IR based Haemoglobin Measurement using Non Invasive Technique and its Classification

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IR based Haemoglobin Measurement using Non Invasive Technique and its Classification

Prashant Chougule, Pooja Shirodkar, Gauresh Gopal Shetgaonkar Sitaram Alias, Niharika Samant, Chaitali Haldankar ,

Electronics and Communications Engineering Department, Agnel Institute of Technology and Design, Goa

Abstract Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs.

Haemoglobin consist of four protein molecules (globulin chains) that are linked together. The normal adult haemoglobin (Hbg) molecule contains two alpha-globulin chains and two beta- globulin chains. Invasive method comprises of physical examination and credentialises the colour of a drop of blood on filter paper to a standardized colour comparison chart[3].

Here is an attempt to design a system for non-invasive haemoglobin monitoring and classification . A non invasive haemoglobin monitoring using infrared is showcased. It includes near infrared radiation on a index finger of your hand and sensing the resultant radiation after absorbance by haemoglobin

. The haemoglobin count is measured across to the voltage level through a chain of observations and results are obtained .The results are further used for analysing the various haemoglobin related diseases prevalent in women[3].

Keywords: Non invasive , monitoring, fuzzy logic, classification

  1. INTRODUCTION

    According to World Health Organisation the normal range for Hb Is For men : 13.5 g/dl to 17.5 g/dl and For women :

    12.0 g/dl to 15.5 g/dl

    Hb values can be lower or higher than the normal range resulting in different types of diseases. If Hb concentration is lower than normal levels then it is termed as anaemia whereas high hb levels is termed as polycythaemia.

    transferred through the blood stream until it reaches various tissues. There, the oxygen is released to myoglobin, which then carries it to the mitochondria, and thus used for aerobic respiration. In exchange, deoxyhemoglobin picks up 2 protons and 2 molecules of CO2 and returns to the lungs, where the CO2 is set out through exhalation.

    1. Advantages of Non-Invasive Techniques

      • Needle free, painless testing system.

      • Eliminates possible infections.

      • Advantageous to the hemophobic and diabetic patients.

      • No need of expertise

      • Device is portable

      • Cost effective

      • Real time monitoring system

    2. Description of Block diagram

    The block diagram is shown below for the detection

  2. MANUSCRIPTS

    A. Hemoglobin

    Hemoglobin is present in the red blood cells of the body. Absorption of light by oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobim is measured by wavelengths 940nm and 660nm respectively.

    Each red blood cell (RBC) contains approximately 280 million hemoglobin molecules.

    The main task of hemoglobin is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and then transport CO2 from the different tissues to the lungs. One hemoglobin molecule has the ability to carry up to 4 oxygen molecules. There are two main components of hemoglobin: oxyhemoglobin, which is saturated with oxygen molecules and deoxyhemoglobin (also is called reduced hemoglobin), which is desaturated with oxygen molecules. Oxyhemoglobin is highly associated for oxygen than deoxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin is highly associated to CO2 than oxyhemoglobin. Therefore, oxygen combines to oxyhemoglobin in the lungs and is then

    Figure 1: Block diagram

    1. Hardware analysis

      Sr. N

      o

      Femal e Age Group

      Hb Cou nt(m g/dl)

      R1 in mV

      R2

      in mV

      R 3 in mV

      Readin g 4 in mV

      Avg output voltage in mV

      1

      10

      12 yrs

      16.6

      5.0

      5.2

      5.3

      5.0

      2

      10

      12 yrs

      15.3

      5.0

      5.1

      5.1

      5.0

      5.05

      3

      12

      15 yrs

      16.7

      4.7

      4.5

      4.6

      4.6

      4.6

      4

      12

      15 yrs

      15.6

      5.0

      5.1

      5.1

      5.1

      5.07

      Sr. N

      o

      Femal e Age Group

      Hb Cou nt(m g/dl)

      R1 in mV

      R2

      in mV

      R 3 in mV

      Readin g 4 in mV

      Avg output voltage in mV

      1

      10

      12 yrs

      16.6

      5.0

      5.2

      5.3

      5.0

      2

      10

      12 yrs

      15.3

      5.0

      5.1

      5.1

      5.0

      5.05

      3

      12

      15 yrs

      16.7

      4.7

      4.5

      4.6

      4.6

      4.6

      4

      12

      15 yrs

      15.6

      5.0

      5.1

      5.1

      5.1

      5.07

      Table 1: Obtained Avg voltage levels for Hb count

      5

      12

      15 yrs

      14.3

      6.2

      6.3

      6.3

      6.3

      6.3

      6

      12

      15 yrs

      14.8

      6.0

      6.0

      6.1

      6.0

      6.0

      7

      12

      15 yrs

      16

      4.3

      4.4

      4.4

      4.3

      4.3

      8

      15

      17 yrs

      16.3

      3

      4.3

      4.2

      4.2

      4.2

      4.2

      9

      15

      17 yrs

      15.3

      3

      5.6

      5.7

      5.7

      5.6

      5.6

      10

      15

      17 yrs

      17.2

      4.9

      4.8

      4.8

      5.0

      4.87

      11

      15

      17 yrs

      16.5

      4.1

      4.1

      4.1

      4.3

      4.1

      12

      15

      17 yrs

      13.2

      2

      6.4

      6.3

      6.4

      6.4

      6.4

      13

      15

      17 yrs

      13.6

      7

      6.2

      6.3

      6.3

      6.2

      6.2

      14

      15

      17 yrs

      14.4

      6.2

      6.1

      6.2

      6.2

      6.2

      15

      15

      17 yrs

      15.2

      5.5

      5.4

      5.5

      5.5

      5.5

      16

      15

      17 yr

      15.5

      5.0

      4.9

      4.9

      4.8

      4.9

      17

      15

      17 yrs

      16.1

      4.7

      4.6

      4.5

      4.7

      4.6

      18

      15

      17 yrs

      16.0

      2

      4.5

      4.7

      4.7

      4.5

      4.6

      19

      15

      17 yrs

      15.3

      5.5

      5.5

      5.6

      5.5

      5.5

      20

      15

      17 yrs

      16.2

      4.8

      4.5

      4.8

      4.8

      4.8

      21

      18

      25 yrs

      11

      7.2

      7.1

      7.1

      7.1

      7.1

      22

      18

      25 yrs

      11.6

      7.1

      7.2

      7.2

      7.3

      7.2

      23

      18

      25 yrs

      12.3

      6.7

      6.8

      6.6

      6.7

      6.7

      24

      18

      25 yrs

      12.7

      6.7

      6.7

      6.5

      6.6

      6.7

      25

      18

      25 yrs

      12.8

      6.6

      6.4

      6.4

      6.1

      6.3

      26

      18

      25 yrs

      13.2

      6.4

      6.3

      6.4

      6.4

      6.4

      27

      18

      25 yrs

      13.6

      6.5

      6.4

      6.3

      6.3

      6.4

      28

      18

      25 yrs

      13.8

      6.5

      6.4

      6.4

      6.4

      6.4

      29

      18

      25 yrs

      15.2

      5.2

      5.4

      5.2

      5.2

      5.2

      30

      18

      25 yrs

      15.6

      5.3

      5.3

      5.3

      5.3

      5.3

      31

      18

      25 yrs

      16.1

      4.7

      4.6

      4.6

      4.4

      4.6

      32

      18

      25 yrs

      16.4

      4.8

      4.7

      4.8

      4.8

      4.8

      33

      18

      25 yrs

      12.2

      6.8

      6.8

      6.8

      6.8

      6.8

      34

      18

      25 yrs

      12.4

      6.7

      6.6

      6.7

      6.7

      6.7

      35

      25

      30 yrs

      14.3

      6.2

      6.1

      6.1

      6.1

      6.1

      36

      25

      30 yrs

      14.8

      5.9

      5.5

      5.8

      5.8

      5.8

      37

      25

      30 yrs

      13.1

      6.1

      6.2

      6.2

      6.2

      6.2

      38

      25

      30 yrs

      11.3

      7.1

      7.2

      7.2

      7.2

      7.2

      39

      25

      30 yrs

      10.2

      7.6

      7.5

      7.7

      7.5

      7.5

      40

      25

      30 yrs

      12.6

      7.3

      7.2

      7.3

      7.2

      7.3

      5

      12

      15 yrs

      14.3

      6.2

      6.3

      6.3

      6.3

      6.3

      6

      12

      15 yrs

      14.8

      6.0

      6.0

      6.1

      6.0

      6.0

      7

      12

      15 yrs

      16

      4.3

      4.4

      4.4

      4.3

      4.3

      8

      15

      17 yrs

      16.3

      3

      4.3

      4.2

      4.2

      4.2

      4.2

      9

      15

      17 yrs

      15.3

      3

      5.6

      5.7

      5.7

      5.6

      5.6

      10

      15

      17 yrs

      17.2

      4.9

      4.8

      4.8

      5.0

      4.87

      11

      15

      17 yrs

      16.5

      4.1

      4.1

      4.1

      4.3

      4.1

      12

      15

      17 yrs

      13.2

      2

      6.4

      6.3

      6.4

      6.4

      6.4

      13

      15

      17 yrs

      13.6

      7

      6.2

      6.3

      6.3

      6.2

      6.2

      14

      15

      17 yrs

      14.4

      6.2

      6.1

      6.2

      6.2

      6.2

      15

      15

      17 yrs

      15.2

      5.5

      5.4

      5.5

      5.5

      5.5

      16

      15

      17 yrs

      15.5

      5.0

      4.9

      4.9

      4.8

      4.9

      17

      15

      17 yrs

      16.1

      4.7

      4.6

      4.5

      4.7

      4.6

      18

      15

      17 yrs

      16.0

      2

      4.5

      4.7

      4.7

      4.5

      4.6

      19

      15

      17 yrs

      15.3

      5.5

      5.5

      5.6

      5.5

      5.5

      20

      15

      17 yrs

      16.2

      4.8

      4.5

      4.8

      4.8

      4.8

      21

      18

      25 yrs

      11

      7.2

      7.1

      7.1

      7.1

      7.1

      22

      18

      25 yrs

      11.6

      7.1

      7.2

      7.2

      7.3

      7.2

      23

      18

      25 yrs

      12.3

      6.7

      6.8

      6.6

      6.7

      6.7

      24

      18

      25 yrs

      12.7

      6.7

      6.7

      6.5

      6.6

      6.7

      25

      18

      25 yrs

      12.8

      6.6

      6.4

      6.4

      6.1

      6.3

      26

      18

      25 yrs

      13.2

      6.4

      6.3

      6.4

      6.4

      6.4

      27

      18

      25 yrs

      13.6

      6.5

      6.4

      6.3

      6.3

      6.4

      28

      18

      25 yrs

      13.8

      6.5

      6.4

      6.4

      6.4

      6.4

      29

      18

      25 yrs

      15.2

      5.2

      5.4

      5.2

      5.2

      5.2

      30

      18

      25 yrs

      15.6

      5.3

      5.3

      5.3

      5.3

      5.3

      31

      18

      25 yrs

      16.1

      4.7

      4.6

      4.6

      4.4

      4.6

      32

      18

      25 yrs

      16.4

      4.8

      4.7

      4.8

      4.8

      4.8

      33

      18

      25 yrs

      12.2

      6.8

      6.8

      6.8

      6.8

      6.8

      34

      18

      25 yrs

      12.4

      6.7

      6.6

      6.7

      6.7

      6.7

      35

      25

      30 yrs

      14.3

      6.2

      6.1

      6.1

      6.1

      6.1

      36

      25

      30 yrs

      14.8

      5.9

      5.5

      5.8

      5.8

      5.8

      37

      25

      30 yrs

      13.1

      6.1

      6.2

      6.2

      6.2

      6.2

      38

      25

      30 yrs

      11.3

      7.1

      7.2

      7.2

      7.2

      7.2

      39

      25

      30 yrs

      10.2

      7.6

      7.5

      7.7

      7.5

      7.5

      40

      25

      30 yrs

      12.6

      7.3

      7.2

      7.3

      7.2

      7.3

      Figure2: Hb count (mg/dL) v/s Avg Output (mV)

      Figure3: Entries of different age group

    2. Result discussion

      • For women category having haemoglobin level between 12 -15.5 grams per decilitre is considered normal. Values below 12-13 grams per decilitre is considered to be iron deficit anaemia in females

      • Similarly the hemoglobin level can also be used to detect the hemoglobin related diseases during pregnancy. The value below 12 grams per decilitre will be considered iron deficit and will have voltage range between 6.8mV 7.0mV and below 10 grams per decilitre is anaemic with voltage range between 7mV 8mV.

      • The haemoglobin level intensity can also help in finding the heart rate of a patient.

  3. CONCLUSION

  1. General conclusion

    As the hemoglobin increases output voltage value reduces and thus inversely propotional. Higher the hemoglobin count higher will be the rate of the IR absorption,lower will be the output of photodetector and hence less output voltage. Interference of light with the samples could cause error in readings.

  2. Future scope

By using fuzzy logic the device could be enhanced to describe the medications for anaemic and polycythemic subjects.

Same principle could also be used for monitoring cholesterol and glucose level [3] and also to find the heart rate of a patient.

REFERENCES

  1. Sandeep Patil HG,Dr. Ram Kumar PS,Dr.G.K.Prabhu,Dr.AGIT N. Babu, Methods and devices to determine Hb non-invasively; a review, july 2014

  2. Rajashree Doshi, Anagha Pandit Rao,Optical sensor system for Hemoglobin Measurement.

  3. A.Kavithamani1 & V. Manikandan2 Non invasive Hemoglobin level and heart rate sensor system for Automatic treadmill speed control

  4. Aryeh Shander, Lawerence T.Goodnough, Mazyar Javidroozi, Michael Auerbach, Jeffrey Carson, William B. Ershler, Mary Ghiglione, John Glaspy and Indu Lew, Iron Deficiency Anemia – Bridging the Knowledge and Practice Gap, Journal of Transfusion Medicine

    Reviews, Elsevier, vol.28, Issue 3, July 2014, pp.156166, doi:10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.05.001.

  5. Lipinski MJ, Dewey FE, Biondi-Zoccai GG, Abbate A, Vetrovec GW and Froelicher VF, Hemoglobin levels predict exercise performance, STsegment depression, and outcome in patients referred for routine exercise treadmill testing, Journal of Clinical Cardiology, vol. 32, Issue 12, pages E22 – E31, December 2009.

  6. Jens Kraitl, Ulrich Timm, Hartmut Ewald and Elfed Lewis, Non- invasive measurement of blood components, Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Sensing Technology. pp.253-257, 2011.

  7. Rajashree Doshi and Anagha Panditrao, Noninvasive optical sensor for Hemoglobin Determination, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) vol. 3, Issue 2, pp.559-562, March

-April 2013, v ISSN: 2248-9622.

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