordinates and further clarify that how these needs and wants can be satisfied and leads to organizational change. Alam et al. (1994) study also found a positive but weak relationship between leading through team and organizational change.

        2. Effect of Leadership Role on Organizational Change
          1. AssumptionsBefore conducting the multiple regression analysis, I examined the result of multiple correlations among the independent variables (multicollinearity). The Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) and toleranceare the widely used measures of the degree of multicollinearity of the independent variable with the other independent variables in a regression model. According to the rule of thumb, a tolerance of less than

            0.10 and VIF of 10 and above indicate multicollinearity (OBrien, 2007).

            Table 4.17: Regression- Organizational Changes Dependent Variable

            10.774

            .000

            Mode l Un- standardized Coefficient Stand ardize d Coeffi cient t Sig. Collinearity Statistics
            B Std. Error Beta Toler ance VIF
            (const ant) 1.261 .117
            Leade rship role .531 .041 .606 12.936 .000 1.000 1.000
            Total 169.774 289
            1. Dependent Variable: organizational change
            2. Predictors: (Constant), empowering and energizing
            Total 169.774 289
            1. Dependent Variable: organizational change
            2. Predictors: (Constant), empowering and energizing

             

            ANOVAs

            Model Summary

            22.428

            .000

            Team

            Sig.

            .036

            1

            87.292

            304.793

            .000b

            169.774

            289

            hus, a hat the above zatMionoadle ng anl d

            d

            Un- standardized Coefficient Stand ardize d Coeffi cient T Sig. Collinearity Statistics
            B Std. Error Beta Toler ance VIF
            (const ant) 2.674 .119
            gLaenaddi ng .011 .043 .014 .246 .000 1.000 1.000
            Model Unstandard ized Coefficient Stand ardize d Coeffi cient T Sig.
            Collinearit y Statistics ANOVAs

            Model

            Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F
            B Std. Err or Beta Toler ance VI F
            Regression
            Residual 169.738 288 .286
            (constant) .76

            3

            .11

            5

            6.6

            19

            .00

            0

            Total
            Empower ing and Energizin g .71

            6

            .04

            1

            .717 17.

            45

            8

            .00

            0

            1.000 1.

            00

            0

            Model Sum

            Model

            mar y

            R

            R

            Square

            Adjusted R

            Square

            Std. Error of the

            22.428

            .000

            Team

            Sig.

            .036

            1

            87.292

            304.793

            .000b

            169.774

            289

            hus, a hat the above zatMionoadle ng anl d

            d

            Un- standardized Coefficient Stand ardize d Coeffi cient T Sig. Collinearity Statistics
            B Std. Error Beta Toler ance VIF
            (const ant) 2.674 .119
            gLaenaddi ng .011 .043 .014 .246 .000 1.000 1.000
            Model Unstandard ized Coefficient Stand ardize d Coeffi cient T Sig.
            Collinearit y Statistics ANOVAs

            Model

            Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F
            B Std. Err or Beta Toler ance VI F
            Regression
            Residual 169.738 288 .286
            (constant) .76

            3

            .11

            5

            6.6

            19

            .00

            0

            Total
            Empower ing and Energizin g .71

            6

            .04

            1

            .717 17.

            45

            8

            .00

            0

            1.000 1.

            00

            0

            Model Sum

            Model

            mar y

            R

            R

            Square

            Adjusted R

            Square

            Std. Error of the

             

            The result in Table 4.17 indicates that Visioning and setting an example has VIF= 1.000 and tolerance=1.000. T

            VIF< 10 and tolerance greater than 0.10 indicates t model doesnt have a multicollinearity problem. The table also shows that the 60% variance of organi change can predict by the role of leaders in Visioni setting an example.

          2. Empowering and Energizing an Organizational ChangeTable 4.18: Regression of Empowerin Energizing On Organizational Change

            Source: Research data (2018)

            Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
            Regression 2.39 1 62.39 167.33 .000b
            Residual 107.38 288 .373
            Total 169.77 289
            Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
            Regression 62.39 1 62.39 167.33 .000b
            Residual 107.38 288 .373
            Total 169.77 289

             

            Model R R Square Adjusted R

            Square

            Std. Error of the Estimate
            1 .606a .367 .365 .61062
            A. Dependent Variable: Organizational Change
            B. Predictors: (Constant), Visioning and Setting An Example
            Model R R Square Adjusted R

            Square

            Std. Error of the Estimate
            1 .606a .367 .365 .61062
            A. Dependent Variable: Organizational Change
            B. Predictors: (Constant), Visioning and Setting An Example

             

            The result in table 4.18 indicates that empowering and energizing has VIF= 1.000 and tolerance=1.000. Thus a VIF< 10 and tolerance greater than 0.10 indicates that the model doesnt have a multicollinearity problem. As the result of the above multiple regression analysis the value of F 304.793 is statistically significant at 99% confidence which means that the model is statistically significant. The R2 of the model is

            .514, which shows that 51% of variance in organizational change (dependent variable) can be explained by the linear combination of the independent variable empowering and energizing role of a leader.

            Table 4.19: Regression-Leaderships Role- Leading Team and Organizational Change

            Estimate
            1 .14a .000 .060 .00b
            A. Dependent Variable: organizational change
            B. Predictors: (Constant), Leading Team
            Estimate
            1 .14a .000 .060 .00b
            A. Dependent Variable: organizational change
            B. Predictors: (Constant), Leading Team

             

            Model Summary

            ANOVAs

            The result in table4.19 indicates that Leading team has VIF=

            Model R R Square Adjusted R

            Square

            Std. Error of the Estimate
            1 .717a .514 .512 .53516
            Model R R Square Adjusted R

            Square

            Std. Error of the Estimate
            1 .717a .514 .512 .53516

             

            Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
            Regression 87.292 1 87.292 304.793 .000b
            Residual 82.482 288 .286
            Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
            Regression 87.292 1 87.292 304.793 .000b
            Residual 82.482 288 .286

             

            1.000 and tolerance=1.000. Thus, a VIF< 10 and tolerance greater than 0.10 indicates that the model doesnt have a multicollinearity problem. As the result of the above multiple regression analysis the model is statistically significant this shows that the 14% variance on organizational change (dependent variable) can be explained by the linear combination of the independent variable leading team.

        3. The interview with leaders

      Table 4.20 Symbol for respondents

      Symbol For
      D1 General Director
      D2 Vice General Directors
      D3 Directorates
      D4 Department Heads

      D1 “To lead the Federal TVET Institute and other TVET institutions effectively and efficiently, leaders of FTVETI lack very strong background and through awareness on TVET system, Strategy and Proclamation policy. “

      D1 “Leaders miss the very idea of using Business Process Re- Engineering (BPR) and policy document development. The Institutes leaders and concerned bodies should strive to prepare the BPR Documents with expectations towards the minimum educational background and qualification of expectations. “

      D2 “Leaders of FTVETI lack the basic background of TVET leadership as per requirements of the National TVET Strategy. The Institute leaders must provide time and focus in monitoring activities in different levels to ensure progress and accomplishment. “

      The result of the interview also indicated to establish policy of the quality management System to ensure effective and efficient utilization of the Institutes resources.

      D3 “The Institute leadership does not fulfill requirements of the Leaders Qualification Framework particularly on the formal educational qualification, and training in long and short-term programs. “

      The result also indicated lack of giving emphasis and attention to the creation of Center for Technology Accumulation and Transfer as so required by the TVET Strategy document and put in place qualified leaders to lead. And limited attention given to Human Resource Development Plan and opportunity for progress and advancement.

      D4 “Leaders of TVET lack developing effective leaders by building the current stock of people through capacity building initiatives for teachers and TVET leaders providing management courses to transform them to lead either in academic or administration. “

      D4 “The institute leaders all so lack limited experience in Benchmarking international best practices on leaders training and development, recruitment and employment to ensure organizational change and development.“

      CHAPTER FIVE

  4. Summary of the findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
    1. Summary of the findingsThe main objective of this research was to examine the leadership role and organizational change in the Federal TVET Institute of Ethiopia.
      1. Study ParticipantsRegarding gender distribution of the sample, 152(58.6%) of the total respondents are male; 18 (29%) are female. This impliesthat the majority of respondents are male. Also, it is

        indicated that 16 (9%) of the total respondents are leaders; 154(91%) are subordinates, regarding qualification 140(82%) of respondents have bachelors degree; 27(16%) have masters degree and the 3(2%) have doctorate degree. Finally, majority 72% of respondents participated on this study have work experience of 1 to 5 years in Federal TVET Institute.

    2. Approaching Leaders Role
      1. Visioning and Setting an Example

Majority 130(76%) of respondents neither agree nor disagree regarding their leaders role in involving employees on their change agenda. Only 12% of respondents agree that they involved them on any change agenda. On the same way 112(63%) of respondents not sure that their leader successfully settled change agenda initiated in the Federal TVET Institute in to innovative future.

About 18% of respondents confirmed that their leaders are aware about their role as a leader. But majority of respondents are not sure about their leaders awareness about their role. The result of the study clearly indicated that subordinates do not agree on their leaders role on building and inspiring vision (M=2.13), having shared vision and values (M=2.89) and leading by example (2.32). But leaders witnessed themselves that they build vision, lead by example and share the vision and values. The group difference analysis t-test (P<0.05, t=1.73) also clearly indicated that their significance difference of leaders and subordinate perception of leadership role in the institutions. Leaders place themselves at better place than subordinates.

The study finding revealed that Leaders instilling pride on others scored mean value of 3.13, Leaders attribute of giving beyond self-interest for the good of the group scored the mean value of 2.89, and finally Leader act to obtain respect from others resulted to influencing mean value of 3.42. The overall mean of idealized Influence Attribute scored a mean of 3.14 this shows that Leaders have an average or limited role in inspiring and energizing people in Federal TVET Institute to the desired change agenda. But the leader of the institutions believed that they are exercising their role of inspiring and energizing their subordinates through instilling pride on others; going beyond their self-interest. The mean value of leaders perception of their role is 3.90. The calculated t-value also showed significant difference between leaders and subordinates perception of leaders role. The calculated t- value indicated that leaders better perceived their leadership role as inspiring and synergizing their subordinates but subordinates are not.

Subordinates revealed that Leaders talking about his/her most important values and beliefs scored mean value of 2.65, Leaders specifying the importance of having a strong sense of purpose scored the mean value of 2.99, and Leaders considering the moral and ethical consequences of decisions scored a mean value 2.44. The overall mean of communicating openly scored a mean of 2,69 this shows that Leaders have an limited role in communicating openly in Federal TVET Institute.

The result of leaders perception indicated that revealed that Leaders talking about his/her most important values and beliefs scored mean value of 4.70, Leaders specifying the importance of having a strong sense of purpose scored the

mean value of 4.89, Leaders considering the moral and ethical consequences of decisions scored a mean value 4.43. The overall mean of communicating openly scored a mean of 4.70 this shows that leaders significantly plying their in communicating openly in Federal TVET Institute. The group mean comparison result also indicated that leaders perceived better perceived (t=-1.94, P<0.05) their communication role as a leader

Subordinates perceived that Leaders re-examine critical assumptions to questions whether they are appropriate scored mean value of 3.16, Leaders seeks differing perspectives when solving problems scored 3.49, Leaders suggesting new ways of looking at how to complete assignments scored a mean of

3.56. The overall mean of Listen, Support and Help is 3.35 this shows the leaders role as listener, supporter is average in Federal TVET Institute. The leaders also perceived that they re-examine critical assumptions to questions whether they are appropriate scored mean value of 4.11, Leaders seeks differing perspectives when solving problems scored 3.99, Leaders suggesting new ways of looking at how to complete assignments scored a mean of 2.98. The overall score of leaders role as listener and supporter is 3.70. The overall result indicates that there is significant difference (t=-199, p<0.05) between the way leaders perceive their role as listen and supporter and subordinates perception of the same role. The study finding revealed that Leaders spend time teaching and coaching scored mean value of 2.42, Leaders treating others as individuals rather than just as a member of a group scored 3.00, Leaders helping others to develop their strengths scored a mean of 3.42. The overall mean of empowering people as perceived by subordinates is 2.94 this shows that Leaders have a stumpy quality in empowering people in Federal TVET Institute. the leaders perception also indicated that that Leaders role of spending time teaching and coaching scored mean value of 4.33, Leaders treating others as individuals rather than just as a member of a group scored 4.77, Leaders helping others to develop their strengths scored a mean of 4.66. The overall mean of empowering people as perceived by subordinates 4.59 this shows that Leaders witnessed that they have a strong quality in empowering people in Federal TVET Institute. The Group mean comparison analysis also confirmed the same result with the descriptive analysis. Their significant difference (t=-2.12, P<0.05) the way subordinates perceived their leaders role as empowering people and leaders perceived themselves.

The study result revealed the subordinates perceived their leaders role of talking optimistically about the future scored mean value of 1.49, leaders talking enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished scored a mean 2.27, leaders expressing confidence that goals will be achieved scored a mean of 2.76. The overall mean of Individual Motivation is

2.50 this shows that leaders have low quality inspiring and energizing people in Federal TVET Institute. but the leaders of TVET institution perceived themselves as good at playing the role of talking optimistically about the future scored mean value of 3.99, leaders talking enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished scored a mean 4.90 leaders expressing confidence that goals will be achieved scored a mean of 4.34. The overall mean of inspiring and energizing people is 4.44 this shows that leaders have high quality

inspiring and energizing people in Federal TVET Institute. The group difference analysis also indicated the same result.

5.2.2.Leading Team

The study finding confirmed that those leaders providing others with assistance in exchange for their efforts scored mean value of 3.07, Leaders discussing in specific a term that is responsible for achieving performance targets scored a mean 3.13, leaders expressing satisfaction when other meet expectations scored a mean of 3.13. The overall mean of leadership role of involving everyone or using team-based approach is 3.111 this shows employees of Federal TVTET Institute are not sure about their leader role to in considering team-based leadership of involving everyone. The leaders perception of their leadership role Revealed that they providing others with assistance in exchange for their efforts scored mean value of 4.67, leaders discussing in specific terms who is responsible for achieving performance targets scored a mean 4.88, leaders expressing satisfaction when other meet expectations scored a mean of 4.72. The overall mean of leadership role of involving everyone or using teambased approach is 4.75 this shows leaders positively perceived the leadership role of leading team in Federal TVET Institute. The t-test group difference analysis also indicated that there is significant difference between subordinates perception of their leaders role of team leading and leaders of the Institute. Respondents noted that that leaders waiting for things to go wrong before taken action scored mean value of 2.44, Leader showing that he/she is a firm believer in If it isnt broke, dont fix it2.36, leaders demonstrating that problems must become chronic before he/she take action scored a mean of

    1. The overall mean of Management by exception (passive) is 2.40 this shows that leaders don not exercise Management by exception (passive) in their role. The leaders also confirmed that they are not management by exception in their role they are neither passive (M=1.25) and active (M=1.30) in monitoring progress of the team. But there is significant difference that perception of subordinates of their leaders role in monitoring progress and the leaders perception.The study showed that s that leaders have positive role in encouraging group discussion. On the other hand, the leaders of the institution confirmed that they are exercising group decision making on their role. Leaders disagree on avoiding getting involved when important issues arise (M=1.90); making decision (M=2.45) and Delay responding to urgent questions (M=1.55). Even though the two groups confirmed that their leaders are positive in group decision making the Mean comparison between two gaps also confirmed the existence of significant difference between the subordinates and leaders perception on this role of leaders. Leaders (M=1.96) claim that they are much more concerned about group decision making than the way subordinates observed (M=2.45)
          1. Organizational ChangeThe subordinates of Federal TVET Institute perceived their leaders limitation of initiating and inducing change in the institution. The subordinates confirmed their leaders limited role on initiating and inducing change (M=2.23); cooperation with subordinates in order to successful implementation of the

            proposed change (M=2.45); believing on changes are useful for the advancement of an organization (M=2.67); leading on organization towards excellence and setting stage for change (M=2.77). The overall mean of leaders significant role on initiation and implementing change scored mean value 2, 70. On the contrary on the dimensions measuring leadership role and leaders sprit of initiating change and implanting leaders of Federal TVET institute claim that that they are change agents in terms of initiation change; setting the stage for change; painting big picture for their followers. The overall mean of leaders perception of their role as change leader scored mean value 4.30. As can be seen clearly observed from table above there is significant difference in leaders perception their role as a leader and initiating change and implementing and perception of subordinates. The disparity between the leaders and subordinates needs significant reconciliation.

          2. Relationship of Leadership Role and Organizational ChangeThe relationship between the different facets of leadership role and organizational change was investigated using two-tailed Pearson correlation analysis. As seen from the results in Table 4.7, build inspiring vision has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change (r = .426**, p > 0.01). Thus, strong positive correlation of leaders role of building and inspiring vision attribute with moderate positive correlation with organizational change in Federal TVET Institute. Sharing the vision and values has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change (r =

            .507**, p > 0.01). Thus, strong positive correlation of sharing the vision and values with organizational change indicate that sharing vision and value leads to positive organizational change Federal TVET Institute.

            Leading by example has a moderate and significant relationship with organizational change (r = .423**, p > 0.01). Thus, moderate positive correlations with organizational change indicate that leading by example can boost organizational positive change of Federal TVET Institute.

            Demonstrating confidence has a moderate and significant relationship with organizational change (r = .439**, p > 0.01). Thus, moderate positive correlations with organizational change indicate that demonstrating confidence as a leader will lead to positive and functional organizational change of Federal TVET Institute. Leadership role of visioning and setting example has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change (r =.606**, p < 0.01). Constructs of Empowering and energizing such as Inspiring and energizing people(r=.79; P<0.05); Empowering people(r=.66; P<0.05); Communicating openly(r=.79; P<0.05); and Listen, support and Help (r=.88; P<0.05); has significant and positive relationship with organizational change practice of the institution. This will prove that working on this variable will provide positive synergy to organizational change.

            The study finding reveled that leaders of involving everyone, using team approach has a role strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change(r =.621**, p < 0.01. Thus, strong positive correlation of involve everyone, use team approach with organizational change, indicate that

            involve everyone, use team approach leads to positive organizational change, innovation, mission and vision and service quality among employees of Federal TVET Institute. Leaders monitoring project- Management by exception (active) has a strong and significant negative correlation with organizational change (-r =.596**, p < 0.01. Thus, strong negative correlation of Management by exception (active) with organizational change indicates Management by exception (active) can hamper organizational change initiative of Federal TVET Institute.

            Leaders monitoring project- Management by exception (passive) has a strong and significant negative correlation with organizational change (r =-.589**, p < 0.01Thus, strong negative correlation of Management by exception (passive) with organizational change indicate Management by exception (passive) can negatively affect organizational change effect of leaders of Federal TVET Institute. leadership role of leading team has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change (r =.717**, p < 0.01).

          3. Effect of Leadership Role on Organizational Change

      The result the study indicates that empowering and energizing has VIF= 1.000 and tolerance=1.000. Thus, a VIF< 10 and tolerance greater than 0.10 indicates that the model doesnt have a multicollinearity problem. As the result of the above multiple regression analysis the value of F 304.793 is statistically significant at 99% confidence which means that the model is statistically significant. The R2 of the model is

      .514, which shows that 51% of variance in organizational change (dependent variable) can be explained by the linear combination of the independent variable empowering and energizing role of a leader. As the result of multiple regression analysis, the model is statistically significant this shows that the 14% variance on organizational change (dependent variable) can be explained by the linear combination of the independent variable leading team.

        1. ConclusionIt is therefore concluded that based on the results of the survey conducted, the difference of perceptions between the leaders and the subordinates in the different areas of leadership role in effecting organizational change has enlighten us to the degree of disagreement between subordinates and the leaders of the Federal TVET Institute. It is suggested that intensive findings of probable solutions to solve the gaps and to bring the level ofcapacity of the leaders of the Federal TVET Institute to effect organizational change shall be given higher priority and attention by the appropriate bodies to ensure dynamic and productive working environment in the Federal TVET Institute.

          Below are some of the conclusive statements pertaining to the study.

          • Majority of respondents are not sure about their

leaders awareness about their roles. And majority respondents neither agree nor disagree regarding their leaders role in involving employees on their change agenda. On the same way majority of respondents are not sure that their leader successfully settled change

agenda initiated in Federal TVET Institute into innovative future.

  • Leaders in Federal TVET Institute have an average or incomplete role in inspiring and energizing people to the desired change agenda. But the leader believed that they are exercising their role of inspiring and energizing their subordinates through instilling prideon others; going beyond their self-interest. The calculated t-value indicated that leaders better perceived their leadership role as inspiring and synergizing their subordinates but subordinates are not.
  • Subordinates professed that Federal TVET InstituteLeaders have limited role in communicating openly. But Leaders consider that they are significantly playing their role of communicating openly in Federal TVET Institute. The groups mean comparison result also indicated that leaders better perceived their communication role as a leader.
  • Federal TVET Institute leaders are regarded as leaders that positively exercise their role as listenerand supporter. The overall result indicates that there is significant difference between the way leaders perceived their role as listener and supporter and subordinates perception of the same role.
  • Leaders have a stumpy quality in empowering people in Federal TVET Institute. But Leaders claimed that they have a strong quality in empowering people in the Institute. The Group mean comparison analysisalso confirmed the same result with the descriptive analysis. There is significant difference in the way subordinates perceived their leaders role as empowering people and leaders perceived them.
  • Leaders have low quality inspiring and energizing people in Federal TVET Institute and Leaders have high quality of inspiring and energizing people inFederal TVET Institute. The group difference analysis also indicated the same result.
  • The leaders perception of their leadership role revealed that they are providing others with assistance in exchange for their efforts. Leadershiprole of involving everyone or using team-based approach is 4.75.
  • This shows leaders positively perceived theleadership role of leading team in Federal TVET Institute. The t-test group difference analysis also indicated that there is significant difference between subordinates` perception of their leaders role of team leading and leaders of the Institute.
  • Leaders in Federal TVET Institute confirmed that they are neither passive nor active in monitoring progress of the team. But there is significant difference that perception of subordinates about theirleaders role in monitoring progress and the leaders perception.
  • The study showed that Leaders in Federal TVET Institute have positive role in encouraging group discussion. Even though the two groups confirmedthat their leaders are positive in group decision making the mean comparison between two gaps also

    confirmed the existence of significant difference between the subordinates and leaders perception on this role of leaders. Leaders claimed that they are much more concerned with group decision making than the way subordinates observed.

  • The subordinates confirmed their leaders` limited role in following organizational change dimensions:
    • Initiating and inducing change;
    • Cooperation with subordinates in order to successfully implement the proposed change; believing that changes are useful for the advancement of an organization;
    • Leading an organization towards excellence and setting stage for change.
    • The overall mean of leaders perception oftheir role as change leader is 4.30.
  • There is a significant difference in leaders perception of their role as a leader and initiating change and implementing and perception of subordinates.
  • The relationship between the different facets ofleadership role and organizational change was investigated using two-tailed Pearson correlation analysis.
  • Building inspiring vision has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change.
  • Sharing the vision and values has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change.
  • Leading by example has a moderate and significant relationship with organizational change
  • Demonstrating confidence has a moderate andsignificant relationship with organizational change.
  • Leadership role of visioning and setting example has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change. Constructs of empoweringand energizing such as inspiring and energizing people; empowering people, communicating openly, and listen, support and help has significant and positive relationship with organizational change practice of the Institute.
  • These will prove that working on these variables will provide positive synergy to organizational change.
  • The study finding revealed that the Federal TVETInstitute leaders role of involving everyone, using team approach has a role. It has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change.
  • Leaders monitoring project-management by exception (active) has a strong and significant negative correlation with organizational change. Thus, strong negative correlation of management by exception (active) with organizational changeindicates management by exception (active) can hamper organizational change initiative of the Federal TVET Institute.
  • Leaders monitoring project-management by exception (passive) has a strong and significantnegative correlation with organizational change Thus, strong negative correlation of management by

    exception (passive) with organizational change indicate management by exception (passive) can negatively affect organizational change effect of leaders of Federal TVET Institute. Leadership role of leading team has a strong and significant positive correlation with organizational change.

  • All of the three fundamental leadership roledimensions such as visioning and setting an example; empowering and energizing and leading team observed as significant predictors of organization change.
      1. Recommendations:
  • To lead the Federal TVET Institute and other TVETinstitutions effectively and efficiently, leaders must have in general a very strong background and through awareness on TVET system, Strategy and Proclamation policy.
  • Those (Leaders and Managers) who aspire to serve the Institute shall have the basic background ofTVET leadership as per requirements of the National TVET Strategy.
  • The Institute leaders must provide time and focus in monitoring activities in different levels to ensure progress and accomplishment and communicate openly to employees
  • The Institute leaders must be able to establish as apolicy the Quality Management System to ensure effective and efficient utilization of the Institutes resources.
  • The Ministry of Education as a higher governmentalbody has to conduct every quarter monitoring and evaluation of the Federal TVET Instituteto see how the leaders significantly play their role.
  • The Institute leadership must be based on the requirements of the Leaders Qualification Framework particularly on the formal educational qualification, and training in long and short-term programs.
  • Leaders must improve their limited role in followingorganizational change dimensions:
    • Initiating and inducing change;
    • Cooperation with subordinates in order tosuccessfully implement the proposed change; believing that changes are useful for the advancement of an organization;
    • Leading an organization towards excellence and setting stage for change.
    • The overall mean of leaders perception of their role as change leader is 4.30.
  • Leadership role of visioning and setting example;empowering and energizing such as inspiring and energizing people; empowering people, communicating openly, and listen, support and help has significant and positive relationship with organizational change practice of the Institute. The leaders should consider these leadership roles as their significant task.
  • These will prove that working on these variables will provide positive synergy to organizational change.
  • Federal TVET Institute leaders has to consider in their role of involving everyone, using team approach building organizational change.
  • Leaders should examine and enhance their skill in monitoring project-management by exception (active) has a strong and significant negative correlation with organizational change.
  • Leaders should see their visioning and setting an example; empowering and energizing and leadingteam since these are significant predictors of organization change.
  • The Institute leaders must ensure that the Human Resource Development Plan for its people shall beproperly implemented giving opportunity for progress and advancement.
  • The Institute leaders must ensure the continuous supply of effective leaders based on this research paper by building the current stock of people through capacity building initiatives for teachers and TVETleaders providing management courses to transform them to lead either in academic or administration.
  • The Institute leaders must ensure that planning, supervision and managing type of programs shall be provided to the prospective leaders from the rank and file either local or international.
  • Benchmark international best practices on leaders

training and development, recruitment and employment to ensure organizational change and development

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