 Open Access
 Total Downloads : 12
 Authors : K . Guru Shravani R . Siva
 Paper ID : IJERTCONV2IS15008
 Volume & Issue : NCDMA – 2014 (Volume 2 – Issue 15)
 Published (First Online): 30072018
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Integration of Color and Texture Features for Content Based Image Retrieval
K . Guru Shravani R . Siva

ech II Year Assistant Professor
Dept.Of CSE Dept.CSE
Annamacharya Institute of Tech,and Science Annamacharya Institute of Tech., and science., (AITS), Tirupati, A.P., India (AITS), Tirupati, A.P., Indi
Abstract This paper presents a new image indexing and retrieval algorithm by combining the color (RGB histogram) and texture feature (local derivative patterns (LDPs). Texture feature, LDP extracts the highorder local information by encoding various distinctive spatial relationships contained in a given local region. Color features, histogram extracts the distribution of various colors in an image. The experimentation has been carried out for proving the worth of our algorithm. It is further mentioned that the database considered for experiment is Corel 1000 databased. The results after being investigated show a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LDP, RGB histogram.
KeywordsLocal Derivative Patterns; Feature Extraction; Local Binary Patterns; Image Retrieval; Histogram.

INTRODUCTION

Motivation
Digital image libraries and other multimedia databases have been dramatically expanded in recent years. Storage and retrieval of images in such libraries has become a real demand in industrial, medical, and other applications. Contentbased image indexing and retrieval (CBIR) is considered as a solution. In such systems, in the indexing algorithm, some features are extracted from every picture and stored as an index vector. The CBIR utilizes the visual contents of an image such as color, texture, shape, faces, spatial layout etc. in order to represent and index the image. The visual features can further be classified into general features which include color, texture and shape and domain specific features as human faces and finger prints. There is no single best representation of an image for all perceptual subjectivity, because the user may take the photographs in different conditions (view angle, illumination changes etc.). Learning of high level semantic concepts is a challenging task for CBIR systems. Comprehensive and extensive literature survey on CBIR is presented in [1][4].
Swain et al. proposed the concept of color histogram in 1991 and also introduced the histogram intersection distance metric to measure the distance between the histograms of images [5]. Stricker et al. (1995) used the first three central moments called mean, standard deviation and skewness of each color for image retrieval [6]. Pass et al. (1997) split the each histogram bin into two parts called a color coherence vector (CCV) [7]. CCV partitions the each bin into two types, i.e., coherent, if it belongs to a large uniformly colored region
or in coherent, if it does not. Huang et al. (1997) used a new color feature called color correlogram [8]. Color correlogram characterizes not only the color distributions of pixels, but also spatial correlation of pair of colors. Lu et al. (2005) proposed color feature based on vector quantized (VQ) index histograms in the DCT domain. They computed 12 histograms, four for each color component from 12 DCTVQ index sequences [9].
Texture is another salient and indispensable feature for CBIR. Smith et al. used the mean and variance of the wavelet coefficients as texture features for CBIR [10]. Moghaddam et al. proposed the Gabor wavelet correlogram (GWC) for CBIR [11, 12]. Ahmadian et al. used the wavelet transform for texture classification [13]. Moghaddam et al. introduced new algorithm called wavelet correlogram (WC) [14]. Saadatmand et al. [15, 16] improved the performance of WC algorithm by optimizing the quantization thresholds using genetic algorithm (GA). Birgale et al. [17] and Subrahmanyam et al. [18] combined the color (color histogram) and texture (wavelet transform) features for CBIR. Subrahmanyam et al. proposed correlogram algorithm for image retrieval using wavelets and rotated wavelets (WC+RWC) [19].

Related Work
The recently proposed local binary pattern (LBP) features are designed for texture description. Ojala et al. proposed the LBP [20] and these LBPs are converted to rotational invariant for texture classification [21]. pietikainen et al. proposed the rotational invariant texture classification using feature distributions [22]. Ahonen et al. [23] and Zhao et al [24] used the LBP operator facial expression analysis and recognition. Heikkila et al. proposed the background modeling and detection by using LBP [25]. Huang et al. proposed the extended LBP for shape localization [26]. Heikkila et al. used the LBP for interest region description [27]. Li et al. used the combination of Gabor filter and LBP for texture segmentation [28]. Zhang et al. proposed the local derivative pattern for face recognition [29]. They have considered LBP as a nondirectional first order local pattern, which are the binary results of the firstorder derivative in images.

Main Contribution
To improve the retrieval performance in terms of retrieval accuracy, in this paper, we color (RGB histograms) and texture features (LDP histograms). The experimentation has been carried out on Corel database for proving the worth of our algorithm. The results after being investigated shows a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LDP and RGB histogram techniques.
The organization of the paper as follows: In section I, a brief review of image retrieval and related work is given. Section II, describes the collection of color feature, Section III, presents a concise review of Local Binary Patterns. Section IV, presents the local derivative patterns and proposed system framework. Experimental results and discussions are given in section V. Based on above work conclusions are derived in section V.


RGB COLOR HISTOGRAM

The color histogram [5] is obtained by counting the number of times each color occurs in the image array. Histogram is invariant to translation and rotation of the image plane, and change only slowly under change of angle of view.

LOCAL DERIVATIVE PATTERNS (LDP)

Local Derivative Patterns (LDP)
Baochang Zhang et al. proposed the LDP operator for face recognition [29]. In this scheme, LBP is conceptually regarded as the nondirectional firstorder local pattern operator; because LBP encodes alldirection firstorder derivative binary result while LDP encodes the higherorder derivative information which contains more detailed discriminative features that the firstorder local pattern (LBP) cannot obtain from an image.
Given an image I, the firstorder derivatives along 00, 450, 900 and 1350 directions are denoted as where I ' , where =00,
c
p
450, 900 and 1350. Let g be a center point in I, and g ,
A color histogram H for a given image is defined as a vector
p=1,2,,8 be the neighboring point around
gc . The four
H H[0], H[1],….., H[i],….H[N]
(1)
firstorder derivatives at
gc can be written as:
where i represent the color in color histogram and H[i] represent the number of pixels of HSV color i in the image,
and N is the number of bins used in color histogram. For
I ' (g ) I (g ) I (g );
00 c c 1
I ' (g ) I (g ) I (g );
0
(5)
(6)
45 c c 2
comparing the histogram of different sizes, color histogram should be normalized. The normlized color histogram is
given as
I ' (g ) I (g ) I (g );
900 c c 3
I ' (g ) I (g ) I (g );
(7)
(8)
1350 c c 4
H The secondorder directional LDP,
LDP2 (g )
, in
H ' (2)
p
c
direction at gc is defined as
where p is the total number of pixels in the image.
LDP2 (g ) f (I ' (g ), I ' (g )), f (I ' (g ), I ' (g )),……
In this paper, RGB color space is used i.e. histogram for each color channel is used as feature for image retrieval.
c c 1
c 2
c
8
……., f (I ' (g ), I ' (g ))
(9)
III. LOCAL BINARY PATTERNS (LBP)
The LBP operator introduced by Ojala et al. [20] as shown in Fig. 1. For given a center pixel in the image, a LBP value
where f(.,.) is a binary coding function determining the types of local pattern transitions. It encodes the cooccurrence of two derivative directions at different neighboring pixels as
is computed by comparing it with those of its neighborhoods:
0,
if I ' (g ) * I ' (g ) 0
P 1
f (I ' (g ), I ' (g ))
c 1
LBP
2i f (g

g )
(3)
c p 1
if I ' (g ) * I ' (g ) 0
(10)
P, R p c
i 0
c 1
0
f (x) 1
x 0
x 0
(4)
p 1, 2, 8
The more details of the LDP is available in [29].
The uniform LBP/LDP pattern refers to the uniform
where gc is the gray value of the center pixel, gi is the gray value of its neighbors, P is the number of neighbors and R is the radius of the neighborhood. Fig. 2 shows the examples of circular neighbor sets for different configurations of (P, R) .
appearance pattern which has limited discontinuities in the circular binary presentation. In this paper, the pattern which has less than or equal to two discontinuities in the circular binary presentation is considered as the uniform pattern and remaining patterns considered as nonuniform patterns.
Fig. 3 shows all uniform patters for P=8. The distinct values
for given query image is patterns.
P(P 1) 3 by using uniform
Fig. 1: LBP calculation for 3Ã—3 pattern
After identifying the LP (LBP/LDP) pattern of each pixel
(j, k), the whole image is represented by building a histogram:
N1 N2
S P, R
H (l) f (LPu 2 ( j, k),l); l [0, P(P 1) 3]
j 1 k 1
(11)
f (x, y) 1
0
x y othrwise
(12)
where the size of input image is N1 N2 .
Fig. 2: Circular neighborhood sets for different (P,R)


Proposed System Framework
In this paper, we proposed the new technique by combining color and texture features for image retrieval. The
algorithm for the proposed image retrieval system is given below:
Algorithm:
Input: Image; Output: Retrieval results.

Load the input image.

Separate the RGB spaces.

Construct the histogram on R, G and B spaces respectively.

Convert RGB image into gray scale.

Perform the first order derivatives along 00, 450, 900 and 1350 directions.

Calculated the second order LDPs in 00, 450, 900 and 1350 directions using Eq. (9).

Calculate the LDP histograms in 00, 450, 900 and 1350 directions using Eq. (11).

Form the feature vector by concatenating the both LDP and color histograms.

Calculate the best matches using Eq. (15).

Retrieve the number of top matches.


Similarity Measurement
In the presented work four types of similarity distance metric ares used as shown below:
Manhattan or L1 or cityblock Distance
This distance function is computationally less expensive than Euclidean distance because only the absolute differences in each feature are considered. This distance is sometimes called the city block distance or L1 distance and defined as
Fig. 3: Uniform patters when P=8. The black and white dots represent the bit values of 1 and 0 in the S_LP operator.
Fig. 4: Sample images from Corel 1000 (one image per category)
D(Q,T ) i
fi (Q) f j (T )
(13)
Euclidean or L2 Distance
For p=2 in the equation (1.1) give the Euclidean distance and defined as:
D(Q,T ) i
fi (Q) f j (T ) 2 1 2
(14)
The most expensive operation is the computation of square root.
D1 Distance
Lg fT ,i fQ,i
1 f
D(Q,T )
i 1
Canberra Distance
T ,i fQ,i
(15)
Lg fT ,i fQ,i
D(Q,T ) (16)
i 1 fT ,i fQ,i
where Q is query image, Lg is feature vector length, T is
image in database;
fI ,i is
ith
feature of image I in the
Q,i
database,
f is ith feature of query image Q.
Fig. 5: Comparison of proposed method with LBP in terms of: (a) & (c) Average retrieval precision, (b) average retrieval rate according to no. of top matches considered


EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS For the work reported in this paper, retrieval tests are
conducted on Corel 1000 and results are presented in the following sections.
A. Corel 1000 Database
Corel database [30] contains large amount of images of various contents ranging from animals and outdoor sports to natural images. These images are preclassified into different categories of size 100 by domain professionals. Some researchers think that Corel database meets all the requirements to evaluate an image retrieval system, because of its large size and heterogeneous content. In this paper, we collected the database DB1 contains 1000 images of 10 different categories (groups G). Ten categories are provided in the database namely Africans, beaches, buildings, buses, dinosaurs, elephants, flowers, horses, mountains and food. Each category has 100 images (NG 100) and these have either 256384 or 384 256 sizes. Fig. 4 depicts the sample images of Corel 1000 image database (one image from each category).
The performance of the proposed method is measured in terms of average precision and average recall by Eq. (17) and
(18) respectively.
Hist. in terms of average retrieval precision and recall respectively. From Table I, it is clear that the proposed method shows better performance as compared to LDP and RGB Hist. in terms of average retrieval precision and recall. Table II and Fig. 5 (a) provides the comparison between proposed method and other methods (LDP and RGB Hist.) in terms of average retrieval precision. From Table II and Fig. 5 (a), it is clear that the proposed method outperforms the other methods. Table III and Fig. 5 (b) illustrate the comparison between various methods in terms of average retrieval rate. From Table III and Fig. 5 (b), it is clear that the proposed method outperforms the other methods. Table IV and Fig. 5
(c) provides the performance of proposed method using various distance measures. From Tables IV and Fig. 5 (c), it is found that the d1 distance is outperforming the other distance measures. Fig. 6 illustrates the retrieval results of proposed method on Corel 1000 database.
TABLE I RESULTS OF ALL TECHNIQUES IN TERMS OF PRECISION AND
Precision (%)
Recall (%)
Category
LDP
RGB
Hist.
PM
LDP
RGB
Hist
PM
Africans
62.4
87.4
38.12
47.24
57.63
Beaches
58.8
49.5
64.7
36.18
22.45
38.2
Buildings
74
53.9
74.6
36.46
26.24
37.78
Buses
97.5
57.7
95.2
74.21
39.39
73.18
Dinosaurs
96.1
99.9
99.3
77.16
96.51
92.1
Elephants
53.5
68.3
75.8
28.5
36.14
41.2
Flowers
90.1
83.4
93.1
62.23
47.72
67.41
Horses
78.7
89.9
89.9
44.26
40.88
47.74
Mountains
39.6
34.2
48.7
24.59
17.12
26.77
Food
83.6
76
88.3
47.97
35.57
48.7
Total
73.43
65.91
81.7
46.96
40.92
53.07
RECALL ON COREL 1000 DATABASE
Precision P(I , n) No.of Relevant Images Retrieved
(17)
q
Total No.of Images Retrieved
Recall R(Iq , n)
No.of Relevant Images Retrieved Total No.of Relevant Images in Database
(18)
where Iq is the query image and n is number of top matches considered.
Table I summarize the retrieval results of the proposed method (RGB Hist.+LDP Hist.), LDP Hist. (LDP) and RGB
TABLE II RESULTS OF VARIOUS TECHNIQUES IN TERMS OF AVERAGE RETRIEVAL PRECISION ON COREL 1000 DATABASE
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
LDP
73.43
66.76
63
60.1625
57.87
55.5983
53.4343
51.2613
49.08
46.968
RGB Hist.
69.51
62.09
57.49333
53.9425
50.954
48.4467
46.3029
44.2638
42.56889
40.926
PM
81.7
76.21
72.13667
68.565
65.642
62.7767
60.2443
57.8238
55.45333
53.071
TABLE III RESULTS OF VARIOUS TECHNIQUES IN TERMS OF AVERAGE RETRIEVAL RATE ON COREL 1000 DATABASE
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
LDP
7.343
13.352
18.9
24.065
28.935
33.359
37.404
41.009
44.172
46.968
RGB Hist.
6.951
12.418
17.248
21.577
25.477
29.068
32.412
35.411
38.312
40.926
PM
8.17
15.242
21.641
27.426
32.821
37.666
42.171
46.259
49.908
53.071
TABLE IV RESULTS OF PROPOSED METHOD WITH DIFFERENT DISTANCE MEASURES IN TERMS OF AVERAGE RETRIEVAL PRECISION ON COREL DATABASE
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Manhattan
74.63
68.205
63.77
60.34
57.42
54.96
52.81
51
49.23
47.45
Canberra
81.59
76.055
71.99
68.43
65.49
62.62
60.08
57.64
55.31
52.92
Euclidean
67.38
60.025
55.77
52.55
50.09
48.12
46.29
44.59
42.72
40.99
d1
81.7
76.21
72.13
68.56
65.64
62.77
60.24
57.82
55.45
53.07

CONCLUSIONS
A new image indexing and retrieval algorithm is proposed in this paper by combining color (RGB histogram) and texture (LDP). The experimentation has been carried out on Corel database for proving the worth of our algorithm. The results after being investigated show a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LDP and RGB histogram techniques.
Fig. 7: Retrieval results of proposed method for a given query image.
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Corel 1000 and Corel 10000 image database. [Online]. Available: .
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